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Evaluation of energy efficiency measures applied in public buildings (schools & hospitals) in Serbia
Stankovi? Sini?a,Campbell Neil,Maksimovi? Du?ko,Cvjetkovi? Tanja
Spatium , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/spat0920001s
Abstract: The Serbian Energy Efficiency Project 1 (SEEP1 - Design and Supervision Support for Implementation of the Energy Efficiency Improvements in Public Buildings in Serbia), funded by a credit from The World Bank, has involved the energy efficient refurbishment of 28 public buildings in Serbia (12 hospitals and 16 schools). The major goal of the project has been implementation of the energy efficiency improvements in public buildings in Serbia and the verification of the energy and cost savings as well as CO2 emission reductions achieved through implementation of the energy efficiency measures. Significant energy consumption savings have been achieved for all refurbished buildings with annual savings in the range of 15% to 63% and an average of 40% over entire project. Associated annual CO2 emission reductions vary between 15% to 64% with an average of 42%. The average specific space heating annual energy consumption for the hospitals monitored was ~339 kWh/m2 and has been reduced down to ~205 kWh/m2 after refurbishment. The average specific space heating annual energy consumption for the schools monitored was ~243 kWh/m2 and has been reduced down to ~144 kWh/m2 after refurbishment. The simple payback period (SPP) on investment across all buildings was found to be about 7.5 years. For hospitals, due to their 24/7 operation, the average SPP is 5.3 years and for schools is 12.8 years.
Model Establishment of Whole Life Cycle for Energy Efficiency of Rural Residential Buildings in Northern China  [PDF]
Chenxia Suo, Yong Yang, Solvang Wei Deng
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2012.44027
Abstract: The building energy efficiency is determined by the climatic region and the energy-saving measures. In this paper an assessment model for energy efficiency of the rural residential buildings in the northern China was established by the method of whole life cycle. The energy consumption of the rural residential buildings in different stages was analyzed through quantitative method in this model. At the same time, the corresponding energy efficiency assessment system was developed.
Application and importance of cost-benefit analysis in energy efficiency projects implemented in public buildings: The case of Serbia
Mihic Marko M.,Petrovic Dejan C.,Vuckovic Aleksandar M.,Obradovic Vladimir Lj.
Thermal Science , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/tsci110911090m
Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to present the advantages of using Cost-Benefit analysis in energy efficiency projects implemented in public buildings, and to prove the hypothesis that Cost-Benefit analysis boosts the effectiveness and efficiency of the said type of projects. The paper offers theoretical and practical explanation of the implementation of Cost-Benefit analysis in the relevant area. Since energy efficiency projects in public buildings usually represent a part of a broader portfolio of similar projects and their implementation demands allocation of substantial financial resources, communities are often be interested in achieving maximal economic and non-economic benefits. This paper aims to demonstrate that Cost-Benefit analysis can represent an excellent contribution when attempting to select the projects for implementation within a broader portfolio of energy efficiency projects in public buildings. This hypothesis was demonstrated by putting a greater emphasis on non-economic benefits and the costs arising from implementation of the aforementioned types of projects. In addition, a practical test of this hypothesis was performed through the implementation of an energy efficiency portfolio in public buildings, worth several tens of millions of dollars - the Serbian Energy Efficiency Project. The paper concludes that the use of Cost-Benefit analysis can help us to effectively evaluate and manage projects of this type aimed at achieving maximum benefits for the community in question.
Reliability and sustainability analysis of large panel residential buildings in Sofia, Skopje and Novi Sad  [PDF]
Foli? Radomir,Laban Mirjana,Milanko Verica
Facta Universitatis Series : Architecture and Civil Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/fuace1101161f
Abstract: Large panel residential buildings, dating from second half of 20 Century, are to be found in almost every urban settlement across Europe. Within the context of three case studies of urban blocks in Bulgaria (Mladost - Sofia), Macedonia (Karpos III - Skopje) and Serbia (Detelinara - Novi Sad), comparative analysis and evaluation of technical and structural characteristics according to reliability (seismic resistance and fire safety) and sustainability (energy efficiency, internal air quality, accessibility) criteria has been conducted. Additionally, previous experiences from individual renewal projects are reviewed. Previous experiences and comparative analysis results, could contribute to formulation of wider applicable solutions and development of new urban renewal strategies.
Influencing of orientation of glazed facades on general energy consumption of residential buildings  [PDF]
O.D. Samarin,N.N. Zaytsev
Magazine of Civil Engineering , 2010,
Abstract: In the paper the nature of relation of energy consumption of residential buildings of mass development from orientation of their glazed facades on the parties of horizon is parsed. The basic contents of a technique of an estimation of building energy efficiency, used in calculations, is adduced pursuant to the public Standard of Russian Science and Technical Society of the Builders of Russian Federation. The structure of a complex of energy saving measures, used in investigated buildings, is reviewed. The computed results of power inputs for the heating season on the indicated technique for two reference buildings at their different orientation with allowance for and disregarding of energy saving measures are shown. An estimation of influencing of orientation of glazed facades for the term of payback of a complex of energy saving measures, used in buildings, is given. The guidelines on expedient dimensional orientation of the extended residential buildings from the point of view of heat saving in the cold season of year are offered. The presentation is illustrated by a significant amount of a graphic stuff.
Efficiency Analysis of Independent and Centralized Heating Systems for Residential Buildings in Northern Italy  [PDF]
Matteo Zago,Andrea Casalegno,Renzo Marchesi,Fabio Rinaldi
Energies , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/en4112115
Abstract: The primary energy consumption in residential buildings is determined by the envelope thermal characteristics, air change, outside climatic data, users’ behaviour and the adopted heating system and its control. The new Italian regulations strongly suggest the installation of centralized boilers in renovated buildings with more than four apartments. This work aims to investigate the differences in primary energy consumption and efficiency among several independent and centralized heating systems installed in Northern Italy. The analysis is carried out through the following approach: firstly building heating loads are evaluated using the software TRNSYS ? and, then, heating system performances are estimated through a simplified model based on the European Standard EN 15316. Several heating systems have been analyzed, evaluating: independent and centralized configurations, condensing and traditional boilers, radiator and radiant floor emitters and solar plant integration. The heating systems are applied to four buildings dating back to 2010, 2006, 1960s and 1930s. All the combinations of heating systems and buildings are analyzed in detail, evaluating efficiency and primary energy consumption. In most of the cases the choice between centralized and independent heating systems has minor effects on primary energy consumption, less than 3%: the introduction of condensing technology and the integration with solar heating plant can reduce energy consumption by 11% and 29%, respectively.
Life Cycle Energy of Low Rise Residential Buildings in Indian Context  [PDF]
Talakonukula Ramesh, Ravi Prakash, Karunesh Kumar Shukla
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2014.34012
Abstract: Life cycle energy of the building accounts for all energy inputs to the buildings during their intended service life. Buildings need to be constructed in such a way that energy consumption in their life cycle is minimal. Life Cycle Energy (LCE) consumption data of buildings is not available in public domain which is essentially required for building designers and policy makers to formulate strategies for reduction in LCE of buildings. The paper presents LCE of twenty (20) low rise residential buildings in Indian context. LCE of the studied buildings is varying from 160 - 380 kWh/m2 year (Primary). Based on the LCE data of studied buildings, an equation is proposed to readily reckon LCE of a new building.
Data Driven Energy Efficiency in Buildings  [PDF]
Nipun Batra,Amarjeet Singh,Pushpendra Singh,Haimonti Dutta,Venkatesh Sarangan,Mani Srivastava
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: Buildings across the world contribute significantly to the overall energy consumption and are thus stakeholders in grid operations. Towards the development of a smart grid, utilities and governments across the world are encouraging smart meter deployments. High resolution (often at every 15 minutes) data from these smart meters can be used to understand and optimize energy consumptions in buildings. In addition to smart meters, buildings are also increasingly managed with Building Management Systems (BMS) which control different sub-systems such as lighting and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC). With the advent of these smart meters, increased usage of BMS and easy availability and widespread installation of ambient sensors, there is a deluge of building energy data. This data has been leveraged for a variety of applications such as demand response, appliance fault detection and optimizing HVAC schedules. Beyond the traditional use of such data sets, they can be put to effective use towards making buildings smarter and hence driving every possible bit of energy efficiency. Effective use of this data entails several critical areas from sensing to decision making and participatory involvement of occupants. Picking from wide literature in building energy efficiency, we identify five crust areas (also referred to as 5 Is) for realizing data driven energy efficiency in buildings : i) instrument optimally; ii) interconnect sub-systems; iii) inferred decision making; iv) involve occupants and v) intelligent operations. We classify prior work as per these 5 Is and dis-cuss challenges, opportunities and applications across them. Building upon these 5 Is we discuss a well studied problem in building energy efficiency -non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) and how research in this area spans across the 5 Is.
Energy Consumption Monitoring Analysis for Residential, Educational and Public Buildings  [PDF]
Allan Hani, Teet-Andrus Koiv
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2012.33032
Abstract: In the present article thermal and electrical energy consumptions for different types of buildings are analyzed. The latitude and longitude of the researched area are defined 59?00'N and 26?00'E. According to K?ppen climate classification the area is located in warm summer continental climate. The study consist 40 residential, 7 educational and 44 public buildings. Three years data for each building type among 2006-2011 was used. Several detailed energy balances are presented for apartment buildings. In addition the different ways of domestic hot water preparation are analyzed for apartment buildings. The school buildings average consumption values are represented in study. Also valuable information of measured electrical energy consumption balance for a new office building is presented. Finally there is included the energy consumption analysis of public buildings.
Indicators of Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Comparison with Standards in Force in Argentina  [PDF]
María Belén Salvetti, Jorge Czajkowski, Analía Fernanda Gómez
Open Journal of Energy Efficiency (OJEE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojee.2013.24021
Abstract:

In this work we make a comparative study of the energy behaviour in different building types. We analyze three cases of office buildings and three residential buildings, and compare them with a previous sample. We seek to find correlations or differences in behavior in terms of potential energy losses and gains, and UL values compared with Argentinian Standards to verify the degree of efficiency. For energy analysis we used a software which allows the analysis of thermal and energy building performance at steady state on a monthly basis. This software is called EnergoCAD and it also determines formal indicators based on IRAM standards. We conclude that the indicators used are clear to energetically grade buildings and to facilitate comparisons. In turn, smaller buildings are relatively less energy efficient than larger ones. At the same time it is noteworthy that the energy inefficiency has been growing rapidly over the years. Finally it is noted that none of the cases analyzed meets the National Standards.

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