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Identificación de los sitios de cría de Anopheles sp. durante parte de la estación seca en el estado de Jigawa, Nigeria
Marquetti,María del Carmen; Rojas,Lázara; Mohd Birniwa,Muktar; Sulaiman,Haruna U.; Adamu,Hassana H.;
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2007,
Abstract: a study was conducted in the state of jigawa, republic of nigeria, from november to december in the dry season, where malaria is one of the main morbidity and mortality causes particularly in under 5 years-old children and pregnant women. this state had two climate seasons: dry from october to may and rainy from june to september. a total of 112 water bodies were sampled and just 18 in nine local governments were positive to mosquitoes. breeding sites for anopheles were rice fields, small holes in land, animal footsteps, small ponds, flooded pasture fields and water treatment dam, among others, to amount to 10 sites. contrary to what has always been reported about the presence of anopheles in clean waters, they were also breeding in highly polluted waters containing human faeces and garbage and located in open sewers. key words: breeding sites, anopheles, malaria, nigeria.
Assessment of the Effects of Climate Change on Livestock Husbandry and Practices in Jigawa State, Nigeria
TD Bidoli, AG Isa, B Shehu, DM Kezi, MY Abdullahi
Journal of Agricultural Extension , 2012,
Abstract: The investigation of the effects of climate change on livestock husbandry and practices in Jigawa State, Nigeria, was aimed at assessing the level of awareness of climate change by nomads and also determine the effect of climate change on livestock husbandry and practices. Using random sampling method, data were collected from 105 livestock nomads in seven nomadic communities covering seven Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Jigawa State. Data were collected by the use of questionnaire and observation. Data were analyzed by the use of frequency, percentage, and weighted means. About 98% of nomads understood what was meant by climate change and also 94.3% observed variations in their environment as a result of climate change. Majority of respondents (76.2%) observed and experienced the effect of climate change since 5-20 years ago; while 7.6% observed and experienced the effects of climate change for over 20 years back. Ranking of effects of climate change on livestock husbandry and practices showed reduced feed intake (1st), reduced growth rate (2nd), increased frequency of abortion (3rd), reduced birth rate (4th), increased disease condition (5th), increased incidence of parasites (6th) and increased mortality rate (7th) as major effects. It was recommended that animal production/veterinary services should be stepped up, diversify their production to include crops and other sources of income generation and establish more gazing reserves.
Tuberculosis in Humans and Cattle in Jigawa State, Nigeria: Risk Factors Analysis  [PDF]
S. Ibrahim,S. I. B. Cadmus,J. U. Umoh,I. Ajogi,U. M. Farouk,U. B. Abubakar,A. C. Kudi
Veterinary Medicine International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/865924
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2008 to March 2009 to identify risk factors for BTB in cattle and humans in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A total of 855 cattle belonging to 17 households were subjected to comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT) while interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtains information on the risk factors. Twenty-two (22) respondent (5%) amongst the families sampled had TB or clinical signs suggestive of TB, while 9 (2%) had reactor cattle in their herds; However, no statistically significant association ( ) was observed between reactor cattle and human TB cases in the households. The habit of milk and meat consumption was found to be affected by occupation and location of the household residence. None of these risk factors (food consumption, living with livestock in the same house, and presence of BTB-positive cattle) were found to be statistically significant. 1. Introduction Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), which comprises the closely related M. tuberculosis, the major causative agent of human tuberculosis (TB) [1]. Worldwide TB caused about 2 million deaths and about 9 million new cases had been reported annually, with sub-Saharan Africa having the highest annual risk of infection with TB, probably catalyzed by the HIV/AIDS pandemic [2]. Globally, M. bovis accounts for 3.1 percent of all human TB cases [3]. However, the extent of M. bovis involvement in the global TB burden in Africa is still largely unknown. This can be partly explained by the fact that in humans, TB due to M. bovis is indistinguishable from that due to M. tuberculosis in terms of clinical signs, and radiological and pathological features [4]. In addition, most laboratories in sub-Saharan Africa do not have the capability to differentiate M. bovis from M. tuberculosis [5]. Although cattle are considered to be the main hosts of M. bovis, the disease has been reported in many other species, including humans, other domesticated animals, and wildlife [6]. Indeed, little information on risk factors of disease transmission to cattle, between cattle and from cattle to humans, is available from an African context. Most information are extrapolated from experiences in developed countries. For Africa, the most comprehensive studies done so far have been in Tanzania [7–9] and Uganda [10]. However, despite the lack of information, it is generally accepted that besides causing major economic losses and also poses a serious zoonotic
Distribui??o vertical e sazonal de Anopheles (Kerteszia) em Ilha Comprida, SP
Ueno,Helene Mariko; Forattini,Oswaldo Paulo; Kakitani,Ina;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102007000200014
Abstract: objective: anopheles bellator e an. cruzii are vectors of the so-called bromeliad-malaria, typical of conserved areas. the objective was to evaluate the seasonal and vertical distribution of these anophelines, aiming at assessing the risk of malaria transmission. methods: in the municipality of ilha comprida, southeastern brazil, cdc light traps baited with dry ice were placed fortnightly from 17:00 to 20:00, at one, six and 12 meters high from september 2001 to september 2002. association between an. bellator and an. cruzii densities and weather were assessed by spearman coefficient and comparisons among heights and species densities were made by mann-whitney non-parametric test. results: a total of 55,226 mosquitoes were caught: 1,341 were an. bellator (2.4% of culicidae), 278 at one meter, 261 at six meter and 802 at 12m high. following the same sequence, an. cruzii was represented by 452, 1,032 and 4,420 adults, totalizing 5,904 mosquitoes (10.7%). there was a positive correlation between densities of both species and daily maximum temperature, and between density of an. bellator and thermal amplitude. the densities were higher for both species at tree canopy. at the three levels, the density of an. cruzii was higher. conclusions: the acrodendrophilic behavior of these species was confirmed, remarkably in an. cruzii. after aggressive measures of control, these anophelines have remained in this region, but they are not under entomological surveillance. the persistent transmission of malaria and increasing tourism activities in this region highlight the need for surveillance of these species.
Effects of learning styles on career preferences of senior secondary school students in Jigawa State, Nigeria.
S Sara
Edo Journal of Counselling , 2010,
Abstract: The research investigated the effects of learning styles on career preferences of senior secondary school students in Jigawa State, Nigeria. A total of six hundred students, three hundred and sixty male, and two hundred and forty female were randomly selected from ten senior secondary schools across the state for the study. Two different data collection instruments were used to gather data for the research'. These are Kazembe Sorting Test (KST) and Vocational Interest Inventory (VII) to test learning styles, and career preferences respectively. Chi-square, was used to find the effect of independent variable (learning style) and dependent variable (career preference). The findings of the study revealed that: There is significant sex difference in learning styles; there is significant sex difference in career preference. Significant differences do exist between field dependents and field independent subjects (student). Finally, recommendations were offered for appropriate counselling practice on the students having varieties of learning styles. Key Words: Learning style, career preference, field dependent, field independent.
Gender and Residential Area Differences in Listening to Radio Education Program on HIV/AIDS Prevention in Jigawa State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Haladu Haruna Kaugama,Khairuddin Bin Idris,Jegak Anak Uli,Jamilah Othman
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study was to determine the types of radio program listen by gender and the frequency of listening by gender and residential area in Jigawa state of Nigeria. Random selection of an adult aged 18- 45years and above was made from the selected household in twelve local governments in the State .A total of 480 people were selected to served as the sample population of this study. The data were collected using structured questionnaires through administering the questionnaire to each selected adult with the help of research assistants.. The chi-square test of homogeneity was used to assess whether the number or percentage of types of radio listen is equal for male and female and residential areas of the respondents and also chi-square test of independence was used to assess whether the type of radio program listen by the respondents is related to their residential area. The finding of crosstabs analysis revealed that the number or percentage of types of radio program listen was equal or homogeneous for female and male respondents and the finding of crosstabs analysis for the types of radio program listen and residential area was found to be no relation. It can be concluded that female respondents listen to health program more compared to male respondents. Meanwhile male respondents listen to many programs as against female.
Tracking the Quality of Care for Sick Children Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling: Targeting Improvements of Health Services in Jigawa, Nigeria  [PDF]
Edward Adekola Oladele, Louise Ormond, Olusegun Adeyemi, David Patrick, Festus Okoh, Olusola Bukola Oresanya, Joseph J. Valadez
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044319
Abstract: Background In Nigeria, 30% of child deaths are due to malaria. The National Malaria Control Program of Nigeria (NMCP) during 2009 initiated a program to improve the quality of paediatric malaria services delivered in health facilities (HF). This study reports a rapid approach used to assess the existing quality of services in Jigawa state at decentralised levels of the health system. Methods NMCP selected Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) to identify the variation in HF service quality among Senatorial Districts (SD). LQAS was selected because it was affordable and could be used by local health workers (HW) in a population-based survey. NMCP applied a 2-stage LQAS using a structured Rapid Health Facility Assessment (R-HFA) tool to identify high and low performing SD for specified indicators. Findings LQAS identified variations in HF performance (n = 21) and enabled resources to be targeted to address priorities. All SD exhibited deficient essential services, supplies and equipment. Only 9.7% of HF had Artemisinin-based Combination Therapies and other first-line treatments for childhood illnesses. No SD and few HF exhibited adequate HW performance for the assessment, treatment or counselling of sick children. Using the IMCI algorithm, 17.5% of HW assessed the child’s vaccination status, 46.8% assessed nutritional status, and 65.1% assessed children for dehydration. Only 5.1% of HW treatments were appropriate for the assessment. Exit interviews revealed that 5.1% of caregivers knew their children’s illness, and only 19.9% could accurately describe how to administer the prescribed drug. Conclusion This R-HFA, using LQAS principles, is a rapid, simple tool for assessing malaria services and can be used at scale. It identified technical deficiencies that could be corrected by improved continuing medical education, targeted supervision, and recurrent R-HFA assessments of the quality of services.
Are Patent Medicine Vendors Effective Agents in Malaria Control? Using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling to Assess Quality of Practice in Jigawa, Nigeria  [PDF]
Sima Berendes, Olusegun Adeyemi, Edward Adekola Oladele, Olusola Bukola Oresanya, Festus Okoh, Joseph J. Valadez
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044775
Abstract: Background Patent medicine vendors (PMV) provide antimalarial treatment and care throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, and can play an important role in the fight against malaria. Their close-to-client infrastructure could enable lifesaving artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) to reach patients in time. However, systematic assessments of drug sellers’ performance quality are crucial if their role is to be managed within the health system. Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) could be an efficient method to monitor and evaluate PMV practice, but has so far never been used for this purpose. Methods In support of the Nigeria Malaria Booster Program we assessed PMV practices in three Senatorial Districts (SDs) of Jigawa, Nigeria. A two-stage LQAS assessed whether at least 80% of PMV stores in SDs used national treatment guidelines. Acceptable sampling errors were set in consultation with government officials (alpha and beta <0.10). The hypergeometric formula determined sample sizes and cut-off values for SDs. A structured assessment tool identified high and low performing SDs for quality of care indicators. Findings Drug vendors performed poorly in all SDs of Jigawa for all indicators. For example, all SDs failed for stocking and selling first-line antimalarials. PMV sold no longer recommended antimalarials, such as Chloroquine, Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine and oral Artesunate monotherapy. Most PMV were ignorant of and lacked training about new treatment guidelines that had endorsed ACTs as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Conclusion There is urgent need to regularly monitor and improve the availability and quality of malaria treatment provided by medicine sellers in Nigeria; the irrational use of antimalarials in the ACT era revealed in this study bears a high risk of economic loss, death and development of drug resistance. LQAS has been shown to be a suitable method for monitoring malaria-related indicators among PMV, and should be applied in Nigeria and elsewhere to improve service delivery.
Factors Affecting the Choice of Science Subjects among Female Students in Jigawa Metropolis, Nigeria  [PDF]
Azubuike Adams, Azubuike Amarachi Salome
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.514148
Abstract:

The work is to investigate the factors affecting the choice of science subjects among female students at the senior secondary level in Jigawa metropolis. There are factors that influence the choice of science subject among female students. Some of the factors are the sex of the students, peer group influence, motivation and the choice of a future career. In order to analyze some of these factors and their effect on female students in Jigawa metropolis, questionnaires were administered to female school of SS II and SS III in some randomly selected secondary schools. The hypothesis were tested; the use of data obtained from the questionnaires administered; and results presented in Tables 6-9.

Utilización de espaciadores internos transcritos (ITS2-ITS1) para la identificación de Anopheles sp. Nechí y San Pedro de Urabá 2001-2002
Mario Zapata,Santiago Zuluaga,Guillermo Rúa,Martha Qui?ones
Iatreia , 2003,
Abstract: La malaria constituye uno de los problemas más importantes de salud pública en Colombia. El índice Parasitario Anual (IPA) se incrementó en las dos últimas décadas (4.4-5.4 / mil hb). El vector de la malaria son mosquitos hembras del género Anopheles; en Colombia se han incriminado nueve especies como vectoras. Estas especies han sido identificadas taxonómicamente por morfología; esto se dificulta por sobrelapamientos morfológicos (subgénero Nyssurhynchus). Los estudios entomológicos obvian estas dificultades obteniendo isofamilias (estadios inmaduros y progenie); este procedimiento requiere personal calificado. La biología molecular apoya la identificación taxonómica, utilizando el análisis de las secuencias de Espaciadores Internos Transcritos (ITS) del rDNA. La ITS2 diferencia especies e ITS1 diferencia complejos (1).
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