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Spain and Mediterranean Security Governance: Neighbours, Spaces and Actors
Sarah Wolff
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2007,
Abstract: The 1999 Tampere Summit marked the start of the development of the external dimension of the European Union’s policy of Justice and Home Affairs (JHA). This external dimension has been reflected in the inclusion of JHA in agreements with third countries, and particularly with Mediterranean countries. Furthermore, the European NeighbourhoodPolicy (ENP), in addition to bilateral and multilateral programmes, confirmed the transformation of the JHA policy into one of the EU’s foreign policy objectives. In the light of this evolution, this article examines Spain’s role in the development of the Mediterraneandimension of the JHA policy: firstly, it covers the stance of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero’s government toward the JHA policy and its external dimension; secondly, it explores the new parameters of governance in the area of security and the Spanish case through three main factors: the neighbours, spaces and actors that define this governance. Lastly, and within a context of a multiplicity of governance actors on security, it focuses on the Canary Islands,which have acquired a central importance with respect to the management of borders and the policy of development for Africa. The analysis of this period helps to explain the new security perceptions that define Spain’s policy in the Mediterranean.
Spain’s Mediterranean Policy: between the Barcelona Process and the European Neighbourhood Policy  [PDF]
Esther Barbé Izuel,Laia Mestres i Camps,Eduard Soler i Lecha
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2007,
Abstract: This article analyses the evolution of Spain’s position with respect to the two main cooperation initiatives in the Mediterranean space: the Barcelona Process and the European Neighbourhood Policy. Firstly, it shows Spain’s role as a driving force, both in the launchingof the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership in 1995 and in the impetus provided 10 years later by the holding of the extraordinary Euro-Mediterranean Summit. Secondly, the article examines the progressive adaptation of Spain’s discourse towards the European Neighbourhood Policy, trying to maximise Spain’s preferences with respect to its neighbours without this endangering the survival of the Barcelona Process. Finally, the authors identify some of the proposals recently set forth for Euro-Mediterranean cooperation, such as the Advanced Statute for Morocco and the French proposal of the Mediterranean Union. In the light of these possible future scenarios,Spanish diplomacy must guarantee its influence within the EU’s Mediterranean policy.
Cooperation of Spain’s Local World in the Euro-Mediterranean Space
Paqui Santonja Mayor
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2007,
Abstract: The growing participation of Spain’s regions, provinces and municipalities in international cooperation has had and continues to have a particular importance in the Mediterranean area, though this has not always been sufficiently acknowledged and supported by the relevant Mediterranean and European authorities. In this cooperation space, two key elements are conjugated: firstly, the process of regional integration in the European space and, secondly, thepromotion of a common area around the Mediterranean. At a time in which foreign policies and classic means of cooperation have shown signs of limitation in terms of the way in which they operate in the region, it seems a suitable moment to reflect on the role that public decentralised cooperation organised by Spain’s local governments could have in the framework of the EU’s new European Policy of Neighbourhood and Association.
Spatio-temporal analysis of the urban–rural gradient structure: an application in a Mediterranean mountainous landscape (Serra San Bruno, Italy)
G. Modica, M. Vizzari, M. Pollino, C. R. Fichera, P. Zoccali,S. Di Fazio
Earth System Dynamics (ESD) & Discussions (ESDD) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/esd-3-263-2012
Abstract: The most recent and significant transformations of European landscapes have occurred as a consequence of a series of diffused, varied and often connected phenomena: urban growth and sprawl, agricultural intensification in the most suitable areas and agricultural abandonment in marginal areas. These phenomena can affect dramatically ecosystems' structure and functioning, since certain modifications cause landscape fragmentation while others tend to increase homogeneity. Thus, a thorough comprehension of the evolution trends of landscapes, in particular those linked to urban-rural relations, is crucial for a sustainable landscape planning. In this framework, the main objectives of the present paper are: (a) to investigate Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) transformations and dynamics that occurred over the period 1955–2006 in the municipality of Serra San Bruno (Calabria, Italy), an area particularly representative of the Mediterranean mountainous landscape; (b) to compare the settlement growth with the urban planning tools in charge in the study area; (c) to examine the relationship between urban–rural gradient, landscape metrics, demographic and physical variables; (d) to investigate the evolution of urban–rural gradient composition and configuration along significant axes of landscape changes. Data with a high level of detail (minimum mapping unit 0.2 ha) were obtained through the digitisation of historical aerial photographs and digital orthophotos identifying LULC classes according to the Corine Land Cover legend. The investigated period was divided into four significant time intervals, which were specifically analysed to detect LULC changes. Differently from previous studies, in the present research the spatio-temporal analysis of urban–rural gradient was performed through three subsequent steps: (1) kernel density analysis of settlements; (2) analysis of landscape structure by means of metrics calculated using a moving window method; (3) analysis of composition and configuration of the urban–rural gradient within three landscape profiles located along significant axes of LULC change. The use of thematic overlays and transition matrices enabled a precise identification of the LULC changes that had taken place over the examined period. As a result, a detailed description and mapping of the landscape dynamics were obtained. Furthermore, landscape profiling technique, using continuous data, allowed an innovative and valuable approach for analysing and interpreting urban–rural gradient structure over space and time.
Spatio-temporal analysis of the urban-rural gradient structure: an application in a Mediterranean mountainous landscape (Serra San Bruno, Italy)
G. Modica,M. Vizzari,M. Pollino,C. R. Fichera
Earth System Dynamics Discussions , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/esdd-3-827-2012
Abstract: The most recent and significant transformations of European landscapes have occurred as a consequence of a series of diffused, varied and often connected phenomena: urban growth and sprawl, agricultural intensification in the most suitable areas and agricultural abandonment in marginal areas. These phenomena can affect dramatically ecosystems' structure and functioning, since certain modifications cause landscape fragmentation while others tend to increase homogeneity. Thus, a thorough comprehension of the evolution trends of landscapes, in particular those linked to urban-rural relations, is crucial for a sustainable landscape planning. In this framework, the main objectives of the present paper are: (a) to investigate Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) transformations and dynamics occurred over the period 1955–2006 in the municipality of Serra San Bruno (Calabria, Italy), an area particularly representative of the Mediterranean mountainous landscape; (b) to compare the settlement growth with the urban planning tools in charge in the study area; (c) to examine the relationship between urban-rural gradient, landscape metrics, demographic and physical variables; (d) to investigate the evolution of urban-rural gradient composition and configuration along significant axes of landscape changes. Data with a high level of detail (minimum mapping unit 0.2 ha) were obtained through the digitisation of historical aerial photographs and digital orthophotos identifying LULC classes according to the Corine Land Cover legend. The investigated period was divided into four significant time intervals, which were specifically analysed to detect LULC changes. Differently from previous studies, in the present research the spatio-temporal analysis of urban-rural gradient was performed through three subsequent steps: (1) kernel density analysis of settlements; (2) analysis of landscape structure by means of metrics calculated using a moving window method; (3) analysis of composition and configuration of the urban-rural gradient within three landscape profiles located along significant axes of LULC change. The use of thematic overlays and transition matrices enabled a precise identification of the LULC changes that had taken place over the examined period. As a result, a detailed description and mapping of the landscape dynamics were obtained. Furthermore, landscape profiling technique, using continuous data, allowed an innovative and valuable approach for analysing and interpreting urban-rural gradient structure over space and time.
Comparison of methods to evaluate the quality of the Mediterranean diet in a large representative sample of young people in Southern Spain
Mariscal-Arcas,M.; Velasco,J.; Monteagudo,C.; Caballero-Plasencia,M. A.; Lorenzo-Tovar,M. L.; Olea-Serrano,F.;
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2010,
Abstract: the objective of this study was to compare the usefulness of two methods to evaluate diet quality in young people in southern spain: a new mediterranean diet pattern (mdp) and a modification of the diet quality index-international (dqi-i) for the mediterranean area. the study population was 3190 schoolchildren aged 8-15 yrs. the questionnaires used were first validated (bland-altman plot and wilcoxon tests) in a randomized sample. the dqi gives a more detailed evaluation of food components, whereas the mds gives global information on food groups but includes foods characteristically consumed in the mediterranean region. highly similar results were obtained using the mdp and the adapted dqi-i, which appear to be equally useful to evaluate diet quality in a mediterranean population. the fact that we selected the same types of food for both indices may explain the similar overall evaluations. according to these results, both methods appear to be equally appropriate for evaluating diet quality in a mediterranean population.
Light and temperature effects on seed germination of four native species of Mediterranean high mountains(Spain)
Serrano-Bernardo,F; Rosúa,JL; Díaz-Miguel,M;
Phyton (Buenos Aires) , 2007,
Abstract: the mediterranean region is considered one of the most important zones worldwide in terms of plant diversity. sierra nevada (s spain) is a unique mountain massif within the high-mountain systems of the mediterranean. it is of great floristic importance and very rich in endemic species. however, it requires numerous tasks for restoring plant cover due to the constant anthropic degradation, especially because of the ski station located near the second-highest peak of the mountain. one of the restoration efforts consists of trying to reproduce, in the laboratory, the ideal conditions to pre-germinate seeds of some of the species most threatened by these perturbations. this is to transplant the seedlings afterwards in the mountain, thereby contributing to the recovery of these species. with this purpose, a germination experiment was performed, under controlled conditions, with seeds of genista versicolor boiss. hormathophylla spinosa (l.) p. küpfer, reseda complicata bory, and thymus serpylloides bory. these four species, native to the mediterranean high mountains, were germinated under constant darkness, 12 or 24 h light followed by constant darkness, and constant light, at temperatures of 15 oc or 25 oc. the germination process was monitored during 15 days. results were species-dependent: some species germinated easier under darkness at low temperatures, such as genista versicolor, whereas thymus serpylloides presented maximum germination under constant light to a higher temperature.
Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970–2010, NE Spain)  [PDF]
M. Turco,M. C. Llasat,A. Tudela,X. Castro
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2013, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-13-649-2013
Abstract: We analyse the recent evolution of fires in Catalonia (north-eastern Iberian Peninsula), a typical Mediterranean region. We examine a homogeneous series of forest fires in the period 1970–2010. During this period, more than 9000 fire events greater than 0.5 ha were recorded, and the total burned area was more than 400 kha. Our analysis shows that both the burned area and number of fire series display a decreasing trend. Superposed onto this general decrease, strong oscillations on shorter time scales are evident. After the large fires of 1986 and 1994, the increased effort in fire prevention and suppression could explain part of the decreasing trend. Although it is often stated that fires have increased in Mediterranean regions, the higher efficiency in fire detection could have led to spurious trends and misleading conclusions.
Social perceptions of floods and flood management in a Mediterranean area (Costa Brava, Spain)  [PDF]
A. Lara,D. Saurí,A. Ribas,D. Pavón
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-10-2081-2010
Abstract: Taking as an example three study cases in the Costa Brava area, this paper examines the social perception of floods through surveys, interviews and Focus Group sessions. Perception is then related to vulnerability, flood management, and citizen's preferences regarding alternatives to curb flood losses in the future. The study concludes that flood awareness and the willingness to take actions regarding this hazard are clearly related to the degree of social involvement with the affairs of the local community. Furthermore, participatory settings such as Focus Group sessions appear to enable a better environment for assessing and implementing flood management options that attempt to modify human activities rather than modify natural processes as has been frequently the case in the past.
Spread of the invasive alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea (Caulerpales, Chlorophyta) along the Mediterranean Coast of the Murcia region (SE Spain)  [PDF]
Ruiz, J. M.,Marín–Guirao, L.,Bernardeau–Esteller, J.,Ramos–Segura, A.
Animal Biodiversity and Conservation , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this paper was to document the appearance and spread of the green alga Caulerpa racemosa along the coast of Murcia in south–eastern Spain. It was found for the first time in the area in 2005 and over the next two years the number of new sightings increased almost exponentially. In the period 2005–2007 the total surface area colonised by the alga in the region was estimated to be at least 265 ha. Benthic assemblages colonised by the alga were rocky bottoms with photophilic algae, dead P. oceanica rhizomes, infralittoral and circalittoral soft bottoms and maerl beds. No penetration of the alga was observed in P. oceanica meadows, except in one locality. Biometric analysis indicated high vegetative development in the established colonies in comparison to those described in other Mediterranean areas. Rapid spreading dynamics observed in the Murcia region is a potential threat for native benthic communities.
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