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The Mechanism of the Parent Brand Effect in Brand Extension
品牌延伸中母品牌的作用机制

Lei Li,Ma Mouchao,
雷莉
,马谋超

心理科学进展 , 2003,
Abstract: The issue of the brand extension has been widely studied since the 1970s. Based on the review of pilot researches, two cognitive models affect-transfer model and association-demand modelwere introduced to describe the mechanism of the parent brand effect towards brand extension. The affect-transfer model assumes that consumers will transfer the positive attitudes of the parent brand directly to its extension, but the association-demand model regards the brand-specific associations the most important factor in extension evaluation. The two models highlight the cognitive process in the formation of the extension evaluation.
Interaction Mechanism and Strategy of Brand Relationship and Brand Extension  [PDF]
He Liu, Lili Fan
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2013.13008
Abstract: As new products are generally difficult to be accepted by consumers, and the cost of initial market introduction is high, enterprises often choose to do market extension of an existing brand. Simultaneously, a successful brand extension can enhance the reputation of the original brand, and expand the brand value. But how can enterprise take a good brand extension? Through establishment of a dynamic model of brand extension under the brand relationship context, investigating the interaction mechanism between brand relationship and extension, and base on that, we developed a strategy model of interaction and improvement of brand relationship and brand extension.
Factors Influencing Successful Brand Extension into Related and Unrelated Product Categories
Sarwat Afzal
Asian Economic and Financial Review , 2013,
Abstract: This study describes the study that analyzes the factors influencing successful brand extension. Specifically the study analyze the impact of similarity, brand reputation, perceived risk and consumer innovativeness on the success of brand extension into related or unrelated categories of FMCG products. A set of hypotheses were developed and tested by regression analysis. It investigated the effect of factors such as brand reputation, perceived risk, perceived similarity and consumer innovativeness on successful brand extension in FMCG. This study provides support for two out of the four hypotheses of Hem & Charnatony's model. Parent brand reputations, and consumer innovativeness, have powerful positive effect on consumers' mind-set towards the brand extension in related and unrelated product category. The third hypothesis i.e. interaction of perceived similarity is positive and significant in related FMCG product category and hence hypothesis 1 is partially supported. However the fourth hypothesis i.e. perceived risk in preparing the extension with customers' attitude regarding brand extension could not be supported. The result of this study suggests a number of implications for product extensions in our country. Implications have been discussed for the organization of consumer information and effect across related and unrelated product class and for understanding earlier research results on brand extension.
The Effect of Brand Extension Strategies upon Brand Image in the Sport Apparel Market
Bahram Ranjbarian,Saeed Fathi,Rayehe Bahrami Nejad Jooneghani
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Nowadays, for the most manufacturing firms operating in competitive markets, the consumer's image of their brand is particularly important. One of the strategies by which companies influence the costumers' image of their brand is the brand extension strategy. This study seeks to determine the effect of brand extension strategies upon brand image in the sport apparel market among the physical education students of Isfahan University and Khorasgan Azad University. In this research, by using two pre-tests, the right brands and products were chosen to be studied. Then the tests were carried out on two brands and two products. Such variables as, the consumer's initial brand image (before brand extension), perceived fit between the extended product and other products of the brand and consumer's attitude to extension were analyzed as possible variables affecting the quality of brand image in the sport apparel market. In this study, for collecting data a questionnaire was used. The samples were selected randomly. Also, SPSS and Amos software were used to analyze data and test hypotheses. The results indicate that the brand image quality after implementing the brand extension strategy has been influenced by initial brand image, perceived fit between the new product and other products of the brand and consumers attitude to extension. Also, the influence of consumer innovativeness as a factor which moderates the relationship of perceived fit between the new product and other products of the brand with consumer's attitude to extension has been not approved.
MECHANISM OF FAR-EXTENSION EVALUATION IN LOW-EVOLVEMENT CONTEXT
低卷入情境中品牌远延伸的成功机制

Lei Li,Wang Yong,Ding Xiaqi,Ma Mouchao,
雷莉
,王詠,丁夏齐,马谋超

心理学报 , 2005,
Abstract: This research investigated on the significance of factors affecting consumer evaluations of far brand extensions. Different from prior researches focusing on the brand affect, brand perception, brand attributes and fit between the extensions and parent brand, this empirical study put forward the brand-related variables. Three important variables were put forward to explain the success of far-extension existing in the real market. They are brand category stickiness, the brand's Abstract and functional character, and brand reputation. Accordingly, three experiments were set to examine their effects on the far-extension evaluation. The results showed that a brand with less brand stickiness, higher Abstract character and higher reputation is of more possibility to be successful in a far-extension.
Development of a parent version of the Manchester-Minneapolis quality of life survey for use by parents and carers of UK children: MMQL-UK (PF)
Hayley A Hutchings, Penney Upton, Wai-Yee Cheung, Alison Maddocks, Christine Eiser, John G Williams, Ian T Russell, Sonia Jackson, Meriel EM Jenney
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-6-19
Abstract: This study was undertaken concurrently with the anglicisation and validation of the MMQL, a measure of HRQL developed for use with children in North America. At that time, no parent version existed, so the MMQL form for children (MMQL-UK (CF)) was used as the basis for the development of the MMQL-UK parent form (PF). The sample included a control group of healthy children and their parents and five exemplar groups; children diagnosed with asthma, diabetes or inflammatory bowel disease and their parents, children in remission from cancer and their parents and children in public care and their carers. Consistency of the MMQL-UK (PF) components were assessed by calculating Cronbach's alpha. Validation of the parent questionnaire was undertaken by comparing MMQL-UK (PF) component scores with comparable components on the proxy PedsQL? quality of life scales, comparing MMQL-UK (PF) component scores between parents of healthy and chronic disease children and by comparison of component scores from children and their parents or carers. Reproducibility and responsiveness were assessed by retesting parents by follow-up questionnaires.A total of 874 children (completing MMQL-UK (CF)) and 572 parents or carers (completing MMQL-UK (PF)) took part in the study. The internal consistency of all the MMQL-UK (PF) components exceeding the accepted criterion of 0.70 and the construct validity was good with moderate correlations being evident between comparable components of the MMQL-UK (PF) and the proxy PedsQL?. Discriminant validity was demonstrated with significant differences being identified between parents of healthy children and those with chronic conditions. Intra-class correlations exceeded 0.65 for all MMQL-UK (PF) components demonstrating good reproducibility. Weak to moderate levels of responsiveness were demonstrated for all but social functioning. The MMQL-UK (PF) showed moderate parent-child correlation with the MMQL-UK (CF) for all components. The best correlations were
Marka Yayma Stratejilerinde ürün Benzerli inin Etkisi ve ü Ayr Marka üzerinde Bir Uygulama = The Effects of Product S milarities on Brand Extension Strategies and a Practice on Three Different Brands  [cached]
Ye?im UZUN,T. Sabri ERD?L
Dogus University Journal , 2004,
Abstract: Brand extension strategy is an effort to extend a succesfull brand name to launch new or modified products or lines. Brand extension attitudes are influenced by the percieved quality of the core brand and the fit between the extended products. The similarity is important for brand extension because the greater perceived similarity between the current and new product leads to a greater transfer of positive or negative effect to the new product. Furthermore, higher levels of perceived fit between core brand and extension will lead to more favorable evaluations of the extension. The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of brand extension strategies on consumers' attitudes regarding the product similarity. Three different brands are used for the statistical analysis. According to the results, there is a relationship between the favorable opinion about core brand and the evaluation of similarity for extended products. Furthermore, there is a relationship between the similarity of extended products and extension evaluations.
Brand market positions estimation and defining the strategic targets of its development
S.M. Makhnusha
Marketing ì Mened?ment Innovacìj , 2010,
Abstract: In this article the author generalizes the concept of brand characteristics which influenceits profitability and market positions. An approach to brand market positions estimation anddefining the strategic targets of its development is proposed.Keywords: brand, brand expansion, brand extension, brand value, brand power, brandrelevance, brand awareness.
Advertising Persuasion for Brand Extension: Revising the Dual Mediation Model
品牌延伸条件下的广告说服——双中介影响模型的拓展

Huang Jinsong,Wang Gao,Zhao Ping,
黄劲松
,王高,赵平

心理学报 , 2006,
Abstract: Most new products were introduced to the market by way of brand extension.It seems important for researchers and practitioners to understand how and why advertising for brand extension works.However,past advertising research mostly used fictitious brands as experimental materials.Because little attention had been given to advertising for brand extensions,the process by which advertising may impact attitude change of extended brands was largely ignored,and the influences of brand familiarity were seldom considered in the traditional persuasive hierarchy models.Furthermore,some research studies indicated that advertising for familiar brands may not work in the same way as advertising for unfamiliar brands,suggesting that research on familiar brands' advertising has significant theoretical and practical meaning.The purpose of the present study was to modify a dual mediation model(DMM) and to use the model to examine the effects of advertising for brand extensions. DMM,which derives from cognitive response theories,is a kind of persuasive hierarchy causal model.In the past 20 years,researchers using DMM have found the model to "best" fit the data in several experiments.However,most of these examinations used unfamiliar brands only.In the present study,we extended DMM into familiar brands and employed(prior) brand attitudes as exogenous variables. Five hundred sixty-four students at three Chinese universities participated in three studies.The experimental brand and advertising were selected according to whether or not brand extension was executed.In the main experiment,subjects were first asked to evaluate the experimental brand.Subjects were then exposed to the advertising stimuli and were finally asked to complete the following measures: attitudes toward advertising(Aad),advertising cognitive responses(Cad),brand cognitive responses(Cb),post-exposure brand attitudes(Ab) and purchase intention(Pi).In order to examine the internal validity of this pretest-posttest design,we conducted another no treatment pretest-posttest experiment.A replication study about another established brand was also carried out to examine the external validity of the results.This cross-validation procedures supported the conclusion that the extended model is invariant across different brands. The experiments yielded three sets of findings.First,prior brand attitudes(PAb),which integrated the cumulated marketing efforts,had a significant impact on Cad,Cb and Ab.The implication is that,when researchers investigate the psychological constructs that occur as a result of familiar brands' advertising exposure,PAb should not be ignored for it contributes to the formation of Aad and Ab.The results also showed that the effectiveness of extended brands' advertising relied on whether or not consumers favored the brand.Second,the formation of Aad was a direct function of Cad and was an indirect function of PAb.This finding indicates that favorable prior attitude brings about strong atten
The Construction of Brand Culture Based on Corporate Culture  [cached]
Yuekun Yang
International Journal of Business and Management , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v5n4p223
Abstract: Brand culture is an extension and identification as well as an important part of corporate culture. As the base of brand culture, corporate culture exerts an influence on the establishment of brand culture. Its internal function helps to improve the participation degree of the main body of brand culture construction and its external function helps to improve the popularity of the carrier of brand culture construction. In addition, developing and expanding the core idea of corporate culture helps to improve the loyalty of the object of brand culture construction.
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