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The Past and the Future in the Present  [PDF]
James P. Crutchfield,Christopher J. Ellison
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: We show how the shared information between the past and future---the excess entropy---derives from the components of directional information stored in the present---the predictive and retrodictive causal states. A detailed proof allows us to highlight a number of the subtle problems in estimation and analysis that impede accurate calculation of the excess entropy.
Diffraction : past, present and future  [PDF]
E. Predazzi
Physics , 1998,
Abstract: Hadronic diffraction has become a hot and fashionable subject in recent years due to the great interest triggered by the HERA and Tevatron data. These data have helped to put the field in a different perspective paving the road to a hopefully more complete understanding than hitherto achieved. The forthcoming data in the next few years from even higher energies (LHC) promise to sustain this interest for a long time. It is, therefore, necessary to provide the younger generations with as complete as possible discussion of the main developments that have marked the growth of high energy diffractive physics in the past and to assess the present state of the art. For this reason, this part will be by far the largest. The analysis of the relationship between conventional diffractive physics and the low-x physics from deep inelastic scattering will allow us also to review the instruments which could help to understand the developments we can expect from the future.
Intermetallics: past, present and future  [cached]
Morris, D. G.,Mu?oz-Morris, M. A.
Revista de Metalurgia , 2005,
Abstract: Intermetallics have seen extensive world-wide attention over the past decades. For the most part these studies have examined multi-phase aluminide based alloys, because of their high stiffness, combined with reasonable strength and ductility, good structural stability and oxidation resistance, and attempted to improve current Ni-base superalloys, Ti-base alloys, or Fe-base stainless steels for structural aerospace applications. The current status of development and application of such materials is briefly reviewed. Future developments are taking intermetallics from the realm of "improved high-temperature but low-ductility metallic alloys" into the realm of "improved aggressive-environment, high-toughness ceramic-like alloys". Such evolution will be outlined. Durante los últimos décadas ha habido un desarrollo de los intermetálicos, sobre todo por aplicaciones estructurales a alta temperatura en aplicaciones aeroespaciales, donde, por su rigidez alta, en combinación con una resistencia mecánica y ductilidad razonable, su buena estabilidad estructural y resistencia a la oxidación, han sido vistos como versiones avanzadas y mejoradas de las aleaciones metálicas como, por ejemplo, las superaleaciones a base de nitrógeno y las aleaciones de titanio. Se discute el desarrollo importante durante las últimas décadas, y también los nuevos desarrollos probables durante los próximos a os. Se podrían ver los intermetálicos como versiones mejoradas de los cerámicos.
Past, Present and Future of Lymphangiography
Aliakbar Ameri,Jalal Jalalshokouhi
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2010,
Abstract: History: Hippocrates was the first person who mentioned lymphatic system at 5th century BC. About 1563 Eustachi "an anatomy professor" discribed the thoracic duct in horses as "vena-alba thoracis" Rud beck (1630-1702) discovered vessels in the liver containing clear fluid which emptied to the thoracic duct and they have valves. Thomas Barthtolin said these vessels are present everywhere in the body not only within the liver and he named them "lymphatic vessels". "nToday: Taking x-ray of visualized lymphatic, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymph vessels and lymph capillaries using patent blue and lipiodol ultra-fluid is called lymphography. "nThis procedure was used for tumor staging such as testicular tumors, sarcoma and lymphoma. Also lymphography is used for post traumatic lymphatic obstruction, "chilothorax lymphocele" post surgical or congenital abnormalities such as agenesis or other causes of lymph-edema of the feet and hands. Nowadays staging is possible with US, CT and MRI so these days lymphography is used for lymph-edema only. "nMicro-magnetic resonance lymphangiography with GD-labeled dendrimer nanoparticle is used to identify intra lymphatic and extra lymphatic origins with pulse T1W 3D fast spoiled GRE T2/T1W 3D fast imaging employing steady state "3D-FIESTA-C.""nLecture notes for new lymphangiography are: "nInterstitial MR lymphangiography for the detection of sentinel lymph node. "nTo assess the morphology of the lymphatic system pre-and postoperatively in patients undergoing mi-crosurgical reconstructions of the lymphatic vessels."nValidation study of MR-lymphangiography using SPIO, a new lymphotropic super-para-magnetic nanoparitcle contrast in bladder cancer, GU cancer and prostate cancer by interventional method."nComplementary for MR-lymphangiography is CT and PET-CT "C-choline PET" in prostate cancer more accurate than MR."nHigh-resolution MR-lymphangiography in patients with primary and secondary lymphoma. Using GD as standard lymphangiography. "nImages from our conventional lymphangiography in past and images from new modalities and water imaging techniques are available to show.
Mercosur: past, present, and future  [PDF]
Paulo Paiva,Ricardo Gazel
Nova Economia , 2003,
Abstract: In March 2003, the Southern Common Market (Mercosur) celebrated its twelfth anniversary. In twelve years, the bloc went from a substantially restricted trade structure to a practically free-trade area, with additional efforts in establishing a customs union and progressing toward a common market. Despite these advances, the integration process has experienced setbacks as the result of such different economic phenomena as the Asian financial crisis, Brazil's currency devaluation and, later, economic uncertainty in Argentina. Setbacks to the integration process create credibility issues and could jeopardize the future of the process. This paper discusses the current level of economic integration of Mercosur, the speed of the process, and the resulting mixed level of different stages of economic integration. It also discusses the main achievements in the last twelve years, identifies the shortcomings as well as the opportunities and challenges facing the bloc in the near future.
Sharka: The Past, The Present and The Future  [PDF]
Jiri Sochor,Petr Babula,Vojtech Adam,Boris Krska,Rene Kizek
Viruses , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/v4112853
Abstract: Members the Potyviridae family belong to a group of plant viruses that are causing devastating plant diseases with a significant impact on agronomy and economics. Plum pox virus (PPV), as a causative agent of sharka disease, is widely discussed. The understanding of the molecular biology of potyviruses including PPV and the function of individual proteins as products of genome expression are quite necessary for the proposal the new antiviral strategies. This review brings to view the members of Potyviridae family with respect to plum pox virus. The genome of potyviruses is discussed with respect to protein products of its expression and their function. Plum pox virus distribution, genome organization, transmission and biochemical changes in infected plants are introduced. In addition, techniques used in PPV detection are accentuated and discussed, especially with respect to new modern techniques of nucleic acids isolation, based on the nanotechnological approach. Finally, perspectives on the future of possibilities for nanotechnology application in PPV determination/identification are outlined.
Past, Present and Future of Muonium  [PDF]
Klaus P. Jungmann
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: Muonium, the atom which consists of a positive muon and an electron, has been discovered by a team led by Vernon W. Hughes in 1960. It is in many respects the most ideal atom available from nature. Due to the close confinement in the bound state muonium can be used as an ideal probe of electro-weak interaction, including particularly Quantum Electrodynamics, and to search for additional yet unknown interactions acting on leptons. Recently completed experiments cover the ground state hyperfine structure, the 1s-2s interval and a search for spontaneous conversion of muonium to antimuonium. The experiments yield precise values for the fine structure constant, the muon mass and its magnetic moment. The results from these precision measurements have provided restrictions for a number of theories beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. Future precision experiments will require new and intense sources of muons.
LHC: Past, Present, and Future  [PDF]
Greg Landsberg
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: In this overview talk, I give highlights of the first three years of the LHC operations at high energy, spanning heavy-ion physics, standard model measurements, and searches for new particles, which culminated in the discovery of the Higgs boson by the ATLAS and CMS experiments in 2012. I'll discuss what we found about the properties of the new particle in 10 months since the discovery and then talk about the future LHC program and preparations to the 2015 run at the center-of-mass energy of ~13 TeV. These proceedings are meant to be a snapshot of the LHC results as of May 2013 - the time of the conference. Many of the results shown in these proceedings have been since updated (sometimes significantly) just 4 months thereafter, when these proceedings were due. Nevertheless, keeping this writeup in sync with the results shown in the actual talk has some historical value, as, for one, it tells the reader how short is the turnaround time to update the results at the LHC. To help an appreciation of this fact, I briefly summarize the main changes between May and September 2013 in the Appendix.
Axions: Past, Present, and Future  [PDF]
Mark Srednicki
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: I give a pedagogical and historical introduction to axion physics, and briefly review the present status of axions in our understanding of particle physics and cosmology. This is a contribution to Continuous Advances in QCD 2002/Arkadyfest, held in honor of Arkady Vainshtein's 60th birthday.
The Neutrino - Its Past, Present and Future  [PDF]
Ivan V. Anicin
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: The review consists of two parts. In the first part the critical points in the past, present and future of neutrino physics (nuclear, particle and astroparticle) are reviewed. In the second part the contributions of Yugoslav physics to the physics of the neutrino are commented upon. The review is meant as a first reading for the newcomers to the field of neutrino physics.
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