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APPROACH TO THE ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE CONCEPT
CLAUDIA MARíA GARCíA áLVAREZ
Universitas Psychologica , 2006,
Abstract: In order to make evident the instrumental nature of the concept of culture applied to organization, thisessay develops a comprehension of the concept of organizational culture. This effort is important becausethe concept of organization itself implies a construction of a social order from meanings becominghegemonic in the framework of a particular context. Organizational Psychology, even with its neutralitypretension, is not innocent about the instrumental role that social sciences have had in the organizationalarena; however this essay introduces alternatives from critical approaches that allow ways of comprehensionand why not, intervention from perspectives explicitly political.
The Construction of Masculinity in International Relations
Nora Fritzsche
The Interdisciplinary Journal of International Studies , 2011,
Abstract: International politics is characterized by a lack of women. The few women holding high political positions are more likely to be criticized and judged based upon, what the author calls, ‘the construction of masculinity in international relations’. Tracing the origin and logic of this construction, the article critiques the dominant theories of international relations (namely, realism and liberalism) and argues for the aptness of a radical feminist social constructivist approach to the study of international politics. The article also illuminates the strong focus on men and men’s perspectives of these influential mainstream theories on their conception and interpretation of war. An examination of the concept of war reveals how masculinity and femininity are portrayed on matters of war and national security and what side effects this has on women in politics, particularly women with political positions.
THE MEANING IN THE CULTURE: BASIC CONCEPT TO ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING
áLVARO ENRíQUEZ MARTíNEZ
Universitas Psychologica , 2007,
Abstract: Based on three key psychological concepts: learning, culture and meaning, the present essay proposes a conceptualbase frame, oriented toward the understanding of development in organizations into current milieu ofcompetitiveness and temporality, of the relationships among people working into them. The organizations whichare typically embedded in a context of values, needs and symbols that made up their cultures, must evolve in orderto face the demands for new developments and change, to which they are forced to. The concept of “meaning of theculture”, is presented as the base over which is build and rooted the organizational learning - in a technical and socialsense. The different types of learning are the ways in which the organizations satisfy the requirements coming fromtheir environments, in front of which must generate knowledge and consequently, new products and services,based on the people that form such organizations. The people that belong and constitutes the organization, incircumstances of temporal cohesion and within temporary working networks, must achieve results and to beadjusted to these new working and organizational facts, developing self-management and autonomy, in order tosignify and get adapted into the cultural tissue.
Concept of Dividend Irrelevance Theory  [PDF]
Sanjay Shrestha
Academic Voices: A Multidisciplinary Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/av.v3i1.9988
Abstract: This Article states that dividend policy does not affect the value of the firm. Their argument is that stack holder’s wealth is unaffected whether corporate profits are distributed or retained in the business. Their reasoning is that under an efficient market condition, a firm’s value is determined by its potential earning power and it does not affect the decision on how profits are to be split between dividends and retained earning. Therefore, as per M-M theory a firm’s value is independent of dividend policy.
Tax Culture: A Basic Concept for Tax Politics  [cached]
Nerré, Birger
Economic Analysis and Policy , 2008,
Abstract: I have suggested not to limit tax-cultural considerations to the side of taxpayers, but to widen its understanding by using an embeddedness approach considering the history of taxation and by that means explicating national tax-cultural diversity (e.g. Nerré 2001b, 2002b, 2006a). In the course of continuing globalization two different kinds of disturbances of tax culture have been identified: tax culture shocks and tax culture lags. Both are due to ignorant and/or ethnocentric policy measures. While lags are caused almost inevitably during any transformation or reform process, shocks should be prevented by implementing appropriate tax political measures on an international (and national!) level in a tax-cultural conform way.
The Concept of Security in International Relations Theory  [PDF]
Gabriel Orozco
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2006,
Abstract: The end of the Cold War and the emergence of globalisation have transformed the reality of International Relations, which has meant a change in the theories which this reality had assumed. The concept of security reveals itself as an organisational idea on the different phenomena of globalisation, carrying out a programme of research that goes beyond the realistic presumptions of military power or of the idealistic principles of research for peace. This article explores the new meanings of security for International Relations theory and discusses the theoretical models that influence policy design and that aim to confront the problems and challenges of security in globalisation.
The Concept of Potential in Quantum Field Theory  [PDF]
J. Sucher
Physics , 1994,
Abstract: In quantum field theory the concept of a Lagrangian interaction density, expressed in terms of fields, is primary. Forces between two particles are regarded as arising primarily from the exchange of quanta of the bosonic fields. Thus, in contrast to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, the concept of a two-body poten tial is secondary. Potentials are not given a priori but must be defined. Part of the purpose of this talk is to review and discuss the issues involved when such definitions are made. In this context I describe a gauge-independent approach to some aspects of the problem of determining the energy levels of bound states, developed in collaboration with the late G. Feinberg, and report some recent results on the long-range potential associated with two-photon exchange between charged particles.
The concept of particle in Quantum Field theory  [PDF]
Eliano Pessa
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Despite its name, Quantum Field Theory (QFT) has been built to describe interactions between localizable particles. For this reason the actual formalism of QFT is partly based on a suitable generalization of the one already used for systems of point particles. This circumstance gives rise to a number of conceptual problems, stemming essentially from the fact that the existence within QFT of non-equivalent representations implies the existence of field theories allowing, within the same theory, different, inequivalent, descriptions of particles. This led some authors to claim that in QFT the concept itself of particle should be abandoned. In this paper we will shortly discuss the validity of this claim, as well as the possibilities, so far existing, of building alternative versions of QFT, not designed in advance to allow some kind of particle representation. We will also spend some words about the generalizations of the concept itself of particle which could grant for a better cohabitation of particles and fields within a wider formulation of QFT. The latter is indispensable if we want to extend the range of application of QFT from particle physics or simple condensed matter physics to other domains of scientific research.
Concept of unified local field theory and nonlocality of matter  [PDF]
Alexander A. Chernitskii
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: The concept of unified local field theory is considered. According to this concept the quantum description and the classical one must be the levels for investigation of some world solution of the unified field model. It is shown that in the framework of the unified local field theory there are nonlocal correlations between space separate events. Thus the experiments of Aspect type for testing of the Bell inequalities and for showing of the nonlocal correlations do not reject a possibility for description of matter with the unified local field theory. Advantages of such theory for new technologies are considered.
The Concept Of Person In An African Culture And Its Implication For Social Order  [cached]
Elvis Imafidon
Lumina , 2012,
Abstract: The concept of a person held by a group of people is fundamental in understanding not only how a person within such framework of thought views himself but also how other matters such as the idea of being, morality, knowledge and truth that are essential for the ordering of the society are viewed. This is emphasised by the fact that such a concept encapsulates the role the society expects the individual to play for the attainment of an orderly society. The paper attempts an examination of the descriptive and normative concepts of a person common to many African communities with the aim of determining the role such a theory of person played in the actualization of social order in such communities and what lessons contemporary African societies can learn from such in meeting the challenges of current experiences.
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