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 Journal of Biotechnology and Biodiversity , 2012, Abstract: Landscape began to be cited as a scientific technical term in the nineteenth century. Since then it has been definedaccording to different philosophical references, where it is possible to see a clear dualism in its meaning. This is amatter of intense debate within the social and natural sciences: the physical geography proposes an understandingof the landscape as an ecological system, whereas the human geography turns to the interpretative vision. There areEuropean and North American roots of the ecological landscape, being the latter more recent (1980s), which isbased on ecosystem ecology and spatial modeling/analysis. Its development was favored by the advent of satelliteimagery and popularization of personal computers, therefore providing important resources for imaging and geostatisticalanalyzes. But still, there are different positions to be taken by the researcher working in this area.Metzger (2001) suggests adopting an integrated approach, where the ecological context and human action areconsidered and managed as mandatory elements in environmental dynamics. Our study aimed to list some of the keyconcepts of landscape considered by biologists in their research on landscape ecology.
 PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091414 Abstract: The landscape ecology of predation is well studied and known to be influenced by habitat heterogeneity. Little attention has been given to how the influence of habitat heterogeneity on the landscape ecology of predation might be modulated by life history dynamics of prey in mammalian systems. We demonstrate how life history dynamics of moose (Alces alces) contribute to landscape patterns in predation by wolves (Canis lupus) in Isle Royale National Park, Lake Superior, USA. We use pattern analysis and kernel density estimates of moose kill sites to demonstrate that moose in senescent condition and moose in prime condition tend to be wolf-killed in different regions of Isle Royale in winter. Predation on senescent moose was clustered in one kill zone in the northeast portion of the island, whereas predation on prime moose was clustered in 13 separate kill zones distributed throughout the full extent of the island. Moreover, the probability of kill occurrence for senescent moose, in comparison to prime moose, increased in high elevation habitat with patches of dense coniferous trees. These differences can be attributed, at least in part, to senescent moose being more vulnerable to predation and making different risk-sensitive habitat decisions than prime moose. Landscape patterns emerging from prey life history dynamics and habitat heterogeneity have been observed in the predation ecology of fish and insects, but this is the first mammalian system for which such observations have been made.
 环境科学学报(英文版) , 1999, Abstract: People from different backgrounds may have various opinions and methods dealing with landscape ecology. As a basic ecology theory for decision making in land use planning and resource management, it should provide sound scientific principles, which means some core concepts for landscape ecology need to be established. This paper attempts to introduce some core concepts for landscape ecology, with brief analysis, including: the integrity of landscape system and the heterogeneity of landscape elements; scale in landscape ecology; mosaics of landscape structure; spatial aggregation and spread of ecological flow; physical cultural nature of landscape; the irreversible and human dominated landscape evolution; the multi value of landscape.
 地理研究 , 2001, Abstract: Landscape ecology, resulted from the integration of modern Geography and Ecology, is discovering and broadening its application scope Its application to ecotourism is now underway On the basis of three kinds of definitions on ecotourism, this paper defines ecotourism from tourism planners and managers, tourists, and their integrated levels We also emphasize its spatial and ecological meaning, and initially discover the application of landscape ecology to ecotourism Landscape ecologic theory including structure and function, ecological holism and spatial heterogeneity, diversity and stability, and landscape change, can be one of the theoretical foundations of ecotourism planning and management
 Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.79.043528 Abstract: We argue that quintessence may reside in certain corners of the string landscape. It arises as a linear combination of internal space components of higher rank forms, which are axion-like at low energies, and may mix with 4-forms after compactification of the Chern-Simons terms to 4D due to internal space fluxes. The mixing induces an effective mass term, with an action which {\it preserves} the axion shift symmetry, breaking it spontaneously after the background selection. With several axions, several 4-forms, and a low string scale, as in one of the setups already invoked for dynamically explaining a tiny residual vacuum energy in string theory, the 4D mass matrix generated by random fluxes may have ultralight eigenmodes over the landscape, which are quintessence. We illustrate how this works in simplest cases, and outline how to get the lightest mass to be comparable to the Hubble scale now, $H_0 \sim 10^{-33} {\rm eV}$. The shift symmetry protects the smallest mass from perturbative corrections in field theory. Further, if the ultralight eigenmode does not couple directly to any sector strongly coupled at a high scale, the non-perturbative field theory corrections to its potential will also be suppressed. Finally, if the compactification length is larger than the string length by more than an order of magnitude, the gravitational corrections may remain small too, even when the field value approaches $M_{Pl}$.
 环境科学学报(英文版) , 2000, Abstract: A preliminary research on landscape ecology in desertification monitoring and assessment was reported. Also, this paper laid stress on the study of landscape diversity, dominance, evenness and Markov Matrix model and their respective landscape ecological meanings in the desertification monitoring and assessment. Concurrently, it took Shazhuyu Experimental Area, Qinghai Province as a specific case study.
 Acta Montanistica Slovaca , 1996, Abstract: Negative influences of mining underground activities on ecology of landscape environment are presented. Mining damages on the earth surface and building structures are investigated at the magnesite mineral deposit of the mine region Ko ice-Bankov in Slovakia. Subsidence development is modelling to prediction and minimize of mining damages. The need to control deformations has stimulated extensive research on the topic of strata movement prediction in the vicinity of mine workings. In an effort to establish reliable and accurate prediction techniques dealing with the extent, magnitude and development of the characteristic parameters of surface movement, empirical, analytical and numerical methods are proposed and applied in the mine region Ko ice-Bankov. This paper reviews some of the objectives and accomplishments of a comprehensive subsidence research programme conduced by Department of Geodesy and Geophysics, Faculty of Mining, Ecology, Process Control and Geotechnologies of the Technical University of Ko ice during the past twenty years.
 PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015659 Abstract: Local adaptation to different environments can promote mating isolation – either as an incidental by-product of trait divergence, or as a result of selection to avoid maladaptive mating. Numerous recent empirical examples point to the common influence of divergent natural selection on speciation based largely on evidence of strong pre-mating isolation between populations from different habitat types. Accumulating evidence for natural selection's influence on speciation is therefore no longer a challenge. The difficulty, rather, is in determining the mechanisms involved in the progress of adaptive divergence to speciation once barriers to gene flow are already present. Here, we present results of both laboratory and field experiments with Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) from different environments, who do not show complete reproductive isolation despite adaptive divergence. We investigate patterns of mating isolation between populations that do and do not exchange migrants and show evidence for both by-product and reinforcement mechanisms depending on female ecology. Specifically, low-predation females discriminate against all high-predation males thus implying a by-product mechanism, whereas high-predation females only discriminate against low-predation males from further upstream in the same river, implying selection to avoid maladaptive mating. Our study thus confirms that mechanisms of adaptive speciation are not necessarily mutually exclusive and uncovers the complex ecology-geography interactions that underlie the evolution of mating isolation in nature.
 环境科学学报(英文版) , 1995, Abstract: The theoretical focuses of emerging landscape ecology are spatial heterogeneity and ecologicalholism. The ultimate aim of agrolandscape sustainability is the harmonious relation between man and his envi-ronment. that is, the human ecological holisin. The study on agrolandscape sustainability deals with an exten-sive area, and the realization of agrolandscape sustainability must depend on a spatial approach. Therefore.landscape ecology could be taken as a theoretical foundation of agrolandscape planning and design.
 生态学报 , 2003, Abstract: According to the discussion on key issues and the scopes of landscape ecology during the 16 th IALE-US annual conference in 2001, 6 key issues and 10 leading topics were explained, which synthesized the opinions on theory and methodology of 16 internationally famed landscape ecologists. The 6 key issues dealt with: (1) interdisciplinarity or transdisciplinarity, with researchers from different fields, planners, managers, social scientists and decision makers working closely together on ecological issues at the scale of landscape; (2) integration between basic research and applications, following the reciprocal, that research guides for applications and applications give feedback to research; (3) conceptual and theoretical developments, to incorporate the rapidly developing science of complexity (such as nonlinear dynamics, hierarchy, and self organization); (4) education and training for students and professionals with different interests and backgrounds; (5) international scholarly communication and collaborations, through regional and international conferences, scholar exchanges and cooperative projects; and (6) a reach out and communication with the public and with decision makers, supported by information technology and Internet. ;The top 10 topics included: (1) Ecological flow in land mosaics, including materials (organisms), energy and information flow across landscape mosaics; (2) Consequences, processes and scenarios of landuse/landcover change, in combination with economic geography and resource-economy; (3) non-linear dynamics and landscape complexity, with methods and concepts like self-organization, complex adaptive systems, nonlinear dynamics, phase transition, and metastability; (4) scaling, up or down across heterogeneous landscapes; (5) development of methodology, from spatial sampling, pseudo repetition and auto-correlation to ecological modeling; (6) the relationship between landscape metrics and ecological processes; (7) integration of human activity and landscape ecology, which is increasingly prominent theoretically and practically; (8) optimization of landscape pattern, incorporated in land management and planning; (9) landscape conservation and sustainability, focusing on biodiversity and endangered landscapes; and (10) data sources and accuracy evaluation for the broad-scale patterns and processes involved in landscape ecological research. The authors also expressed preliminary ideas on the establishment of a theoretical frame for landscape ecology in China, covering: (1) the theory of spatial ecology focusing on the relationship between pattern and processes, (2) the theory of landscape construction focusing on ordered human activity, and (3) the theory of landscape planning focusing on the multi-value character of landscapes.
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