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Changes in the TBARs content and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the lymphoid organs and skeletal muscles of adrenodemedullated rats
Pereira, B.;Costa-Rosa, L.F.B.P.;Bechara, E.J.H.;Newsholme, P.;Curi, R.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X1998000600016
Abstract: thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (tbars) content, and the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pdh), citrate synthase (cs), cu/zn- and mn-superoxide dismutase (sod), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (gpx) were measured in the lymphoid organs (thymus, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (mln)) and skeletal muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) of adrenodemedullated (adm) rats. the results were compared with those obtained for sham-operated rats. tbars content was reduced by adrenodemedullation in the lymphoid organs (mln (28%), thymus (40%) and spleen (42%)) and gastrocnemius muscle (67%). g6pdh activity was enhanced in the mln (69%) and reduced in the spleen (28%) and soleus muscle (75%). cs activity was reduced in all tissues (mln (75%), spleen (71%), gastrocnemius (61%) and soleus (43%)), except in the thymus which displayed an increment of 56%. cu/zn-sod activity was increased in the mln (126%), thymus (223%), spleen (80%) and gastrocnemius muscle (360%) and was reduced in the soleus muscle (31%). mn-sod activity was decreased in the mln (67%) and spleen (26%) and increased in the thymus (142%), whereas catalase activity was reduced in the mln (76%), thymus (54%) and soleus muscle (47%). it is particularly noteworthy that in adm rats the activity of glutathione peroxidase was not detectable by the method used. these data are consistent with the possibility that epinephrine might play a role in the oxidative stress of the lymphoid organs. whether this fact represents an important mechanism for the establishment of impaired immune function during stress remains to be elucidated.
Changes in the TBARs content and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the lymphoid organs and skeletal muscles of adrenodemedullated rats  [cached]
Pereira B.,Costa-Rosa L.F.B.P.,Bechara E.J.H.,Newsholme P.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 1998,
Abstract: Thiobarbituric acid reactant substances (TBARs) content, and the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDh), citrate synthase (CS), Cu/Zn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) were measured in the lymphoid organs (thymus, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN)) and skeletal muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) of adrenodemedullated (ADM) rats. The results were compared with those obtained for sham-operated rats. TBARs content was reduced by adrenodemedullation in the lymphoid organs (MLN (28%), thymus (40%) and spleen (42%)) and gastrocnemius muscle (67%). G6PDh activity was enhanced in the MLN (69%) and reduced in the spleen (28%) and soleus muscle (75%). CS activity was reduced in all tissues (MLN (75%), spleen (71%), gastrocnemius (61%) and soleus (43%)), except in the thymus which displayed an increment of 56%. Cu/Zn-SOD activity was increased in the MLN (126%), thymus (223%), spleen (80%) and gastrocnemius muscle (360%) and was reduced in the soleus muscle (31%). Mn-SOD activity was decreased in the MLN (67%) and spleen (26%) and increased in the thymus (142%), whereas catalase activity was reduced in the MLN (76%), thymus (54%) and soleus muscle (47%). It is particularly noteworthy that in ADM rats the activity of glutathione peroxidase was not detectable by the method used. These data are consistent with the possibility that epinephrine might play a role in the oxidative stress of the lymphoid organs. Whether this fact represents an important mechanism for the establishment of impaired immune function during stress remains to be elucidated.
Dynamic Changes of the Phosphoproteome in Postmortem Mouse Brains  [PDF]
Tsutomu Oka, Kazuhiko Tagawa, Hikaru Ito, Hitoshi Okazawa
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021405
Abstract: Protein phosphorylation is deeply involved in the pathological mechanism of various neurodegenerative disorders. However, in human pathological samples, phosphorylation can be modified during preservation by postmortem factors such as time and temperature. Postmortem changes may also differ among proteins. Unfortunately, there is no comprehensive database that could support the analysis of protein phosphorylation in human brain samples from the standpoint of postmortem changes. As a first step toward addressing the issue, we performed phosphoproteome analysis with brain tissue dissected from mouse bodies preserved under different conditions. Quantitative whole proteome mass analysis showed surprisingly diverse postmortem changes in phosphoproteins that were dependent on temperature, time and protein species. Twelve hrs postmortem was a critical time point for preservation at room temperature. At 4°C, after the body was cooled down, most phosphoproteins were stable for 72 hrs. At either temperature, increase greater than 2-fold was exceptional during this interval. We found several standard proteins by which we can calculate the postmortem time at room temperature. The information obtained in this study will be indispensable for evaluating experimental data with human as well as mouse brain samples.
白鲜营养器官黄柏酮和?q酮的组化定位及含量的动态变化
Histochemistry of Obacunone and Fraxinellone in Vegetative Organs of Dictamnus dasycarpus and the Content Changes in Different Growth Stages
 [PDF]

周亚福,毛少利,石新卫,王宇超,卢元
- , 2017, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1001-7461.2017.01.38
Abstract: 采用组织化学和高效液相色谱法(HPLC法)对秦岭产药用植物白鲜(Dictamnus dasycarpus)营养器官白鲜皮(根皮)、木质部、茎和叶中萜类物质的组织定位及黄柏酮和?q酮含量的动态变化规律进行了研究。组织化学测试结果表明:在根中,萜类物质主要分布在多年生根的周皮、次生韧皮部、韧皮部的油细胞、维管形成层以及木质部的薄壁组织中;在茎中,萜类物质主要分布在茎的表皮、紧贴表皮的分泌囊、皮层、韧皮部和木质部的薄壁细胞、髓部以及紧贴茎表皮的分泌囊中;在叶中,萜类物质主要分布在叶的表皮、头状腺毛、栅栏组织、海绵组织及维管束位置的薄壁组织中。HPLC测试结果表明:白鲜植物体除药用部位白鲜皮外,在木质部、茎和叶中均含有萜类物质黄柏酮和?q酮;试验测试样本白鲜皮中黄柏酮和?q酮的含量均符合药典标准(2015);在除营养生长期外几个生长阶段的木质部以及盛花期、成熟前期和成熟期I的茎和叶中,其黄柏酮含量亦均符合药典标准,其中盛花期白鲜茎和叶中黄柏酮的含量为药典最低含量标准的2~4倍多。秦岭终南山产白鲜皮品质优良,白鲜的根木质部、茎和叶用来提取黄柏酮,具有较好的应用价值,建议实践中针对不同需求综合利用白鲜非药材部位。
Accumulation of obacunone and fraxinellone in vegetative organs of Dictamnus dasycarpus from Qinling Mountains and the content changes in different growth stages were studied by using histochemistry and HPLC methods.The results showed that the terpenes were located in the periderm,parenchyma cells and oil cells of secondary phloem,vascular cambium and parenchyma cells in perennial root xylem of D.dasycarpus.In stem,the terpenes were detected in the epidermis,secretory cavities,cortex,parenchyma cells of xylem and phloem,parenchyma cells in the pith.And in leaf,the terpenes were located in the epidermis,capitate glandular hairs,palisade tissue,spongy tissue,secretory cavities and parenchyma cells of the vein.The HLPC analysis showed that the obacunone and fraxinellone were both detected in bark (to make crude drug of Dictamni Cortex),xylem,stem and leaf,and contents of obacunone and fraxinellone in different growth stages in bark were in accordance with the standards of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2015).And the contents of obacunone at all the stages except vegetative stage in root xylem,and the stages of full flowering stage,stage before mature stage and mature stage in stem and leaf were also in accordance with the standards of Chinese Pharmacopoeia,and the content of obacunone in stem and leaf during full flowering stage showed 2-4 times higher than that of the least content standard in Chinese Pharmacopoeia.The results showed that Dictamni Cortex from Qinling Mountains was characterized by good quality,and the stem and leaf showed potential development and utilization value to extract obacunone.It could be concluded that the vegetative organs except bark of D.dasycarpus should be explored according to different needs
Seasonal changes and content of sodium in main organs of European plum trees (Prunus domestica L.), fruit size and yield as affected by rootstocks on acidic soil Mudan as sazonais no teor de sódio dos órg os, tamanho do fruto e produ o da ameixeira européia (Prunus domestica L.) em fun o de porta-enxertos em solo ácido  [cached]
Nebojsa Milosevic,Tomo Milosevic
Semina : Ciências Agrárias , 2012,
Abstract: In the present study, the seasonal changes of Na content of shoots, flower buds and flowers, and fruit weight and yield of two European plum cultivars (‘Cacanska Lepotica’ and ‘Cacanska Najbolja’) budded on Myrobalan (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh.) and Stanley rootstocks were analyzed after 6-8 years of planting on acidic sandy-loam soil. The Na content of the shoots and flower buds of each rootstock/cultivar combination varied during season, and the highest content in above organs was observed in May and August, respectively. The effect of rootstocks on the examined parameters was variable due to the strong rootstock/cultivar/year interaction observed. The shoots and flower buds of cultivars budded on Stanley and Myrobalan rootstocks gave the highest and lowest Na content, respectively, whereas the highest Na content in flowers registered in ‘Cacanska Lepotica’ on Myrobalan. The content of Na in the plum organs suggests the following trends: 1-year old shoots > 2-year-old shoots > flower buds > flowers. There were no statistically significant correlations among plum organs with respect to Na content. The Principal Component Analysis showed that Stanley rootstock had a higher Na accumulation and distribution capacity than Myrobalan rootstock in plum trees. Finally, content of Na in the main organs of plum trees and acidic soil have not a negative effect on fruit weight and yield of plum cultivars, since these properties were respectable . Neste estudo, foram analisadas as mudan as sazonais do teor de Na nos ramos, bot es florais e flores, bem como no peso dos frutos e na produtividade de duas cultivares de ameixeiras européias (‘Cacanska lepotica’ e ‘Cacanska najbolja’) enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos Myrobalan (Prunus cerasifera Ehch.) e Stanley, aos 6-8 anos após o plantio em solo ácido areno-argiloso. O conteúdo de Na nos ramos e nos bot es florais para cada combina o de copa/porta-enxerto teve a varia o durante a temporada e o maior teor foi constatado em maio e ag sto, respectivamente. A influência do porta-enxerto sobre os parametros estudados foi variável devido à forte intera o copa/porta-enxerto/ano. Os ramos e bot os florais das plantas enxertadas sobre os porta-enxerto Stanley e Myrobalan, tiveram o maior e o menor teor de Na, respectivamente; enquanto o maior teor de Na nas flores foi registrado na ‘Cacanska lepotica’ sobre o porta-enxerto Myrobalan. O conteúdo de Na nos órg os de ameixa teve a seguinte evolu o: ramos de 1 ano > ramos de 2 anos > bot es florai > flores. N o houve correla o significativa entre os órg os da ameixeira em term
Histological Changes in Organs of Rats Infected with Trypanosoma congolense
C.C. Ohaeri
Research Journal of Animal Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjnasci.2010.50.52
Abstract: Five albino rats were infected with Trypanosoma congolense and killed on post infection day 28 by ether anaesthesia. Liver and kidney were removed weighed and histologically processed. All the inoculated rats developed trypanosomiasis which was characterized by a fluctuating parasitaemia and marked changes in organs. The histological changes observed in the liver were enlarged hepatocytes that contained numerous vacuoles and dissociated hepatic cords when compared with uninfected rats that revealed normal morphology. Kidney section of infected rats showed thickening of basement membrane as compared to uninfected rats. It also showed cell infiltration by macrophages and lymphocytes around glomeruli and blood vessels. The observation of cell infiltrations in the organs suggests that trypanosome infection is associated with histopathological changes that contribute to chronic debilitation.
Comprehensive Postmortem Analyses of Intestinal Microbiota Changes and Bacterial Translocation in Human Flora Associated Mice  [PDF]
Markus M. Heimesaat, Silvia Boelke, André Fischer, Lea-Maxie Haag, Christoph Loddenkemper, Anja A. Kühl, Ulf B. G?bel, Stefan Bereswill
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040758
Abstract: Background Postmortem microbiological examinations are performed in forensic and medical pathology for defining uncertain causes of deaths and for screening of deceased tissue donors. Interpretation of bacteriological data, however, is hampered by false-positive results due to agonal spread of microorganisms, postmortem bacterial translocation, and environmental contamination. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a kinetic survey of naturally occurring postmortem gut flora changes in the small and large intestines of conventional and gnotobiotic mice associated with a human microbiota (hfa) applying cultural and molecular methods. Sacrificed mice were kept under ambient conditions for up to 72 hours postmortem. Intestinal microbiota changes were most pronounced in the ileal lumen where enterobacteria and enterococci increased by 3–5 orders of magnitude in conventional and hfa mice. Interestingly, comparable intestinal overgrowth was shown in acute and chronic intestinal inflammation in mice and men. In hfa mice, ileal overgrowth with enterococci and enterobacteria started 3 and 24 hours postmortem, respectively. Strikingly, intestinal bacteria translocated to extra-intestinal compartments such as mesenteric lymphnodes, spleen, liver, kidney, and cardiac blood as early as 5 min after death. Furthermore, intestinal tissue destruction was characterized by increased numbers of apoptotic cells and neutrophils within 3 hours postmortem, whereas counts of proliferative cells as well as T- and B-lymphocytes and regulatory T-cells decreased between 3 and 12 hours postmortem. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that kinetics of ileal overgrowth with enterobacteria and enterococci in hfa mice can be used as an indicator for compromized intestinal functionality and for more precisely defining the time point of death under defined ambient conditions. The rapid translocation of intestinal bacteria starting within a few minutes after death will help to distinguish between relevant bacteria and secondary contaminants thus providing important informations for routine applications and future studies in applied microbiology, forensic pathology, and criminal medicine.
Ultrastructural changes of renal epithelial cells during postmortem autolysis: Experimental work  [PDF]
Zdravkovi? Miodrag
Medicinski Pregled , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/mpns1002015z
Abstract: Introduction. Determination of schedule and certain predictable regularities of ultrastructural changes of proximal tubules epithet of kidney during post mortal interval would be very useful in forensic medicine when it is needed to determine the exact time of death. Material and methods. In this research there were 52 experimental animals, laboratory rats 'Wistar' type, which had been killed by choking. Four animals were selected to be a control group right after death, and 48 rats were divided into three equal groups: The rats were then fended on different temperatures: 8-10°C, 18-20°C, 28-30°C, respectively. In each and every group the rats were divided into four groups based on time interval after death: I, 2, 4 and 6 hours. There were four rats in each of those four subgroups. Preparations were analyzed and photographed using transmission electronic microscope. Results. It was found that pace of ultrastructure changes of proximal tubules epitel the cells of kidney was directly dependable on the duration of autolysis and temperatures that the body was stored at. First changes on nucleus, which are separation of external and internal membranes, occurred during the fourth hour of autolysis. Decomposition of external membrane occurred also during fourth hour on temperatures of 8-10°C and 18-20°C. When the body was stored at 30°C lysised decomposition of both membranes of nucleus and loss of natural nucleus shape were noticeable even during the first hour of autolysis. During the sixth hour nucleus membranes were almost lysised around the perimeter and that led to 'leaking' of chromatin in sarkoplasm. Mitochondria kept their normal shape six hours after death when the body was stored on 8-10°C and 18-20°C, and lysis and fragmentation of cristae were noticeable from the first hour of autolysis. Mitochondria lost their natural shape and inner composition during the first hour when the body was stored at 30°C. So, after the fourth hour only balloon like and light-ened remaining of mitochondria and fragmented pieces of their cristae were noticeable. Conclusion. All of the predictable changes found in morphological changes on subcell level of kidney tissue can be useful to determine very precisely the time of death. They can be also used to determine vital value of tissue and organs.
The content of lead in some organs and tissues of Hereford bull-calves  [cached]
Narozhnyh K. N.,Efanova Y. V.,Petukhov V. L.,Korotkevich O. S.
E3S Web of Conferences , 2013, DOI: 10.1051/e3sconf/20130115003
Abstract: The content of lead in muscles, liver, spleen and testicles is studied in Hereford bulls, aged 18 months. Selectivity of Pb accumulation is identified in organs and tissues. Pb level in organs and tissues may be ranged as follows: liver>spleen>muscles>testicles in the ratio 4.7: 4.4: 1.2: 1. It is shown that the increased concentration of lead in testicles decreases the content of vitamins. Some biological indexes of blood serum are indicators of Pb level in muscles and liver.
Postnatal Growth Changes of Myoglobin and its Gene Expression Level in M. longissimus Dorsi Muscle of Jinhua and Landrace Barrows
Guo-Jia Yao,You-Ming Wang,Yan-Fang Zhang,Ting Wu,Jian-Xin Liu,Yi-Zhen Wang
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.2493.2498
Abstract: The study investigated the developmental changes of Myoglobin (MB) in muscles of Jinhua pig (China s fatty breed) and the breed differences between Jinhua and Landrace (lean) pigs. About 30 Jinhua and Landrace barrows (three of each breed, at birth, age 60, 90, 120 and 150 days) were used to detect the postnatal growth changes of MB, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, co-activator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta (PPARD) mRNA expression and soluble MB concentration (SM) in M. Longissimus Dorsi muscle (LD). Results showed that MB and PPARD mRNA expression in LD were significantly affected by ages of pig and PPARGC1A mRNA expression in LD was lower at birth and significantly higher from age 60-150 days (p<0.05). The differences of MB, PPARGC1A and PPARD mRNA expression and SM in LD between two pig breeds were also investigated. The data showed that MB and PPARD mRNA expression and SM in LD of Jinhua barrows were significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of Landrace barrows from 60-150 days but no significant difference at birth and PPARGC1A mRNA expression were similar but the age was only at 120 days (p<0.01). At last, MB, PPARGC1A and PPARD mRNA expression and the correlation among gene, protein, CIE (a uniform colorimetric system defined by the Commission Internationale de l Eclairage) and pH were evaluated. The data showed that the correlation between MB, SM, PPARGC1A and PPARD mRNA expression in LD were high and the correlation coefficients between MB and SM, PPARGC1A, PPARD, CIE L* and CIE a*-values were 0.81, 0.44, 0.81, -0.26 and 0.69, respectively. Correspondingly, the correlations between SM and PPARGC1A, PPARD, CIE L*, CIE a* were 0.44, 0.74, -0.26 and 0.73, respectively. In summary, the study is the first one which was conducted to explain the postnatal growth changes of MB mRNA expression in skeletal muscles of Jinhua pigs and provides information for development of nutritional methods to regulate MB in regulating and improving meat quality.
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