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The complexity of science  [cached]
H.P.P. (Hennie) Lótter
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 1999, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v64i4.515
Abstract: In this article an alternative philosophy of science based on ideas drawn from the study of complex adaptive systems is presented. As a result of the enormous expansion in scientific disciplines, and the number of scientists and scientific institutions in the twentieth century, I believe science can be characterised as a complex system. I want to interpret the processes of science through which scientists themselves determine what is regarded as good science. This characterisation of science as a complex system can supply an answer to the question why the sciences have been so successful in solving growing numbers of problems and correcting their own mistakes. I utilise components of complexity theory to explain and interpret science as a complex system. I first explain the concept of complexity in ordinary language. The explanation of science as a complex system starts with a definition of the basic rules guiding the behaviour of science as a complex system. Next, I indicate how various sciences have resulted through the implementation of these rules in the study of a specific aspect of reality. The explanation of the growth of science through evolutionary adaptation and learning forms the core o f the article.
Fundamental Complexity Measures of Life  [PDF]
Attila Grandpierre
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: At present, there is a great deal of confusion regarding complexity and its measures (reviews on complexity measures are found in, e.g. Lloyd, 2001 and Shalizi, 2006 and more references therein). Moreover, there is also confusion regarding the nature of life. In this situation, it seems the task of determining the fundamental complexity measures of life is especially difficult. Yet this task is just part of a greater task: obtaining substantial insights into the nature of biological evolution. We think that without a firm quantitative basis characterizing the most fundamental aspects of life, it is impossible to overcome the confusion so as to clarify the nature of biological evolution. The approach we present here offers such quantitative measures of complexity characterizing biological organization and, as we will see, evolution.
Complexity science and intentional systems  [PDF]
Loet Leydesdorff
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: In their position paper entitled "Towards a new, complexity science of learning and education", Jorg et al. (2007) argue that educational research is in crisis. In their opinion, the transdisciplinary and interdiscursive approach of complexity science with its orientation towards self-organization, emergence, and potentiality provides new modes of inquiry, a new lexicon and assessment practices that can be used to overcome the current crisis. In this contribution, I elaborate on how complexity science can further be developed for understanding the dynamics of intentions and the communication of meaning as these are central to the social-scientific enterprise.
The new science of complexity  [cached]
Joseph L. McCauley
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society , 1996, DOI: 10.1155/s1026022697000046
Abstract: Deterministic chaos, and even maximum computational complexity, have been discovered within Newtonian dynamics. Economists assume that prices and price changes can also obey abstract mathematical laws of motion. Sociologists and other postmodernists advertise that physics and chemistry have outgrown their former limitations, that chaos and complexity provide new holistic paradigms for science, and that the boundaries between the hard and the soft sciences, once impenetrable, have disappeared like the Berlin Wall. Three hundred years after the deaths of Galileo, Descartes, and Kepler, and the birth of Newton, reductionism appears to be on the decline, with holistic approaches to science on the upswing. We therefore examine the evidence that dynamical laws of motion may be discovered from empirical studies of chaotic or complex phenomena, and also review the foundation of reductionism in invariance principles.
The New Science of Complexity  [PDF]
J. L. McCauley
Physics , 2000,
Abstract: Deterministic chaos, and even maximum computational complexity, have been discovered within Newtonian dynamics. Economists assume that prices and price changes can also obey abstract mathematical laws of motion. Sociologists and other postmodernists advertise that physics and chemistry have outgrown their former limitations, that chaos and complexity provide new holistic paradigms for science, and that the boundaries between the hard and soft sciences, once impenetrable, have disappeared like the Berlin Wall. Three hundred years after the deaths of Galileo, Descartes, and Kepler, and the birth of Newton, reductionism appears to be on the decline, with holistic approaches to science on the upswing. We therefore examine the evidence that dynamical laws of motion may be discovered from empirical studies of chaotic or complex phenomena, and also review the foundation of reductionism in invariance principle.
Complexity Science for Simpletons  [PDF]
Feinstein C. A.
Progress in Physics , 2006,
Abstract: In this article, we shall describe some of the most interesting topics in the subject of Complexity Science for a general audience. Anyone with a solid foundation in high school mathematics (with some calculus) and an elementary understanding of computer programming will be able to follow this article. First, we shall explain the significance of the P versus NP problem and solve it. Next, we shall describe two other famous mathematics problems, the Collatz 3n+1 Conjecture and the Riemann Hypothesis, and show how both Chaitin's incompleteness theorem and Wolfram's notion of "computational irreducibility" are important for understanding why no one has, as of yet, solved these two problems.
Complexity Science for Simpletons  [PDF]
Craig Alan Feinstein
Computer Science , 2005,
Abstract: In this article, we shall describe some of the most interesting topics in the subject of Complexity Science for a general audience. Anyone with a solid foundation in high school mathematics (with some calculus) and an elementary understanding of computer programming will be able to follow this article. First, we shall explain the significance of the P versus NP problem and solve it. Next, we shall describe two other famous mathematics problems, the Collatz 3n+1 Conjecture and the Riemann Hypothesis, and show how both Chaitin's incompleteness theorem and Wolfram's notion of "computational irreducibility" are important for understanding why no one has, as of yet, solved these two problems.
Innovating nursing education: interrelating narrative, conceptual learning, reflection, and complexity science  [cached]
Gail J. Mitchell,Christine M. Jonas-Simpson,Nadine Cross
Journal of Nursing Education and Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/jnep.v3n4p30
Abstract: This paper addresses innovations in nursing education that build on ideas from various educational theorists as well as principles of conceptual and narrative pedagogy. Authors inter-relate principles and theory from complexity science within a planned and actual nursing program to demonstrate how narrative, conceptual learning, reflection, and complexity science can come to life in nursing education. Specific processes informing the new nursing pedagogy are described: emergence with diversity, recursion/patterning, and transformative insights. Examples from a planned undergraduate curriculum and a graduate qualitative research course are provided. The complexity-inspired curriculum supports a teaching-learning environment that is student-centred, critical, generative, and inclusive.
OnEX: Exploring changes in life science ontologies
Michael Hartung, Toralf Kirsten, Anika Gross, Erhard Rahm
BMC Bioinformatics , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-10-250
Abstract: We present OnEX (Ontology Evolution EXplorer) a system for exploring ontology changes. Currently, OnEX provides access to about 560 versions of 16 well-known life science ontologies. The system is based on a three-tier architecture including an ontology version repository, a middleware component and the OnEX web application. Interactive workflows allow a systematic and explorative change analysis of ontologies and their concepts as well as the semi-automatic migration of out-dated annotations to the current version of an ontology.OnEX provides a user-friendly web interface to explore information about changes in current life science ontologies. It is available at http://www.izbi.de/onex webcite.Ontologies have become increasingly important in life sciences [1,2]. They consist of a set of concepts denoted by terms describing and structuring a domain of interest. Concepts are interconnected by different relationship types such as is_a and part_of relationships. A heavily used ontology is the Gene Ontology (GO) [3] providing sub-ontologies for molecular functions (MF), biological processes (BP) and cellular components (CC). A wide range of life science ontologies is made available by the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies) Foundry [4]. The ontologies cover various life science disciplines, such as anatomy, health, biochemistry or phenotype. Other biomedical ontologies consider clinical and disease-related issues (for instance the NCI Thesaurus [5], SNOMED CT [6] or OMIM [7]). Due to their different focus and usage the developed ontologies vary in their size and complexity. For example, some OBO ontologies consist of only a few hundred concepts while others, such as the GO possess up to several ten thousand concepts.There are different kinds of applications of life science ontologies. They are used for the annotation of biological objects, such as gene products and proteins. Particularly, biological objects are associated ("annotated") with ontology concepts to consistentl
Teaching Discussion on Elective Course “Life Science Aspect” for Non-Biology Majors Students in Science and Engineering University
Hong Jiang,Jinsheng He,Qiong Yan
Education Research Frontier , 2013,
Abstract: Life science is both a sophisticated, cut-edge fundamental subject, and is a branch of applied science close to daily life. Its knowledge is not only vital for contemporary college students to become citizens with high scientific quality; it can also guide them to understand life’s uniqueness correctly and lead healthier lives. With the bases of practical teaching, we discussed aspects including the selection of teaching content, teaching arrangement, teaching effect examination and had thus helped this course to become one within the new course system with science knowledge, innovation ability and comprehensive cultivation of comprehensive personality.
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