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Scorpions in ancient Egypt.  [PDF]
El-Hennawy, H. K.
Euscorpius , 2011,
Abstract: The ancient Egyptians knew the scorpion and its toxicity, and venerated it since pre-dynastic era. They used the scorpion as a king's name, a name of a nome (county), and a symbol to their goddess, Serqet, that protects the body and the viscera of the dead, and that accompanies them in their journey to the afterlife. They had medical prescriptions and magical spells to heal the stings. Since the 5th dynasty, the title of a “Follower of Serket” was given to clever physicians. Scorpions are most famously depicted on Horus Cippus, a talisman featuring Horus the Child holding in his hands figures of serpents, scorpions, and dangerous animals. A drawing of a scorpion with two metasomas was found in the tomb of the pharaoh Seti I (1290–1279 BC), probably the first record of this abnormality, more than 13 centuries before Pliny the Elder.
Identifying the Practice of Tattooing in Ancient Egypt and Nubia
Geoffrey J. Tassie
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 2003, DOI: 10.5334/pia.200
Abstract: Tattooing was practised by many ancient societies, including the ancient Egyptians and Nubians. Egypt, for example, boasts iconographic and physical evidence for tattooing for a period spanning at least 4000 years – the longest known history of tattooing in the world. The second oldest physical evidence for tattooing worldwide was recovered from Middle Kingdom contexts in Egypt and C-Group contexts in Nubia (the Hanslabjoch ice man being the oldest). It has been suggested that tattooing was also practised in the Predynastic period as evidenced by figurines with geometric designs, however, no physical evidence for tattooing has yet been found for this early period. Strangely there is almost no mention of tattooing in ancient Egyptian written records. Historical and ethnographic records indicate that tattooing was also practised much more recently in the Coptic, Islamic and modern eras. Unlike many past societies, tattooing in Egypt appears to have been a custom practised almost exclusively on women. Tattooing tools have not yet been positively identified from ancient Egypt. Ethnographic sources suggest that bundles of metal rods were used in Egypt’s more recent history. This paper discusses physical and iconographic evidence for tattooing in ancient Egypt and investigates whether five copper rods found at Kafr Hassan Dawood, a Predynastic to Early Dynastic site in the East Delta, could be physical evidence for tattooing during this early period.
The Survey of Memphis, capital of ancient Egypt: recent developments  [cached]
David Jeffreys
Archaeology International , 2008, DOI: 10.5334/ai.1112
Abstract: The Egypt Exploration Society has been conducting an archaeological survey of the site of Memphis and its surrounding area since 1981. A summary of the aims and achievements of the project appeared in Archaeology International 1999/2000. In the present article the field director reports on the progress made since then and considers some of the contextual aspects of this survey of the ancient Egyptian capital.
Collapse of an ecological network in Ancient Egypt  [PDF]
Justin D. Yeakel,Mathias M. Pires,Lars Rudolf,Nathaniel J. Dominy,Paul L. Koch,Paulo R. Guimar?es Jr.,Thilo Gross
Quantitative Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1408471111
Abstract: The dynamics of ecosystem collapse are fundamental to determining how and why biological communities change through time, as well as the potential effects of extinctions on ecosystems. Here we integrate depictions of mammals from Egyptian antiquity with direct lines of paleontological and archeological evidence to infer local extinctions and community dynamics over a 6000-year span. The unprecedented temporal resolution of this data set enables examination of how the tandem effects of human population growth and climate change can disrupt mammalian communities. We show that the extinctions of mammals in Egypt were nonrandom, and that destabilizing changes in community composition coincided with abrupt aridification events and the attendant collapses of some complex societies. We also show that the roles of species in a community can change over time, and that persistence is predicted by measures of species sensitivity, a function of local dynamic stability. Our study is the first high-resolution analysis of the ecological impacts of environmental change on predator-prey networks over millennial timescales, and sheds light on the historical events that have shaped modern animal communities.
Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece
Elias S Vasiliadis, Theodoros B Grivas, Angelos Kaspiris
Scoliosis , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1748-7161-4-6
Abstract: Medicine was not clearly distinguished from religion and mysticism in the ancient world. Ancient works of philosophy, religion, myths, and fairy tales dating back as far as 3500 BC invoke images of people with spinal deformity. In the third millennium BC, wall paintings and statues from Knossos, in Crete island, depicted female figures wearing tight bodices that expose their breasts (Figure 1). Minoan Crete is considered as the origin of the corset. The Boxing Boys fresco (1600 BC) in Akrotiri in the Greek island of Santorini is the first monumental image of a compound spinal disorder that is diagnostically recognizable by current medical standards [1]. The painting reflects a rigid abnormality, probably a spinal deformity (Figure 2). Ancient descriptions and statues typically portray Alexander the Great with an underlying scoliotic condition with a cervical neck deformity [2], typically with a gaze looking upward and outward with the added possibility of ocular muscle deficits and facial asymmetry (Figure 3).Classical Greek philosophers were not an exemption and there are a lot of references in their work about the origin and function of the spine. Plato (427-347 BC) (Figure 4), who influenced the disciplines of philosophy, psychology, logic, and politics, through his conceptualization that mathematics is the life force of science, implicated biomechanics in function of the spine. However he believed that a divine intervention contributed to the creation of the flexible spine [3]. In contrary, Empedocles (490-430 BC) (Figure 5) thought that the vertebrae are initially unified (rigid spine) and subsequently this solid osseous column brake down (segmented) into pieces as a result of movements of the body [4]. Aristotle (384-322 BC) (Figure 6), who was the most prominent research scientist in ancient Greece, lived in a period when athletics, sports, and gymnastics was part of philosophy of developing the human being as a whole to optimize functional capacity and harmo
Female Circumcision in Egypt
Abdelmonem Hegazy
Annals of International Medical and Dental Research , 2016,
Abstract: Female circumcision also called female genital mutilation (FGM) is an ancient practice performed in some culture including Egypt. The history of its performance had preceded the Abrahamic religions. In such procedure, the external genitalia of females are partially or totally removed as well as labial fusion known as infibulation. The clitoris and labia minora are the most common organs to be partially or completely excised in the procedure.Therefore, it deprives the female from structures essential for healthy sexual life, particularly the clitoris which is excised in all traditional procedures.
Appliance of Geophysical Methods to Detect the Ancient Remains at “Tell Defenneh” Area, Ismailia, Egypt  [PDF]
Alhussein Adham Basheer, Ahmed El-Kotb Al-Imam, Abdelnasser Mohammed Abdelmotaal, Mostafa Sarhan Toni, Sayed Omar Elkhateeb
Archaeological Discovery (AD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ad.2014.23009
Abstract: The main target of this study is to detect the ancient archaeological remains by using Helicopter Electromagnetic Method (HEM) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey at “Tell Defenneh” Area, which is located in the west bank of Suez Canal at the northeastern Desert of Egypt. It is far about 15 Km to the northeast of “Qantara Gharb” town which is a part of “Ismailia” governorate. This area is full of different archaeological features, because it is located in the ancient international trade-military road (Horus Road). This road connected ancient Egypt with its neighboring eastern countries. In additional to that, this area used to protect ancient Egypt from invaders, who came from the East. HEM has been used to detect the conductivity anomalies over the study area. These anomalies are useful to show the different and distinctive places which can be focused, on small scalar, by GPR to identify it more clearly in the study area. According to the HEM data, it was noticed that there are distinctive geometric shape with very low resistivity or very high conductivity values in the northeastern part of the study area. These data have been supported by GPR survey focused on this part. It was suggested that these anomalies may be due to old man-made mud bricks that was customary used in the building in ancient times. The subsequently archaeological excavations, which are based on these interpreted data as a guide and proof, revealed that the remains belong to the citadel of pharaoh “Psamtik I” (664-610 BC). This result confirms that the incorporated geophysical methods can be efficiently supplied in the archaeological prospection in Egypt.
Investigating ancient Memphis, Pharaonic Egypt's northern capital  [cached]
David Jeffreys
Archaeology International , 1999, DOI: 10.5334/ai.0309
Abstract: Since 1981 the London-based Egypt Exploration Society has been conducting an archaeological survey of the site of Memphis and its surrounding area. The present field director of the project describes some of the aims and results of the most recent phases of the survey.
The American Discovery ofAncient Egypt by Nancy Thomas, 1995, and The American Discovery of Ancient Egypt - Essays, edited by Nancy Thomas, 1996
Andrew L. Christenson
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology , 1997, DOI: 10.5334/bha.07206
Abstract: Although Egyptian mummies appeared in America in the late 18th century, an active American presence in Egyptian archaeology did not begin until the very last of the 19th century. These volumes derive from an exhibition featuring artifacts and monuments coming from American expeditions to Egypt and Nubia. The larger volume consists of the catalog of the exhibit with general historical essays, while the smaller volume contains ten historical sumammaries of American work in Egypt and Nubia organized by archaeological time period.
The Greeks and the Utopia: an overview through ancient Greek Literature
Rosanna Lauriola
Revista Espa?o Acadêmico , 2009,
Abstract: It is a common experience to dream of a world where everyone would live happy and in harmony with both the environment and the other people, without sufferings and injustice, under a perfect socio-political system, without wars or hunger. This dream has inspired different people form different eras and cultures to build imaginary worlds for compensating the dissatisfaction with the current one. Utopia is the name of the imaginary world they proposed either as alternative one or as temporary oasis able to release people from the reality. Literally meaning ‘no-place’, the term has an ancient Greek root but it does not exist in the vocabulary of ancient Greek language. Although ancient Greeks did not have a conscious concept of utopia, they, however, dreamt, wrote, proposed – with different aims - what we would call now ( paradoxically using a ‘modern’ term ) ‘utopic’ worlds. From the archaic to the post-classic period, we find literary expressions of utopic thought in ancient Greek culture. Such expressions constitute the basis of the modern Utopia and Utopianism with their positive and negative implications. This essay takes a more detailed look at the work of Aristophanes, considered one of the greatest Greek playwrights, and inquires whether his comedies can be considered utopias.
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