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Al-Qaeda in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb  [PDF]
Gregory A. Smith
Journal of Strategic Security , 2009,
Abstract: This paper is organized into four chapters that focus on the terrorist group Al Qaeda in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM). The four chapters examine different facets of the collective environment that have allowed AQIM to succeed and even thrive at times. The first chapter begins with Algeria’s war of independence with the French. The second chapter focuses on the nomadic Tuareg people. It seeks to show how the Tuaregs were deprived by French occupiers and how European colonization cost the Tuaregs access to vital trade routes used for centuries. The third chapter will very briefly examine Algeria’s civil war and the emergence of modern terrorist groups. The fourth chapter will discuss the post-9/11 world in terms of “shaping operations” for the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT ) and how this caused an evolution in terrorism as a reaction to actual or perceived American hegemonic ambitions.This paper is not a compendium of every event or in any way a complete history of the region. It is intended to reinforce the author’s notion of outlying antecedents that normally coalesce around a central issue and how the addition of a political agenda can lead these antecedents toward a fusion point. When the fusion point is met, ethno-nationalist ambitions are catapulted down the road of terrorism and the fundamental message is lost in the debris of another attack. Such is the story of AQIM…
Economic Control Hilaliyyah in Islamic Maghreb
Fouzia Kheraz
Historical Kan Periodical , 2011,
Abstract: . . . 2 /8 . . .
Islamist Terrorism in the Maghreb: Recent developments in Algeria
Anneli Botha
Circunstancia , 2009,
Abstract: Although the threat of terrorism in North Africa is not a new challenge to safety and security in the region, its focus constantly changes. Recently this manifested in the name change of the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat, commonly known as the GSPC to al-Qa’eda in the Land of the Islamic Maghreb (AQLIM). Notwithstanding the fact that this new direction was influenced by an attempt to remain relevant – therefore influenced by weakness not strength – it signalled to the international community that al-Qa’eda not openly confirmed its presence in the region, but with it came an increase in threat perception to Western interests and nationals. The following brief paper hope to place the threat to Europe and Western interest in context: Firstly in particularly Algeria, but secondly the threat presented by individuals originally from North Africa directly to European countries. The paper conclude with a call to European countries to carefully assess the medium- to long-term impact counter-measures have in the broader fight against radicalization, extremism and terrorism.
Building by dust in the Islamic Maghreb: Tabya technique as model :
Ismail Bennamane
Historical Kan Periodical , 2010,
Abstract: ( ). . .
Police diplomacy
Keki? Dalibor,Subo?i? Dane
Medjunarodni Problemi , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/medjp0902141k
Abstract: Police diplomacy is one of the most interesting issues of the contemporary international relations. Sources of this issue comes at the beginning of XX century. Organized criminal and terrorism influenced on appearance of international police cooperation at the end of XIX century. Police cooperation has enlarged last years. Termins police attaché and liason officer are used for the same purpose, but there are four key distinctions between them.
The European Code of Police Ethics and Community Police
Tache Bocaniala
Acta Universitatis Danubius : Administratio , 2010,
Abstract: Democratic states are organized in order to guarantee individual freedoms and security of the citizens; the police perform the traditional functions of fighting, preventing and detecting crime,ensuring public order, respect for law and public order and protecting the fundamental rights of the individual, but also various social services, that support other activities. In the police activity there must respected the rights and freedoms of individual and avoid any arbitrary or unlawful reactions. Lately European countries have emphasized the reorganization process of the police in order to promote and strengthen the democratic values. An important step was the adoption of the European Code of Police Ethics aiming at implementing Community rules in the European Union and achieving greater unity between its members and building cooperation capacities in the fight against crime. Code of ethics and the deontology of the police officer, approved by G. D. no. 991/2005, are based on the principles of the European Code of Police Ethics.
Obstacles and possibilities in police research  [cached]
Ragnhild Sollund
Outlines : Critical Practice Studies , 2005,
Abstract: Drawing on a Norwegian research project investigating the possible existence of police racism, this article explores challenges related to conducting research in such sensitive sites as the police with reference to methodological and institutional obstacles. The project featured participant observation, in-depth interviews with ethnic minority men, and in-depth interviews with police officers and lays the basis for a discussion of the diverging perspectives on police racism held by the police and by members of ethnic minorities. The degree to which research on the police can reveal the ‘truth’ of policing and thereby contribute to changing police practice is problematised and questions are asked about the extent to which research can contribute to facilitating change within the police that might be of benefit to the relationship between the police and ethnic minorities. A key question raised is whether the existence of a specific police culture, featuring loyalty, a hierarchical organisational structure and the use of discretion may prevent such research methods from revealing ‘true’ data, as well as organisational change. A discussion of problem-oriented policing illustrates some of the obstacles to implementing changes. The article concludes that the police in Oslo do not demonstrate evidence of institutional racism though there is evidence of derogatory language use and stereotyping where ethnic minorities are stereotyped in homologous ways to other marginalised groups who come into contact with the police such as drug users.
Ubaydi state princes and their role in the cultural and intellectual renaissance in the Islamic Maghreb  [cached]
Abdelmalek Maghshesh
Historical Kan Periodical , 2012,
Abstract: ( ) 296 . : ( ) . (297 – 362 ) .
évolution ethnique et dialectes du Maghreb
Fatma Khelef,Redouane Kebièche
Synergies Monde Arabe , 2011,
Abstract: Cet article a pour objet principal de présenter les langues et les dialectes du Maghreb. Après un bref rappel de l’histoire de la langue arabe, sont exposées l’histoire et l’évolution du point de vue ethnique et linguistique des pays du Maghreb et ensuite la situation actuelle de la diversité et de la complexité des langues et dialectes dans cette région, tout particulièrement en l’Algérie.
Islamic Banking Marketing
Abdel Wadoud Moustafa Moursi El-Seoudi,Mohd. Nasran Mohamad,Amir Husin Mohd. Nor,Zaini Nasohah,Muhammad Nazir Alias,Nik Abdul Rahim Nik Abdul Ghani
Journal of Economics Theory , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/jeth.2012.61.65
Abstract: The Islamic banking marketing is regarded as one of the crucial factors for developing and success of these banks in the far-scope time. The Islamic banks succeeded to offer modern banking services which have been professionally marketed. Although, the conventional banks have preceded it in that filed, it succeeded in expressing the Islamic banking. The concept of marketing is considered to be modern to the Islamic banking industry for it relied on the Muslims Islamic sentiments in dealing with it. As to the present time, the competition enforced it to take much concern in that field.
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