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Al-Qaeda in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb  [PDF]
Gregory A. Smith
Journal of Strategic Security , 2009,
Abstract: This paper is organized into four chapters that focus on the terrorist group Al Qaeda in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM). The four chapters examine different facets of the collective environment that have allowed AQIM to succeed and even thrive at times. The first chapter begins with Algeria’s war of independence with the French. The second chapter focuses on the nomadic Tuareg people. It seeks to show how the Tuaregs were deprived by French occupiers and how European colonization cost the Tuaregs access to vital trade routes used for centuries. The third chapter will very briefly examine Algeria’s civil war and the emergence of modern terrorist groups. The fourth chapter will discuss the post-9/11 world in terms of “shaping operations” for the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT ) and how this caused an evolution in terrorism as a reaction to actual or perceived American hegemonic ambitions.This paper is not a compendium of every event or in any way a complete history of the region. It is intended to reinforce the author’s notion of outlying antecedents that normally coalesce around a central issue and how the addition of a political agenda can lead these antecedents toward a fusion point. When the fusion point is met, ethno-nationalist ambitions are catapulted down the road of terrorism and the fundamental message is lost in the debris of another attack. Such is the story of AQIM…
Disparity of Performance Indicators of Islamic Banks: Study on Bangladesh  [cached]
Mamunur Rashid,Ainun Nishat
International Journal of Business and Management , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v4n8p52
Abstract: Islamic banking is still in emergent stage. However, the industry is growing at the rate of 15% every year (IFSB, 2008). As it is operating under a distinct system of banking, Islamic Shariah, Islamic banks have been undergoing through immense competition from other Islamic banks and conventional banks of domestic and multination origin. Moreover, banking is an important industry, which stabilizes the overall economic condition of the globe. Hence, analysis of performance and identification of the problems, at a continuous basis, are basic necessities for Islamic banks. This study considers 12 important financial ratios and common size income statement and balance sheet information for 2001 to 2006. The ratios were compared with simple industry average, and other banks distributed in three generations, namely; generation one, two and three. Results showed poor performance of Islamic banking sector in almost every aspect, especially in the areas of profit maximization, investor management and operating inefficiency. The report identified unique banking system, lack of efficient HR, lack of marketing and awareness creating activities, absence of Islamic capital and inter-bank markets and lack of direct government control as precedence. The study reported to bring about immediate change in HR management and policy, changes in operating policy, increase in marketing and awareness creating activity, guidelines and supervision of the government through direct Islamic Banking Law.
Real Exchange Rate Misalignment and Economic Growth: An Empirical Study for the Maghreb Countries  [cached]
Zouheir Abida
International Journal of Economics and Finance , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijef.v3n3p190
Abstract: It has long been recognized in academic and policy debates that domestic policies play an important role in explaining economic growth. The paper investigates the role of real exchange rate (RER) misalignment on long-run growth in three countries of the Maghreb countries (Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco) over the period 1980-2008. We first estimate equilibrium RER relying on the Fundamental Equilibrium Exchange Rate (FEER) approach, from which misalignment is derived. Second, we estimate a dynamic panel growth model in which among the traditional determinants of growth, our measure of misalignment is included. The results indicate that the coefficient for RER misalignment is negative, which means that a more depreciated (appreciated) RER helps (harms) long-run growth. As a consequence, an appropriate exchange rate policy would close the gap between RER and its equilibrium level.
Barjam and Its Impact on Islamic Republic of Iran’s Economic Relations
Moslem Bameri
International Journal of Nations Research , 2018, DOI: -
Abstract: Over the past decade, under the pretext of nuclear activities, it is laid down multilateral international sanctions and unilaterally broad against the Islamic Republic of Iran. Closing financial and monetary bottlenecks between the central bank and other banks and foreign financial institutions of Iran blocking lots of country oil revenues and cut most of the Iran's oil exports the cause is sharp decline in economic growth. Agree on the deal and country entry to the international community, had along new opportunities and important implications for the parties. current study paid exercise effect and nuclear talks on the economic prosperity of the Islamic Republic of Iran as well as the state of the economy of the country in different dimensions including economic growth, foreign investment, oil sale and energy and... with the era ahead of time has been analyzed. The main question of the research is this Barjam had what impact on the economy of Iran? From the perspective of the researcher the agreement is real a milestone in politics and foreign relations of the Islamic Republic of Iran which has brought opportunities and openings in the economy of the country. but yet there are many obstacles in the exchange of Iranian economy with the international economy which requires more time.
Communautés rurales et pouvoirs urbains au Maghreb central (vii-xive siècle) Rural communities and urban powers in the central Maghreb (VII-XIVth century)  [cached]
Allaoua Amara
Revue des Mondes Musulmans et de la Méditerranée , 2012, DOI: 10.4000/remmm.6435
Abstract: Le Maghreb central était considéré par l’historiographie arabe du Haut Moyen Age comme le territoire des communautés rurales berbères et lié souvent aux révoltes contre le pouvoir arabe de Kairouan. Mais à partir du xe siècle, il fut intégré à l’espace politico-économique fatimīde, ce qui permettait progressivement à la culture dominante de se répandre en milieu rural grace à l’intervention de l’autorité politico-juridique urbaine, aux itinéraires de commerce et à la fondation de mosquées dans les localités rurales. Les rentes fiscales permettaient aux pouvoirs urbains de contr ler un territoire souvent confié aux chefs locaux. The central Maghreb was considered by the Arab historiography of the medieval Age as the territory of the rural Berber communities and often bound to the revolts against the Arab rulers of Kairouan. But starting from xe century, it was integrated into politico-economic space Fatimide, which gradually made it possible for the dominant culture to be spread in rural areas. That was possible only by the intervention of the urban politico-legal authority, with the routes of trade and the foundation of mosques in the rural localities. The tax revenues reinforced the urban authority to control a territory often entrusted to the local chiefs.
Islamic Fasting: An Effective Strategy for Prevention and Control of Obesity  [PDF]
Alam Khan,M. Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2002,
Abstract: A balanced and energy-restricted diet, exercise and behavior modification are the usual approaches used for obesity. Islamic fasting, which has the components of energy restriction and behavior modification, could be a safe nutritional approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity. For this reason, the effect of Islamic Fasting, an abstention from Foods, fluids and sex from dawn to sunset, on food intake, body weight and blood chemistry was studied in ten healthy adult male human subjects. Foods and Fluids intake before and in the first and fourth week of Fasting were recorded. Body weight of the participants was noted before and at the last day of Fasting. Blood samples before, in the second and fourth week of Fasting and two weeks after Fasting were collected. The daily reduction in energy (Food intake) ranged from 200-1500 Kcal with an average value of 857 410 Kcal. During the four weeks of Fasting, loss in body weight ranged from 0.5-6.0 Kg with an average value of 3.2 1.7 Kg. There were no significant differences in glucose, total protein, triglyceride and total, HDL and LDL cholesterol in the blood samples collected before, during and after the Fasting. The data suggest that Islamic Fasting is nutritionally safe and could be used as an effective strategy for prevention and control of obesity.
Does Islamic Interbank Rate Influence Bank Characteristics and Economic Cycle in Malaysian Monetary Transmission?  [cached]
Fidlizan Muhammad,Ahmad Azam Sulaiman@Mohamad,Mohd Yahya Mohd Hussin,Azila Abdul Razak
Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting , 2012, DOI: 10.5296/ajfa.v4i2.1813
Abstract: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of Islamic Interbank Rate as the intermediary target by monetary policymakers in achieving economic goals. Via Islamic banking institutions as the mediator to channel the policy effect, the relevancy of this tool is identifiable. To attain this objective, a credit channel model was used by adapting macroeconomic variables and also bank specific variables. Data from 1997 until 2010 was regressed by using the Panel Data method with the application of interaction approach. The analysis finding shows that the IIR is capable in influencing the bank specific variables. accordingly, Islamic banks are the significant intermediaries in ensuring the effect of policy implementation provides stimulation to the achievement of the desired economic goals. Besides, the significant pro cyclical nature through the interaction with the GDP, indicates the effect of this policy tool in influencing bank behavior to offer financing for the economic sectors parallel to the current economy.
Islamic Canon law encounters South African financing and banking institutions: Prospects and possibilities for Islamic economic empowerment and Black Economic Empowerment in a Democratic South Africa
N Abdullah
Law, Democracy & Development , 2008,
Abstract: Nathiera Abdullah assesses the possibility of introducing Shariah (i.e. Islamic Canon Law) compliant financing and banking products as possible vehicles of Islamic Economic Empowerment (IEE) for the purpose of promoting broad-based Black Economic Empowerment (BEE). Special attention is given to the contextual implementation of a three-tiered IEE paradigm or structure (viz. zakah, sadaqah and infaq fi sabil Allah) which could function as an innovative strategy, aimed at promoting the circulation of wealth and growth of potential income among a broader entrepreneurial constituency and the population at large. The immediate goals of IEE would be to assist in eradicating poverty, economic stagnation and unemployment, as well as to provide a specific model of socio-economic reconstruction and transformation. These goals can be achieved by calling upon all Muslims (and other interested parties) of means (i.e. financiers, bankers, investors, entrepreneurs, the employed) to embrace the Islamic da’wah mandate or vocation of being in solidarity with the rest of struggling humanity.
Trust and stability in relations between the European Union and the Maghreb
Henri Burgelin
Revista CIDOB d'Afers Internacionals , 2002,
Abstract: Starting out from the assumption that the Euro-Mediterranean “solidarity” coming out of the Barcelona Declaration of 1995 has played an important role in minimising the effects of September 11 on subsequent events in the Western Mediterranean, the author analyses the Barcelona Process—particularly with respect to Euro-Maghreb relations— and asserts that it needs to be strengthened. Emphasis is on the development of, errors in and the outlook for the three baskets of this process: the political and security basket; the economic basket; and the social, cultural and humanitarian affairs basket.
Islamist Terrorism in the Maghreb: Recent developments in Algeria
Anneli Botha
Circunstancia , 2009,
Abstract: Although the threat of terrorism in North Africa is not a new challenge to safety and security in the region, its focus constantly changes. Recently this manifested in the name change of the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat, commonly known as the GSPC to al-Qa’eda in the Land of the Islamic Maghreb (AQLIM). Notwithstanding the fact that this new direction was influenced by an attempt to remain relevant – therefore influenced by weakness not strength – it signalled to the international community that al-Qa’eda not openly confirmed its presence in the region, but with it came an increase in threat perception to Western interests and nationals. The following brief paper hope to place the threat to Europe and Western interest in context: Firstly in particularly Algeria, but secondly the threat presented by individuals originally from North Africa directly to European countries. The paper conclude with a call to European countries to carefully assess the medium- to long-term impact counter-measures have in the broader fight against radicalization, extremism and terrorism.
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