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News in Competition Regulation in Romania. Institutional Consolidation of the Competition Council  [PDF]
Theoretical and Applied Economics , 2011,
Abstract: Upon the coming into force of the Law 149/2011, the recent changes in the Competition Law bestow additional power and authority upon the Competition Council. The competition authority can now expand its sphere of information use obtained during an investigation or inspection, can admit or reject hearing requests at its latitude, delegates new responsibilities to commissions and sanctions unfair competition deeds.
Legal regulation of the extradition in Romania  [PDF]
Petre Buneci
Law Review , 2008,
Abstract: The extradition has as source of regulation the bilateral and multilateral conventions, reciprocity declarations and internal law, the main source of regulation being found primarily in conventions or reciprocity declarations.The international conventions or the treaties represent international agreements concluded between states and governed by the international law; either they are cosigned in a single instrument, either in two or more annexes, irrespective of their particular denomination. These are bi or multilateral acts resulted from the agreement of the states and are governed by the principle Pacta sunt servanda”, representing the law of the parties which must be executed in good faith.Concretely in Romania, the extradition was regulated as a law institution, in art. 16-19 of the Criminal Code and in the art. 630-638 of the Procedure Criminal Code, Carol II of 1936, the texts mentioned above just consecrating the principles already known of the international penal law.Nowadays, in our country the extradition is regulated by Law no. 302/2004 relating to international judicial cooperation in penal matters amended by Law no. 224/2006, GEO 103/2006 and Law no. 222, this special law clearly stipulating their substantive and formal issues, fixing also the legal framework in the limits of which can be solicited or admitted, its sources of regulation, as well as the order in which they can be used.
Berinde Mihai
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2010,
Abstract: In a broad sense, the term competition” defines the relations between economic operators acting on the same market seeking attainment of certain interests in economic freedom conditions. The need for regulations in the area of competition stems from the nature of free, open market economy which is founded on the existence of fair competition between economic agents, competition which must be observed, maintained and protected by the law. Public authorities who issue various regulations should be cautious about how far this role is played in the economy and they way adopted regulations affect competition in the market. Hence, the need for prior assessment relating to the potential effect of a regulation on competition. It was proven in practice that some regulations may lead to measures that may affect competition directly or indirectly by: limiting the number or range of suppliers; limiting supplier capability to compete and reducing interests of suppliers to compete vigorously.
Perfection of the Legislative Base of Regulation of the Banking Competition in Ukraine Усовершенствование законодательной базы регулирования банковской конкуренции в Украине  [PDF]
Khallo Viktor F.
Business Inform , 2013,
Abstract: The article considers contents of regulatory and legal acts that identify banking competition, substantiates the role of the legislative base in development of economic competition in the banking sector and in formation of legal mechanisms of creation of a competitive environment in the banking business in Ukraine. It shows the system of legal regulation of banking competition in foreign countries, conducts a critical analysis of the legislation that regulates competition in the market of banking services in Ukraine, considers legal regulation of competition in the banking sphere in the regional markets, and identifies main tasks of perfection of the banking legislation with respect to regulation of banking competition. В статье рассмотрено содержание нормативно-правовых актов, определяющих банковскую конкуренцию, обоснована роль законодательной базы в развитии экономической конкуренции в банковском секторе и в формировании правовых механизмов создания конкурентной среды в банковском бизнесе в Украине. Отражена система правового регулирования банковской конкуренции в зарубежных странах, осуществлен критический анализ законодательства, регулирующего конкуренцию на рынке банковских услуг в Украине, рассмотрено правовое регулирование конкуренции в банковской сфере на региональных рынках, определены основные задания усовершенствования банковского законодательства относительно регулирования банковской конкуренции.
Regulation of Pacing Strategy during Athletic Competition  [PDF]
Jos J. de Koning,Carl Foster,Arjan Bakkum,Sil Kloppenburg,Christian Thiel,Trent Joseph,Jacob Cohen,John P. Porcari
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015863
Abstract: Athletic competition has been a source of interest to the scientific community for many years, as a surrogate of the limits of human ambulatory ability. One of the remarkable things about athletic competition is the observation that some athletes suddenly reduce their pace in the mid-portion of the race and drop back from their competitors. Alternatively, other athletes will perform great accelerations in mid-race (surges) or during the closing stages of the race (the endspurt). This observation fits well with recent evidence that muscular power output is regulated in an anticipatory way, designed to prevent unreasonably large homeostatic disturbances.
Competition and Regulation in Wireless Services Markets  [PDF]
Omer Korcak,George Iosifidis,Tansu Alpcan,Iordanis Koutsopoulos
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: We consider a wireless services market where a set of operators compete for a large common pool of users. The latter have a reservation utility of U0 units or, equivalently, an alternative option to satisfy their communication needs. The operators must satisfy these minimum requirements in order to attract the users. We model the users decisions and interaction as an evolutionary game and the competition among the operators as a non cooperative price game which is proved to be a potential game. For each set of prices selected by the operators, the evolutionary game attains a different stationary point. We show that the outcome of both games depend on the reservation utility of the users and the amount of spectrum W the operators have at their disposal. We express the market welfare and the revenue of the operators as functions of these two parameters. Accordingly, we consider the scenario where a regulating agency is able to intervene and change the outcome of the market by tuning W and/or U0. Different regulators may have different objectives and criteria according to which they intervene. We analyze the various possible regulation methods and discuss their requirements, implications and impact on the market.
Researches on Competitors’ Behavior Response Model in Telecom Market
Jianjiang Wu
International Journal of Business and Management , 2009,
Abstract: The competition in telecom market becomes more severe. In order to response to the complicated competition, we should research the competitors’ behavior response model. By means of understanding competitors’ aims, strategies, advantages and disadvantages and collecting their information as more as possible, we can predict competitors’ possible action and whether they will response to others’ behaviors, such as decreasing price, increasing promotion or introducing new products, or not. By this way, we can judge the competitors’ response model, which can benefit us in many ways, such as setting up effective competition strategies, avoiding strong responses of competitors, defending themselves from competitors, protecting themselves with strong defense against attack, judging the possibilities and speed of competitors’ response, and so on. As a result, we can constitute effective market strategies and decrease the negative effects of competitors’ response.
Effect of Competition and Regulation on MFIs Outcomes in India  [PDF]
Debapratim Purkayastha, Trilochan Tripathy, Biswajit Das
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.85077
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of competition and regulation on Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) outcomes in India. Using data for 60 MFIs from the MIX Market database for a period of five years from 2008-09 to 2012-13, panel models are estimated for the empirical examinations. In the modeling framework, constructed Lerner’s Index as competition proxy and regulate dummy as regulatory intervention proxy are introduced as interest variables along with the MFI specific and Macro specific control variables to examine their effect on MFIs outcomes. The study reveals that competition strengthens the outreach, promotes operating efficiency, deteriorates the loan portfolio quality and adversely affects the MFIs profitability. While the regulatory intervention creates some accommodative space for the MFI borrowers, improves MFIs efficiency partially and dampens loan repayments and portfolio quality and profitability via “roe” in India. Our results have also implications on MFIs, fund provider, regulator, government and policy research practitioners. This study contributes towards filling gap in the literature by extending the analysis of the effect of competition and regulation on MFI outcomes to a cross-section of states in India in a panel data framework.
Cristina Havri?
Romanian Journal of European Affairs (RJEA) , 2009,
Abstract: When prices are high and public service obligations are not properly fulfilled, consumers wonder if they obtain what they need from the market. In electricity and gas markets of the EU Member States, apart from the persistence of high, non-transparent regulated prices, a number of shortcomings have been identified by the European Commission, such as a less than optimal network use for energy transmission, a lack of coordination and cooperation across borders by transmission system operators and national authorities, and a lack of transparent and simple procedures for dealing with consumers’ complaints. These are the main elements of the infringement proceedings that the European Commission decided to launch on 25 June 2009 against 25 Member States for non–compliance with certain Community provisions in the Second Internal Energy Market Package, which entered into force on 1 July 2007. Quite emblematic is the fact that it occurred the same day as the adoption of the Third Internal Energy Market Package aiming to ensure a proper functioning of the EU energy market. We intend to analyse what has happened in the recent years at the EU level in order to liberalise and remove the significant remaining obstacles to competition in the energy market.
Investment under uncertainty, competition and regulation  [PDF]
Adrien Nguyen Huu
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We investigate a randomization procedure undertaken in real option games which can serve as a basic model of regulation in a duopoly model of preemptive investment. We recall the rigorous framework of [M. Grasselli, V. Lecl\`ere and M. Ludkovsky, Priority Option: the value of being a leader, International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Finance, 16, 2013], and extend it to a random regulator. This model generalizes and unifies the different competitive frameworks proposed in the literature, and creates a new one similar to a Stackelberg leadership. We fully characterize strategic interactions in the several situations following from the parametrization of the regulator. Finally, we study the effect of the coordination game and uncertainty of outcome when agents are risk-averse, providing new intuitions for the standard case.
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