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Annals of Dun?rea de Jos University. Fascicle I : Economics and Applied Informatics , 2006,
Abstract: Before 1989, Romanian Banking System was structured in the specific way of a centralized economy. Restructuring of the banking system took its first step at the end of 1990 when the newly- established bank, Banca Comercial Roman , took over retail operations performed previously by the NBR. Simultaneously, some privately-owned banking companies were established and foreign banks’ branches were integrated into the domestic banking activity, the number of banks almost trebling. The unfriendly economic environment, the poor quality of bank managers and shareholders and cumbersome legal procedures led to an increase in tensions, the poor quality of credit portfolio representing the major difficulty of the banking sector. In the past years, NBR tried to control more thebanking activity by implementing international settlements. More over, since Romania is one of the European Union countries, it is absolutely necessary the harmonization of entire economic and financial system to EU regulations. The paper try to present the position of Romanian banking system in the framework of all these transformations.
Basel III Global Liquidity Standards: Critical Discussion and Impact onto the European Banking Sector  [PDF]
Veronika Bu?ková,Svend Reuse
Financial Assets and Investing , 2011,
Abstract: Together with the Basel III regulatory equity rules, two liquidity ratios have been published. Resulting from the illiquidity of some banks during the financial crisis in 2008, these ratios shall help to prevent further crisis in the European banking sector. But do they really fulfill their aim? This article presents the new liquidity ratios, the actual liquidity situation in banks and describes the consequences for banks at a simplified example. It has to be stated that implementing more detailed liquidity frameworks into the banking supervision process is necessary. The financial crisis in 2008 showed that several banks did not have adequate liquidity risk models and processes to prevent illiquidity. But the LCR and the NSFR seem to be wrong methods. Both ratios will increase. The implementation of both ratios has to be done very carefully in order to prevent this.
Basel III – Between Global Thinking and Local Acting  [PDF]
Vasile DEDU,Dan Costin NI?ESCU
Theoretical and Applied Economics , 2012,
Abstract: The financial crisis has demonstrated that self-regulation is not sufficient to markets and financial institutions with systemic importance.Permissive regulatory policies, allowing the development speed of global banking financial system, have played an important role in emphasizing the upward slope of the financial crisis.The new regulations known as Basel III framework aimed the strengthening of prudential capital and liquidity of financial institutions and create a stronger banking and financial system more resilient to shocks.Basel III is trying to eliminate the shortcomings of Basel II, by more extensive rules on integrated risk management in banking and financial environment.
Modeling the Market Risk in the Context of the Basel III Acord  [PDF]
Theoretical and Applied Economics , 2011,
Abstract: Basel III revealed new aspects to be considered in terms of risk management and supervision of banking systems. Banks may use internal models to determine minimum capital requirements imposed by new regulations to be adopted gradually in the period 2013-2019. In this context, the implementation of internal models by banks, applying VaR or ES risk measures, is a challenge both in terms of continued growth in the number of methods used and the complexity of practical approaches. This study aims to estimate the market risk by VaR and ES risk measures using parametric methods, nonparametric and Monte Carlo simulations. There will also be implemented stress tests to assess the capital adequacy under stressed macroeconomic environment.
Tesu Ramona
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2012,
Abstract: The present article has as a reserch field theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of the own funds, taking into account the line-up attempts of the romanian banking system to the requirements of the European Union, materialised in the Basel Agreement. The objectives of the research theme, presented in this paper, are mainly oriented towards own funds. We also proposed the following secondary objectives: presenting the concept approaches concerning own funds, emphasysing the tipology of own funds and pointing out their purpose in the banking activity; presenting and analyse the evolution of the own funds in Romania, for a period of 8 years (2004-2011). Even though the actual stage of the research in this field is advanced, in the romanian and foreign literature which dedicate a lot of theoretical and empiric studies concerning own funds. In our study we will use a theoretical and a practical research. The theoretical research describes the laws, reglementations and rules of application in the banking field in our country. In the practical part we will use as a research method the quality-comparative analyse by presenting details regarding bank back-ups. Despite the global financial crisis, the Romanian banking system can be considered as stable as a whole, with levels of capitalization, solvency and liquidity in accordance with consistent with prudential requirements. Tier 1, defined as the core of their sources of credit institutions through the permanent criteria, payment flexibility and capacity to absorb losses continued to overwhelmingly support a total equity. Appropriate quality of own funds is on their structure. The most important component frame our capital plus capital frame attached. The second component in terms is still represented by legal reserves. An important challenge for banks was to maintain a level of own funds accordance, in the conditions witch they were eroded by the current period losses. Tier 2 support rate of about 20 percentages of total equity and subordinated debt were the main components and revaluation reserves. Re-evaluation reserves have preserved funding contributions to Tier 2. An for evaluation of the level of capitalization of credit institutions, the central bank uses solvable indicator, as the only indicator currently regulated for this purpose. It also provides banks in Romania at the conditions for additional capital requirements related to Basel III framework to be taken by the European regulatory Capital Requirement Directive IV. As a final conclusion of the research in the own funds field we want t
Basel III and Asset Securitization  [PDF]
M. Mpundu,M. A. Petersen,J. Mukuddem-Petersen,F. Gideon
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/439305
Abstract: Asset securitization via special purpose entities involves the process of transforming assets into securities that are issued to investors. These investors hold the rights to payments supported by the cash flows from an asset pool held by the said entity. In this paper, we discuss the mechanism by which low- and high-quality entities securitize low- and high-quality assets, respectively, into collateralized debt obligations. During the 2007–2009 financial crisis, asset securitization was seriously inhibited. In response to this, for instance, new Basel III capital and liquidity regulations were introduced. Here, we find that we can explicitly determine the transaction costs related to low-quality asset securitization. Also, in the case of dynamic and static multipliers, the effects of unexpected negative shocks such as rating downgrades on asset price and input, debt obligation price and output, and profit will be quantified. In this case, we note that Basel III has been designed to provide countercyclical capital buffers to negate procyclicality. Moreover, we will develop an illustrative example of low-quality asset securitization for subprime mortgages. Furthermore, numerical examples to illustrate the key results will be provided. In addition, connections between Basel III and asset securitization will be highlighted. 1. Introduction Asset securitization involves the process by which securities are created by a special purpose entity (SPE)—hereafter, simply known as an entity—and then issued to investors with a right to payments supported by the cash flows from a pool of financial assets held by the entity. There is broad-based usage of entities by financial institutions of many types, in various jurisdictions, and for many purposes (see, e.g., [1]). Securitization has been popular as an alternative funding source for consumer and asset lending in market economies. Its main objective is to improve credit availability by converting hard-to-trade and nontradable assets into securities that can be traded on capital markets. The categorization of the payment rights into “tranches” paid in a specific order and supported by credit enhancement mechanisms provides investors with diversified credit risk exposure to particular investor risk appetites (see, e.g., [2, 3]). Immediately prior to the securitization market collapse in 2007-2008, structured asset products (SAPs) such as asset-backed securities (ABSs) and collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) as well as covered bonds provided between 25 and 65% of the funding for new residential assets originated in
Basel III and the Net Stable Funding Ratio  [PDF]
F. Gideon,Mark A. Petersen,Janine Mukuddem-Petersen,LNP Hlatshwayo
ISRN Applied Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/582707
Abstract: We validate the new Basel liquidity standards as encapsulated by the net stable funding ratio in a quantitative manner. In this regard, we consider the dynamics of inverse net stable funding ratio as a measure to quantify the bank’s prospects for a stable funding over a period of a year. In essence, this justifies how Basel III liquidity standards can be effectively implemented in mitigating liquidity problems. We also discuss various classes of available stable funding and required stable funding. Furthermore, we discuss an optimal control problem for a continuous-time inverse net stable funding ratio. In particular, we make optimal choices for the inverse net stable funding targets in order to formulate its cost. This is normally done by obtaining analytic solution of the value function. Finally, we provide a numerical example for the dynamics of the inverse net stable funding ratio to identify trends in which banks behavior convey forward looking information on long-term market liquidity developments. 1. Introduction The episode of financial market turbulence in 2007–2009 has depicted the importance of liquidity for normal functioning of the financial system. It is because of this background that we are contributing to the procedures for the regulation and supervision of sound liquidity risk management for banks. Some of the well-documented materials to this regard are the notable papers by [1–4]. The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) outlines certain measures to strengthen global capital and liquidity regulations. The objective for these measures is to improve the banking sector's ability to ensure that risk does not spillover to the real economy. The measures are formulated in a form of a principle for sound liquidity risk management and supervision comprising quantitative and qualitative management instruments (see, e.g., [1]). In essence, the response provides guidance on risk management and supervision for funding liquidity risk and promotes a better risk management in that critical area of financial segment. As such, the committee will coordinate rigorous followup by supervisors to ensure that banks adhere to these fundamentals principles (see [3] for more details). The global economic crisis which recently attack the financial system occurs due to liquidity constraints. We define liquidity constraint as an arbitrary limit on the amount an individual can borrow or an arbitrary alteration in the interest rate they pay. In some instances banks exchange assets in the form of collateral in order to have access to finances. In essence,
Andries Alin Marius,Capraru Bogdan
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2011,
Abstract: Recent turmoil in the global financial system has impacted severely on the banking sector with many banks suffering large losses and necessitating the need to raise additional capital privately or through their respective national governments. In our study we investigate the impact of structural reforms performed throughout the European Union (EU) accession process on competition and contestability of banking systems in Romania. The literature of the measurement of competition can be divided into two major approaches: structural and non-structural. The structural approach to the assessment of competition embraces the Structure-Conduct-Performance Hypothesis (SCP) and the Efficient Structure Hypothesis (ESH). The structural approach, as the name suggests, assesses bank competition by examining measures of market structure such as concentration ratios (the share of assets held by the top 3 or 5 institutions) or indices (e.g., the Herfindhal-Hirschman index) and supposes that higher concentration in the banking market causes less competitive bank conduct and leads to higher bank profitability. The SCP model is originally developed by Bain (1956). The second approach, ESH, developed by Demsetz (1973) and Peltzmann (1977) suggests that the superior performance of the market leaders determines the market structure, implying that higher efficiency produces both higher concentration and greater profitability. The non-structural indicators of competition are mainly based on the measures of monopoly power developed by Lerner (1934). The Lerner Index suggests the mark-up of price over marginal cost. An alternative non-structural indicator of the degree of market competition is the Panzar and Rosse (1987) H-statistic. The H-statistic measures the extent to which changes in banking costs are reflected in changes in banking revenues. In order to examine the level of competition and market power of banks in Romania for period 2003 - 2009, we estimate the non-structural indicators and compare it with the structural indicators of competition. In particular, we measure competition using Lerner index and the H-statistic, indicators what are estimated using bank-level data and are compared with a standard market structure measure of concentration like HHI and CR5. There are no other studies that measure both structural and non-structural competition indicators for Romanian banking sector. Also, our assessment contains a period of seven years including the begging of the implications of the present international financial crises on Romanian banking sector. The structural in
Counterparty Credit Risk in OTC Derivatives under Basel III  [PDF]
Mabelle Sayah
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2017.71001
Abstract: Recent financial crises were the root of many changes in regulatory implementations in the banking sector. Basel previously covered the default capital charge for counterparty exposures however, the crisis showed that more than two third of the losses related to this risk emerged from the exposure to the movement of the counterparty’s credit quality and not its actual default therefore, Basel III divided the required counterparty risk capital into two categories: The traditional default capital charge and an additional counter-party credit valuation adjustment (CVA) capital charge. In this article, we explain the new methodologies to compute these capital charges on the OTC market: The standardized approach for default capital charge (SA-CCR) and the basic approach for CVA (BA-CVA). Based on historical calibration and future estimations, we built internal models in order to compare them with the amended standardized approach. Up till June 2015, interest rate and FX derivatives constituted more than 90% of the traded total OTC notional amount; we constructed our application on such portfolios containing and computed their total counterparty capital charge. The analysis reflected different impacts of the netting and collateral agreements on the regulatory capital depending on the instruments’ typologies. Moreover, results showed an important increase in the capital charge due to the CVA addition doubling it in some cases.
Description of the Operational Mechanics of a Basel Regulated Banking System  [PDF]
Jacky Mallett
Quantitative Finance , 2012,
Abstract: This paper presents a description of the mechanical operations of banking as used in modern banking systems regulated under the Basel Accords, in order to provide support for a verifiable and complete description of the banking system suitable for computer simulation. Feedback is requested on the contents of this document, both with respect to the operations described here, and any known national, regional or local variations in their structure and practice.
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