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Pattern of Increased Intracranial Pressure and Classification of Intracranial Hypertension  [PDF]
St. M. Iencean
Journal of Medical Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Intracranial hypertension is initially an alarm signal for the increased ICP; later the increase in intracranial pressure is accompanied by symptoms and there is the ICH syndrome; later on the increase in ICP becomes a pathogenic mechanism in itself and intracranial hypertension appears as an acute disease. The pattern of ICH includes a three-phase evolution; the pressure-time fluctuation is the dynamic element in the progression and decompensation of intracranial hypertension. The evolution of ICH is made by exceeding the critical thresholds of the ICP equivalent to each stage and the decompensation corresponds to the acute critical pressure-time fluctuation. The main features that determine clinical course of intracranial hypertension are: the speed of ICP increase till and over the normal limit, the critical thresholds and the highest value of ICP, the period of pathologic value of ICP, the length of recurrence to normal value and the frequent occurrence of ICP increase. There are five main forms of ICP increase depending of the rapidity of ICP increase till normal limit and over. Intracranial hypertension is classified in four forms based on the etiopathogenesis: parenchymatous intracranial hypertension with an intrinsic cerebral cause, vascular intracranial hypertension, which has its etiology in disorders of the cerebral blood circulation, meningeal intracranial hypertension and idiopathic intracranial hypertension, the former pseudotumor cerebri; it is an incomplete ICH syndrome.
Intraocular pressure vs intracranial pressure in disease conditions: A prospective cohort study (Beijing iCOP study)
Li Zhen,Yang Yingxin,Lu Yan,Liu Dachuan
BMC Neurology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-12-66
Abstract: Background The correlation between intracranial pressure (ICP) and intraocular pressure (IOP) is still controversial in literature and hence whether IOP can be used as a non-invasive surrogate of ICP remains unknown. The aim of the current study was to further clarify the potential correlation between ICP and IOP. Methods The IOP measured with Goldmann applanation tonometer was carried out on 130 patients whose ICP was determined via lumber puncture. The Pearson correlation coefficient between ICP and IOP was calculated, the fisher line discriminated analysis to evaluate the effectivity of using IOP to predict the ICP level. Results A significant correlation between ICP and IOP was found. ICP was correlated significantly with IOP of the right eyes (p < 0.001) and IOP of the left eyes (p = 0.001) and mean IOP of both eyes (p < 0.001), respectively. However, using IOP as a measurement to predict ICP, the accuracy rate was found to be 65.4%. Conclusion Our data suggested that although a significant correlation exists between ICP and IOP, caution needs to be taken when using IOP readings by Goldmann applanation tonometer as a surrogate for direct cerebrospinal fluid pressure measurement of ICP.
Increased Intracranial Pressure Following Removal of Intracranial Lesions
B. Ramamurthi
Acta Medica Iranica , 1964,
Abstract: Increased intracramal tension may 0 ise some days or ''leeks the problem may ari 1 of lrelUova "nt r a cra nial tumours or . lfter operation. , ""n" . " such increased tensicn raises the pOSS1- In the immed.',iate postoperat1ve perlOd" " f eopenino- Unrelieved tentorial -" d f c the dec1s10n or r O' l)ility of a clot rormattcn an ore ~ "e"ln .or the so called third day post " f thrombus Into a ma]()Ir v .' , herniation. extenslOn 0 a f h raised intracranial pressure,. th common causes 0 sue operative oede~a. are e dematous blockage of ventricular system may When the ventnclc' has been opened. oe have to be tackled by repeated ventricular puncture. the fear of this postoperative oedema is the reason In posterior fossa surgery. '. - ' h many neurosuTgeons leave the dura open. w y " ommoner in posterior fossa " " tracranial presurc1 1S c Late onset of mcreased in f ttbromae or after excision of " b-total removal 0 neuro . operations spec1ally after su ti t the site of surgery or adheslOns block- " cyst forma ion a tubercnlomas. The cause :s Following air studies. a shunt procedure or a ing the cerebrospinal flUld "pa~hWay. tentorial incision would be md1cated.
Pharmacological vasodilatation increased pulse pressure variation mimicking hypovolemic status in rabbits
GA Westphal, ARR Gon?alves, A Bedin, R Steglich, E Silva, LF Poli de Figueiredo
Critical Care , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/cc5796
Abstract: To test the hypothesis that PPV amplification observed in hypovolemia can also be observed during pharmacological vasodilatation, induced by sodium nitroprusside (SN).Ten anesthetized, mechanically ventilated rabbits, underwent progressive hypotension by either controlled hemorrhage (CH) or intravenous SN infusion. CH group: five rabbits were submitted to graded hemorrhage of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of their blood volume. Mean arterial pressure steps were registered and assumed as pressure targets. SN group: five rabbits were submitted to a progressive SN dose infusion to reach similar pressure targets observed in the CH group (Table 1). PPV was measured at each arterial pressure step.The heart rate was significantly greater in the SN group than in the CH group (P < 0.05). PPVs were similar among the experimental models in all steps (P = 0.17).Pharmacologic vasodilatation by SN induced a PPV amplification similar to that observed in hypovolemia. Our results reinforce the idea that PPV amplification may be associated with potential cardiovascular response and not necessarily hypovolemic status. Hence, caution should be exercised before assuming that PPV is a marker of intravascular volume status.
Increased intracranial pressure in a case of spinal cervical glioblastoma multiforme: analysis of these two rare conditions
Castro-Costa, C.M. de;Araújo, R.W.B. de;Arruda, M.A. de;Araújo, P.M. de;Figueiredo, E.G. de;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 1994, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X1994000100011
Abstract: the authors describe a rare case of increased intracranial hypertension consequent to a spinal cervical glioblastoma multiforme in a young patient. they analyse the physiopathology of intracranial hypertension in spinal tumors and the rarity of such kind of tumor in this location, and its clinico-pathological aspects.
Effect of hypothyroidism on intraocular pressure in rabbits  [cached]
Agarwal L,Gupta V,Agarwal H,Mathur R
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1985,
Effect of a tight necktie on intraocular pressure  [PDF]
Bo?i? Marija,Hentova-Sen?anin Paraskeva,Brankovi? Aleksandra,Marjanovi? Ivan
Medicinski Pregled , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/mpns1202013b
Abstract: Introduction. Any factor causing constriction of the neck may lead to an increase in intraocular pressure. A tight necktie may result in increasing intraocular pressure, which could lead to an erroneous diagnosis and treatment of ocular hypertension or even glaucoma. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of a tight necktie on intraocular pressure measurement using Goldmann applanation tonometry. Material and Methods. This study included forty eyes of 20 patients with primary open angle glaucoma and 20 healthy controls (all male). Intraocular pressure was measured without a necktie, 3 minutes after placing a tight necktie and 3 minutes after loosening it. Student’s t-test was used to analyze the data between two groups. The intraocular pressure measurements were subjected to paired t - test. The value p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A possible correlation between the age of subjects and intraocular pressure values was analyzed using linear regression (Pearson′). Results. A statistically significant difference was found in intraocular pressure readings in all three measurements between two tested groups (p<0.05). When analyzed within groups, statistical significance in intraocular pressure readings was found after loosening the necktie (<0.05). No correlation between the age of subjects and increased intraocular pressure was found in either tested group of subjects after the necktie had been tightened (r2=0.006, p=0.70 for primary open angle patients, r2=0.07, p=0.22 for healthy controls). Conclusion. Wearing a tight necktie for a limited period of time during the day could be considered as a possible risk factor for glaucoma development.
Intraocular pressure during haemodialysis  [cached]
Sud R,Chhabra S,Sandhu J,Bansal P
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 1988,
Abstract: Intraocular pressure was measured before, at 2 hours & after haemodialysis in 75 uraemic patients of Indian origin, undergoing haemodialysis. There was no significant rise in intra-ocular pressure in these patients.
Cataract surgery to lower intraocular pressure  [cached]
Berdahl John
Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology , 2009,
Abstract: Cataract and glaucoma are common co morbidities. Cataract surgery is frequently performed in patients with glaucoma. In this study, a review of literature with search terms of cataract, glaucoma and intraocular pressure is followed by evaluation and synthesis of data to determine the effect of cataract surgery on intraocular pressure. Cataract surgery seems to lower intraocular pressure on a sustained basis, especially in patients with higher preoperative intraocular pressure. The mechanism of action of these finds remains speculative.
The Professional Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: To measure the rise in intraocular pressure after neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) Laser capsulotomy in pseudophakic patients aged 50 years and above. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. Duration of Study: Study was done from May 2005 to Dec 2005. (Eight months duration) Settings: Eye department Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Material and Methods: A total of 100 patients, presenting in Eye department, Military Hospital Rawalpindi, fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria were included. With a minimum number of bursts of 3.6 mj / shot energy level with Nd: YAG laser, a 3 to 4 mm hole in the posterior capsule was created. The intraocular pressure was measured 1 hour, 3 hours, 1 day and 1 week after the laser. Results: The rise in intraocular pressure was noticed in 6 (6%) patients after Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. Five out of six patients had fibrous type of posterior capsular opacification while one patient had Elschnig’s pearl. Male to female Ratio was 7:3. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the rise in intraocular pressure is an infrequent complication of Nd:YAG Laser capsulotomy.
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