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Increased Numbers of IL-7 Receptor Molecules on CD4+CD25?CD107a+ T-Cells in Patients with Autoimmune Diseases Affecting the Central Nervous System
Nalini Kumar Vudattu,Sharon Kuhlmann-Berenzon,Mohsen Khademi,Vicki Seyfert,Thomas Olsson,Markus J. Maeurer
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006534
Abstract: High content immune profiling in peripheral blood may reflect immune aberrations associated with inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other autoimmune diseases affecting the central nervous system.
Sex differences in autoimmune diseases
Rhonda Voskuhl
Biology of Sex Differences , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/2042-6410-2-1
Abstract: Translational research which starts with a clinical observation, such as the increased susceptibility to autoimmune disease in females, can be termed as a 'bedside to bench to bedside approach'. In contrast to the classic 'bench to bedside' approach, research that begins with a clinical observation carries less inherent risk of failure. In the 'bench to bedside' approach, a molecule of interest is focused upon as a target to either block or enhance because it is thought to be either disease promoting or inhibiting, respectively. This is an immune molecule in the case of autoimmune diseases. The inherent risk of this approach is that, while a molecule of interest may be key to a pathway in an in vitro culture, it may not be key in vivo in the animal model due to redundant molecular pathways that exist in vivo. Further, even when a molecule of interest appears to be important in disease pathogenesis in a given animal model, it may not be critical in human disease due to differences in disease pathways in the outbred human population. Thus, the vast majority of research avenues focusing on a given molecule of interest do not ultimately prove to be physiologically significant in human disease. This results in very high costs for research and development as only a few make it to the market as new treatments. In contrast, the 'beside to bench to bedside' approach begins with a clinical observation that is known to be physiologically relevant in the human disease. For example, in autoimmune disease, a major disease susceptibility factor is the state of being female. If this were understood, one would have discovered something that is indeed physiologically significant. In order to understand why being female confers increased susceptibility, one must next go to the bench, using in vitro and in vivo systems to simulate this clinical observation and dissect out its underlying aetiology. After one or more molecules have been discovered which are responsible for conferring inc
Autoimmune diseases of oral cavity  [cached]
Davide B. Gissi,Mattia Venturi,Andrea Gabusi,Annachiara De Martino
Reviews in Health Care , 2011, DOI: 10.7175/rhc.2722113-136
Abstract: Most diseases of oral mucosa are either autoimmune in nature or are the results of immunologically-mediated events. These include Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS), Erythema Multiforme (EM), the bullous diseases Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV) and Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid (MMP) and Lichen Planus (LP). These conditions are characterised by lesions of the oral mucosa often associated with extra-oral manifestations that include skin, eyes, nasal and pharyngeal mucosa as well as genitals. Despite a similar pathogenesis, they are characterised by different immunologic processes that involve T-cell mediated hypersensitivity in LP, humoral-mediated immunity to cadherin intercellular adhesion molecules in PV, antibody-mediated processes giving rise to junctional separation in MMP, and other not yet completely understood processes in RAS and EM. Differences are also present in the clinical outcome, that is always acute and auto-limiting in EM, auto-limiting and often recurrent in RAS, sub-acute and often recurrent in MMP and PV and always chronic in LP. Accurate diagnosis is not always possible solely on the basis of the oral presentation, and histological and often immunofluorescence examinations are needed in order to establish a definitive diagnosis. The condition that brings together all these diseases is that thay all benefit from similar therapeutic approaches, consisting in local or systemic immunosuppressive treatments. This review provides guidance to differentiate and correctly diagnose these conditions and discusses the most appropriate management.
Autoimmune liver diseases  [cached]
Pietro Invernizzi, Ian R Mackay
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: The liver was one of the earliest recognized sites among autoimmune diseases yet autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and their overlap forms, are still problematic in diagnosis and causation. The contributions herein comprise 'pairs of articles' on clinical characteristics, and concepts of etiopathogenesis, for each of the above diseases, together with childhood autoimmune liver disease, overlaps, interpretations of diagnostic serology, and liver transplantation. This issue is timely, since we are witnessing an ever increasing applicability of immunology to a wide variety of chronic diseases, hepatic and non-hepatic, in both developed and developing countries. The 11 invited expert review articles capture the changing features over recent years of the autoimmune liver diseases, the underlying immunomolecular mechanisms of development, the potent albeit still unexplained genetic influences, the expanding repertoire of immunoserological diagnostic markers, and the increasingly effective therapeutic possibilities.
B Cells in Autoimmune Diseases  [PDF]
Christiane S. Hampe
Scientifica , 2012, DOI: 10.6064/2012/215308
Abstract: The role of B cells in autoimmune diseases involves different cellular functions, including the well-established secretion of autoantibodies, autoantigen presentation and ensuing reciprocal interactions with T cells, secretion of inflammatory cytokines, and the generation of ectopic germinal centers. Through these mechanisms B cells are involved both in autoimmune diseases that are traditionally viewed as antibody mediated and also in autoimmune diseases that are commonly classified as T cell mediated. This new understanding of the role of B cells opened up novel therapeutic options for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. This paper includes an overview of the different functions of B cells in autoimmunity; the involvement of B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes; and current B-cell-based therapeutic treatments. We conclude with a discussion of novel therapies aimed at the selective targeting of pathogenic B cells. 1. Introduction Traditionally, autoimmune disorders were classified as T cell mediated or autoantibody mediated. However the improved understanding of the complexity of the immune system has significantly influenced the way we view autoimmune diseases and their pathogeneses. Reciprocal roles of T-cell help for B cells during adaptive immune responses and B-cell help in CD4+ T-cell activation are being increasingly recognized. The observation that most autoantibodies in traditionally autoantibody-mediated diseases are of the IgG isotype and carry somatic mutations strongly suggests T-cell help in the autoimmune B-cell response. Likewise B cells function as crucial antigen presenting cells in autoimmune diseases that are traditionally viewed as T cell mediated. This paper will discuss the role of B cells in autoimmune diseases; however, it needs to be emphasized that most autoimmune diseases are driven by a dysfunction in the immune network consisting of B cells, T cells, and other immune cells. 2. B-Cell Functions in Autoimmunity Different functions of B cells can contribute to autoimmune diseases (Figure 1): (1)secretion of autoantibodies;(2)presentation of autoantigen;(3)secretion of inflammatory cytokines;(4)modulation of antigen processing and presentation;(5)generation of ectopic GCs. Figure 1: (a) B cells in autoimmune diseases. B cells have antibody-dependent and antibody-independent pathogenic functions. Secreted autoantibodies specific to receptors or receptor ligands can activate or inhibit receptor functions. Deposited immune complexes can activate complement and effector cells.
Autoimmune Bullous Diseases Editorial  [PDF]
Soner Uzun
Turkderm , 2011,
Abstract: As they are potentially life threatening and a significant cause of morbidity, autoimmune bullous diseases have a special place and importance among the other skin disorders. Discovery of autoantibodies of pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid by immunofluorescence techniques and first clinical use of corticosteroids are two major milestones in the history of development processes in diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune bullous diseases in early 1960s. After 1970s with development of new and further research tools led to help us better understand of etiopathogenesis of autoimmune bullous diseases and opened the way of more effective and modern treatment modalities. However, today, the limited number of randomized controlled trials about the effectiveness of certain available drugs using in the treatments of autoimmune bullous diseases is still major problem. In this special issue of Turkderm the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune bullous diseases are discussed by experienced authors from different dermatology clinics in Turkey. (Turkderm 2011; 45 Suppl 1: 1-2)
Psoriasis and autoimmune skin diseases
Polja?ki Mirjana N.,Begene?i? Mirjana,?uran Verica D.,Matovi? Ljubinka
Medicinski Pregled , 2002, DOI: 10.2298/mpns0208325p
Abstract: Introduction Presuming that psoriasis is an autoimmune skin disease, the aim of this study was to establish its association with other autoimmune skin diseases. The material was obtained at the Dermatovenereological Clinic Clinical Center Novi Sad. Material and methods This 10-year retrospective study (1990-1999) included 1743 psoriasis patients. The control group consisted of 7492 nonpsoriatic dermatological patients. Results Association of psoriasis with other dermatological diseases of autoimmune nature has been established in 13 (0.74 %) patients. The most frequent association was with lichen ruber planus in five patients, with alopecia areata and vitiligo in three patients, and in one with bullous pemphigoid and herpetiform dermatitis. Using Fisher's test no significant association was established. Discussion and conclusion According to literature data association of psoriasis with other autoimmune diseases is well known, but rare, which is in accordance with our results. The question arises whether this association is the matter of poor coexistence or the matter of genetic mutations. However, once established, these associations can further highlight the autoimmune nature of psoriasis. The research of autoimmunity would lead us to epithelial cells in thymus, and their badly learnt cognitive function about what is own, and what is not.
The Etiopathogenesis of Autoimmune Bullous Diseases
?ebnem Aktan
Turkderm , 2011,
Abstract: Autoimmune bullous diseases are rare disorders affecting skin and mucous membranes which are mediated by pathogenic autoantibodies against target antigens whose function is adhesion within the epidermis or adhesion of epidermis to dermis. The pathogenesis of these disorders has been extensively investigated with advanced techniques in recent years. This review focuses on the etiopathogenesis of main autoimmune bullous disorders including pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid, anti-p200 pemphigoid, cicatricial pemphigoid, pemphigoid gestationis, dermatitis herpetiformis, linear IgA bullous dermatosis and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.
MicroRNAs in autoimmune rheumatic diseases  [cached]
M. Galeazzi,E. Balistreri,C. Giannitti,G.D. Sebastiani
Reumatismo , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/reumatismo.2012.7
Abstract: The etiology of autoimmune diseases remains largely unknown. In recent years, besides genetic factors, several studies proposed that the epigenome may hold the key to a better understanding of autoimmunity initiation and perpetuation. More specifically epigenetic regulatory mechanisms comprise DNA methylation, a variety of histone modifications, and microRNA (miRNA) activity, all of which act upon gene and protein expression levels. In particular it is well known that epigenetic mechanisms are important for controlling the pattern of gene expression during development, the cell cycle, and the response to biological or environmental changes. In the present review a description of the most frequent epigenetic deregulations, in particular the role of miRNA, in rheumatic autoimmune disorders will be analyzed.
Thyroid autoantibodies in autoimmune diseases
Innocencio,Regina M.; Romaldini,Jo?o H.; Ward,Laura S.;
Medicina (Buenos Aires) , 2004,
Abstract: abnormalities in the thyroid function and thyroid autoantibodies have been frequently described in patients with autoimmune diseases but seldom in antiphospholipid syndrome patients. in order to determine the prevalence of thyroid function and autoimmune abnormalities, we compared serum thyrotropin (tsh, serum free thyroxine (t4) levels, thyroid antithyroglobulin (tgab) and antithyroperoxidase (tpoab) levels of 25 patients with systemic sclerosis, 25 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 13 patients with antiphospholipid syndrome to a control group of 113 healthy individuals. evaluation included a thorough clinical examination with particular attention to thyroid disease and a serologic immune profile including rheumatoid factor, antinuclear and anticardiolipin antibody measurements. subclinical hypothyroidism (4.2
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