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Fine-scale evolutionary genetic insights into Anopheles gambiae X-chromosome  [PDF]
Hemlata Srivastava, Jyotsana Dixit, Aditya P. Dash, Aparup Das
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2009.25045
Abstract: Understanding the genetic architecture of indi-vidual taxa of medical importance is the first step for designing disease preventive strategies. To understand the genetic details and evolu-tionary perspective of the model malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae and to use the information in other species of local importance, we scanned the published X-chromosome se-quence for detail characterization and obtain evolutionary status of different genes. The te-locentric X-chromosome contains 106 genes of known functions and 982 novel genes. Majori-ties of both the known and novel genes are with introns. The known genes are strictly biased towards less number of introns; about half of the total known genes have only one or two in-trons. The extreme sized (either long or short) genes were found to be most prevalent (58% short and 23% large). Statistically significant positive correlations between gene length and intron length as well as with intron number and intron length were obtained signifying the role of introns in contributing to the overall size of the known genes of X-chromosome in An. gam-biae. We compared each individual gene of An. gambiae with 33 other taxa having whole ge-nome sequence information. In general, the mosquito Aedes aegypti was found to be ge-netically closest and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as most distant taxa to An. gambiae. Further, only about a quarter of the known genes of X-chromosome were unique to An. gambiae and majorities have orthologs in dif-ferent taxa. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on a single gene found to be highly orthologous across all the 34 taxa. Evolutionary relationships among 13 different taxa were in-ferred which corroborate the previous and pre-sent findings on genetic relationships across various taxa.
Targeting the X Chromosome during Spermatogenesis Induces Y Chromosome Transmission Ratio Distortion and Early Dominant Embryo Lethality in Anopheles gambiae  [PDF]
Nikolai Windbichler equal contributor,Philippos Aris Papathanos equal contributor,Andrea Crisanti
PLOS Genetics , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000291
Abstract: We have exploited the high selectivity of the homing endonuclease I-PpoI for the X-linked Anopheles gambiae 28S ribosomal genes to selectively target X chromosome carrying spermatozoa. Our data demonstrated that in heterozygous males, the expression of I-PpoI in the testes induced a strong bias toward Y chromosome–carrying spermatozoa. Notably, these male mosquitoes also induced complete early dominant embryo lethality in crosses with wild-type females. Morphological and molecular data indicated that all spermatozoa, irrespectively of the inheritance of the transgene, carried a substantial amount of I-PpoI protein that could attack the maternally inherited chromosome X of the embryo. Besides the obvious implications for implementing vector control measures, our data demonstrated the feasibility of generating synthetic sex distorters and revealed the intriguing possibility of manipulating maternally inherited genes using wild-type sperm cells carrying engineered endonucleases.
Experimental Swap of Anopheles gambiae's Assortative Mating Preferences Demonstrates Key Role of X-Chromosome Divergence Island in Incipient Sympatric Speciation  [PDF]
Fred Aboagye-Antwi?,Nahla Alhafez?,Gareth D. Weedall?,Jessica Brothwood?,Sharanjit Kandola?,Doug Paton?,Abrahamane Fofana?,Lisa Olohan?,Mauro Pazmi?o Betancourth?,Nkiru E. Ekechukwu
PLOS Genetics , 2015, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005141
Abstract: Although many theoretical models of sympatric speciation propose that genes responsible for assortative mating amongst incipient species should be associated with genomic regions protected from recombination, there are few data to support this theory. The malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, is known for its sympatric cryptic species maintained by pre-mating reproductive isolation and its putative genomic islands of speciation, and is therefore an ideal model system for studying the genomic signature associated with incipient sympatric speciation. Here we selectively introgressed the island of divergence located in the pericentric region of the X chromosome of An. gambiae s.s. into its sister taxon An. coluzzii through 5 generations of backcrossing followed by two generations of crosses within the introgressed strains that resulted in An. coluzzii-like recombinant strains fixed for the M and S marker in the X chromosome island. The mating preference of recombinant strains was then tested by giving virgin recombinant individuals a choice of mates with X-islands matching and non-matching their own island type. We show through genetic analyses of transferred sperm that recombinant females consistently mated with matching island-type males thereby associating assortative mating genes with the X-island of divergence. Furthermore, full-genome sequencing confirmed that protein-coding differences between recombinant strains were limited to the experimentally swapped pericentromeric region. Finally, targeted-genome comparisons showed that a number of these unique differences were conserved in sympatric field populations, thereby revealing candidate speciation genes. The functional demonstration of a close association between speciation genes and the X-island of differentiation lends unprecedented support to island-of-speciation models of sympatric speciation facilitated by pericentric recombination suppression.
Chromosome Inversions, Genomic Differentiation and Speciation in the African Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae  [PDF]
Yoosook Lee, Travis C. Collier, Michelle R. Sanford, Clare D. Marsden, Abdrahamane Fofana, Anthony J. Cornel, Gregory C. Lanzaro
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057887
Abstract: The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, is characterized by multiple polymorphic chromosomal inversions and has become widely studied as a system for exploring models of speciation. Near complete reproductive isolation between different inversion types, known as chromosomal forms, has led to the suggestion that A. gambiae is in early stages of speciation, with divergence evolving in the face of considerable gene flow. We compared the standard chromosomal arrangement (Savanna form) with genomes homozygous for j, b, c, and u inversions (Bamako form) in order to identify regions of genomic divergence with respect to inversion polymorphism. We found levels of divergence between the two sub-taxa within some of these inversions (2Rj and 2Rb), but at a level lower than expected and confined near the inversion breakpoints, consistent with a gene flux model. Unexpectedly, we found that the majority of diverged regions were located on the X chromosome, which contained half of all significantly diverged regions, with much of this divergence located within exons. This is surprising given that the Bamako and Savanna chromosomal forms are both within the S molecular form that is defined by a locus near centromere of X chromosome. Two X-linked genes (a heat shock protein and P450 encoding genes) involved in reproductive isolation between the M and S molecular forms of A. gambiae were also significantly diverged between the two chromosomal forms. These results suggest that genes mediating reproductive isolation are likely located on the X chromosome, as is thought to be the case for the M and S molecular forms. We conclude that genes located on the sex chromosome may be the major force driving speciation between these chromosomal forms of A. gambiae.
Genome annotation of Anopheles gambiae using mass spectrometry-derived data
Dário E Kalume, Suraj Peri, Raghunath Reddy, Jun Zhong, Mobolaji Okulate, Nirbhay Kumar, Akhilesh Pandey
BMC Genomics , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-6-128
Abstract: We searched 3,967 mass spectra from 16 LC-MS/MS runs of Anopheles gambiae salivary gland homogenates against the Anopheles gambiae genome database. This allowed us to validate 23 known transcripts and 50 novel transcripts. In addition, a novel gene was identified on the basis of peptides that matched a genomic region where no gene was known and no transcript had been predicted. The amino termini of proteins encoded by two predicted transcripts were confirmed based on N-terminally acetylated peptides sequenced by tandem mass spectrometry. Finally, six sequence polymorphisms could be annotated based on experimentally obtained peptide sequences.The peptide sequences from this study were mapped onto the genomic sequence using the distributed annotation system available at Ensembl and can be visualized in the context of all other existing annotations. The strategy described in this paper can be used to correct and confirm genome annotations and permit discovery of novel proteins in a high-throughput manner by mass spectrometry.The recent completion of Anopheles gambiae genome sequence [1] provided an architectural scaffold for mapping, identifying, selecting, and exploiting malaria insect vector genes for future studies. An. gambiae genome consists of 3 pairs of chromosome, designated as 2R/2L, 3R/3L and X. The Y chromosome is yet to be completely sequenced and assembled because of the high number of transposable element fragments. Thus far, approximately 85% of the genome has been assembled with the total genome size being 278 Mbp. About 15,189 genes are annotated in the An. gambiae genome, of which 11,757 are derived from prediction programs [2]. Currently, there are approximately 700 known An. gambiae proteins that are annotated in the databases. The annotation of the An. gambiae genome sequence has been an ongoing process since it was completed in 2002 [1]. The assembled genome is publicly available through NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) and EBI
Mosaic Genome Architecture of the Anopheles gambiae Species Complex  [PDF]
Rui Wang-Sattler, Stephanie Blandin, Ye Ning, Claudia Blass, Guimogo Dolo, Yeya T. Touré, Alessandra della Torre, Gregory C. Lanzaro, Lars M. Steinmetz, Fotis C. Kafatos, Liangbiao Zheng
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001249
Abstract: Background Attempts over the last three decades to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of the Anopheles gambiae species complex have been important for developing better strategies to control malaria transmission. Methodology We used fingerprint genotyping data from 414 field-collected female mosquitoes at 42 microsatellite loci to infer the evolutionary relationships of four species in the A. gambiae complex, the two major malaria vectors A. gambiae sensu stricto (A. gambiae s.s.) and A. arabiensis, as well as two minor vectors, A. merus and A. melas. Principal Findings We identify six taxonomic units, including a clear separation of West and East Africa A. gambiae s.s. S molecular forms. We show that the phylogenetic relationships vary widely between different genomic regions, thus demonstrating the mosaic nature of the genome of these species. The two major malaria vectors are closely related and closer to A. merus than to A. melas at the genome-wide level, which is also true if only autosomes are considered. However, within the Xag inversion region of the X chromosome, the M and two S molecular forms are most similar to A. merus. Near the X centromere, outside the Xag region, the two S forms are highly dissimilar to the other taxa. Furthermore, our data suggest that the centromeric region of chromosome 3 is a strong discriminator between the major and minor malaria vectors. Conclusions Although further studies are needed to elucidate the basis of the phylogenetic variation among the different regions of the genome, the preponderance of sympatric admixtures among taxa strongly favor introgression of different genomic regions between species, rather than lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphism, as a possible mechanism.
Genomic Islands of Speciation in Anopheles gambiae  [PDF]
Thomas L. Turner,Matthew W. Hahn,Sergey V. Nuzhdin
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030285
Abstract: The African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (A. gambiae), provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution of reproductive isolation because it is divided into two sympatric, partially isolated subtaxa known as M form and S form. With the annotated genome of this species now available, high-throughput techniques can be applied to locate and characterize the genomic regions contributing to reproductive isolation. In order to quantify patterns of differentiation within A. gambiae, we hybridized population samples of genomic DNA from each form to Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays. We found that three regions, together encompassing less than 2.8 Mb, are the only locations where the M and S forms are significantly differentiated. Two of these regions are adjacent to centromeres, on Chromosomes 2L and X, and contain 50 and 12 predicted genes, respectively. Sequenced loci in these regions contain fixed differences between forms and no shared polymorphisms, while no fixed differences were found at nearby control loci. The third region, on Chromosome 2R, contains only five predicted genes; fixed differences in this region were also verified by direct sequencing. These “speciation islands” remain differentiated despite considerable gene flow, and are therefore expected to contain the genes responsible for reproductive isolation. Much effort has recently been applied to locating the genes and genetic changes responsible for reproductive isolation between species. Though much can be inferred about speciation by studying taxa that have diverged for millions of years, studying differentiation between taxa that are in the early stages of isolation will lead to a clearer view of the number and size of regions involved in the genetics of speciation. Despite appreciable levels of gene flow between the M and S forms of A. gambiae, we were able to isolate three small regions of differentiation where genes responsible for ecological and behavioral isolation are likely to be located. We expect reproductive isolation to be due to changes at a small number of loci, as these regions together contain only 67 predicted genes. Concentrating future mapping experiments on these regions should reveal the genes responsible for reproductive isolation between forms.
Genomic islands of speciation in Anopheles gambiae.
Turner Thomas L,Hahn Matthew W,Nuzhdin Sergey V
PLOS Biology , 2005,
Abstract: The African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (A. gambiae), provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution of reproductive isolation because it is divided into two sympatric, partially isolated subtaxa known as M form and S form. With the annotated genome of this species now available, high-throughput techniques can be applied to locate and characterize the genomic regions contributing to reproductive isolation. In order to quantify patterns of differentiation within A. gambiae, we hybridized population samples of genomic DNA from each form to Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays. We found that three regions, together encompassing less than 2.8 Mb, are the only locations where the M and S forms are significantly differentiated. Two of these regions are adjacent to centromeres, on Chromosomes 2L and X, and contain 50 and 12 predicted genes, respectively. Sequenced loci in these regions contain fixed differences between forms and no shared polymorphisms, while no fixed differences were found at nearby control loci. The third region, on Chromosome 2R, contains only five predicted genes; fixed differences in this region were also verified by direct sequencing. These "speciation islands" remain differentiated despite considerable gene flow, and are therefore expected to contain the genes responsible for reproductive isolation. Much effort has recently been applied to locating the genes and genetic changes responsible for reproductive isolation between species. Though much can be inferred about speciation by studying taxa that have diverged for millions of years, studying differentiation between taxa that are in the early stages of isolation will lead to a clearer view of the number and size of regions involved in the genetics of speciation. Despite appreciable levels of gene flow between the M and S forms of A. gambiae, we were able to isolate three small regions of differentiation where genes responsible for ecological and behavioral isolation are likely to be located. We expect reproductive isolation to be due to changes at a small number of loci, as these regions together contain only 67 predicted genes. Concentrating future mapping experiments on these regions should reveal the genes responsible for reproductive isolation between forms.
Genomic Islands of Speciation in Anopheles gambiae  [PDF]
Thomas L Turner ,Matthew W Hahn,Sergey V Nuzhdin
PLOS Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0030285
Abstract: The African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (A. gambiae), provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution of reproductive isolation because it is divided into two sympatric, partially isolated subtaxa known as M form and S form. With the annotated genome of this species now available, high-throughput techniques can be applied to locate and characterize the genomic regions contributing to reproductive isolation. In order to quantify patterns of differentiation within A. gambiae, we hybridized population samples of genomic DNA from each form to Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays. We found that three regions, together encompassing less than 2.8 Mb, are the only locations where the M and S forms are significantly differentiated. Two of these regions are adjacent to centromeres, on Chromosomes 2L and X, and contain 50 and 12 predicted genes, respectively. Sequenced loci in these regions contain fixed differences between forms and no shared polymorphisms, while no fixed differences were found at nearby control loci. The third region, on Chromosome 2R, contains only five predicted genes; fixed differences in this region were also verified by direct sequencing. These “speciation islands” remain differentiated despite considerable gene flow, and are therefore expected to contain the genes responsible for reproductive isolation. Much effort has recently been applied to locating the genes and genetic changes responsible for reproductive isolation between species. Though much can be inferred about speciation by studying taxa that have diverged for millions of years, studying differentiation between taxa that are in the early stages of isolation will lead to a clearer view of the number and size of regions involved in the genetics of speciation. Despite appreciable levels of gene flow between the M and S forms of A. gambiae, we were able to isolate three small regions of differentiation where genes responsible for ecological and behavioral isolation are likely to be located. We expect reproductive isolation to be due to changes at a small number of loci, as these regions together contain only 67 predicted genes. Concentrating future mapping experiments on these regions should reveal the genes responsible for reproductive isolation between forms.
Insertion polymorphisms of SINE200 retrotransposons within speciation islands of Anopheles gambiae molecular forms
Federica Santolamazza, Emiliano Mancini, Frédéric Simard, Yumin Qi, Zhijian Tu, Alessandra della Torre
Malaria Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-163
Abstract: A SINE-PCR approach was carried out on thirteen SINE200 insertions in M and S females collected along the whole range of distribution of A. gambiae s.s. in sub-Saharan Africa. Ten specimens each for Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles melas, Anopheles quadriannulatus A and 15 M/S hybrids from laboratory crosses were also analysed.Eight loci were successfully amplified and were found to be specific for A. gambiae s.s.: 5 on 2L chromosome and one on X chromosome resulted monomorphic, while two loci positioned respectively on 2R (i.e. S200 2R12D) and X (i.e. S200 X6.1) chromosomes were found to be polymorphic. S200 2R12D was homozygote for the insertion in most S-form samples, while intermediate levels of polymorphism were shown in M-form, resulting in an overall high degree of genetic differentiation between molecular forms (Fst = 0.46 p < 0.001) and within M-form (Fst = 0.46 p < 0.001). The insertion of S200 X6.1 was found to be fixed in all M- and absent in all S-specimens. This led to develop a novel easy-to-use PCR approach to straightforwardly identify A. gambiae molecular forms. This novel approach allows to overcome the constraints associated with markers on the rDNA region commonly used for M and S identification. In fact, it is based on a single copy and irreversible SINE200 insertion and, thus, is not subjected to peculiar evolutionary patterns affecting rDNA markers, e.g. incomplete homogenization of the arrays through concerted evolution and/or mixtures of M and S IGS-sequences among the arrays of single chromatids.The approach utilized allowed to develop new easy-to-use co-dominant markers for the analysis of genetic differentiation between M and S-forms and opens new perspectives in the study of the speciation process ongoing within A. gambiae.Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) is the most important vector of human malaria in Africa, causing 90% of the fatalcases worldwide [1]. It is believed that the differentiation of this very synanthropic and anthrop
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