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Biomolecule Profiles in Inedible Wild Mushrooms with Antioxidant Value  [PDF]
Filipa S. Reis,Eliana Pereira,Lillian Barros,Maria Jo?o Sousa,Anabela Martins,Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira
Molecules , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/molecules16064328
Abstract: The use of natural products isolated from mushrooms, included inedible species, against infection, cancer diseases and other oxidative-stress related diseases is one of the cornerstones of modern medicine. In the present work, the antioxidant molecule profiles of inedible mushroom species were evaluated and compared with those of edible species. The order of antioxidant abundance found in inedible wild mushrooms was: phenolics > flavonoids > ascorbic acid > tocopherols > carotenoids, similar to that of edible species. Furthermore the same energetic biomolecules were found including the disaccharide trehalose, the monosaccharide alcohol derivative mannitol and the fatty acids palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. Fomitopsis pinicola revealed a very high phenolics concentration (388 mg GAE/g extract) and powerful antioxidant properties, mainly reducing power (EC50 value 60 μg/mL similar to the standard Trolox?). It could find applications in the prevention of free radical-related diseases as a source of bioactive compounds.
Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus as functional foods Hongos del género Agaricus como alimentos funcionales
J. Vinhal Costa Orsine,R. Vinhal da Costa,M.a R. Carvalho Garbi Novaes
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2012, DOI: 10.3305/nh.2012.27.4.5841
Abstract: Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus are noted for their pharmacological and culinary properties. In this study, it was performed a critical literature review, focusing primarily on aspects of the chemical composition of these mushrooms whose pharmacological properties and nutritional composition characterize them as functional foods. It was also discussed articles conducted in vitro and in vivo proving the high antioxidant potential of the Agaricaceae family, in addition to articles which emphasize the toxicity characteristics and safety for its use in therapy or in human nutrition. These mushrooms exhibit numerous bioactive substances as well as safety regarding toxicity, which characterize them as functional foods. Despite the countless beneficial effects on human health, mushrooms of the genus Agaricus are little known by the population, making it necessary partnership and combined efforts among producers, industries and researchers in order to disseminate, research and consumption of these foods. Hongos del género Agaricus son conocidos por sus propiedades farmacológicas y culinarias. En este estudio, se realizó una revisión crítica de la literatura, centrándose principalmente en los aspectos de la composición química de estos hongos, cuyas propiedades farmacológicas y composición nutricional caracterizarlos como alimentos funcionales. También se discutió artículos realizados in vitro e in vivo demostrando el potencial antioxidante de alta de la familia Agaricaceae, además de los artículos que hacen hincapié en las características de toxicidad y seguridad para su uso en terapia o en la nutrición humana. Estos hongos presentan numerosas sustancias bioactivas, así como la seguridad en relación con la toxicidad, lo que les caracterizan como alimentos funcionales. A pesar de los innumerables efectos beneficiosos sobre la salud humana, las setas del género Agaricus son poco conocidos por la población, por lo que es colaboración necesaria y el trabajo conjunto entre productores, industrias e investigadores con el fin de difundir, la investigación y el consumo de estos alimentos.
Quality Characteristics of Microwave-Vacuum Dried Button Mushrooms (Agaricus Bisporus)  [PDF]
S.K.Giri & Suresh Prasad
Octa Journal of Biosciences , 2013,
Abstract: Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) slices as well as whole mushrooms were dried by microwave-vacuum drying technique to a moisture content of around 6 %(d.b.). The dehydrated mushrooms were compared with hot-air dried products on the basis of different quality attributes such as colour, texture, rehydration ratio and sensory score. Statistical analysis of data revealed significant difference among the drying methods for all the attributes at p ≤ 0.05. Microwave-vacuum dried mushrooms had significantly higher rehydration potential, lower density, better colour and softer texture than those obtained by air drying. The microwave-vacuum dried mushrooms were rated much better than air dried products by a sensory panel in terms of appearance, color and overall acceptability.
The Novel Antibacterials from Two Edible Mushrooms: Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus sajor caju
D.H. Tambekar,T.P. Sonar,M.V. Khodke,B.S. Khante
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2006,
Abstract: Two edible mushrooms (Basidiomycetes, a macrofungus), Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus sajor caju were assayed in vitro for their antimicrobial activities using aqueous and organic solvents extracts. The present study showed that Escherichia coli 390, Escherichia coli 739, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae were most sensitive to aqueous, ethanol, methanol and xylene extracts of these mushrooms. Thus indicated that the daily intake of mushroom can provide a natural covering of antibiotics to fight against the common pathogenic organisms.
Efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms cultivation. Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Imbach
Grzegorz Koc,Stanis?aw Szarek
Journal of Agribusiness and Rural Development , 2011,
Abstract: The economical efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Imbach SYLVAN 737) has been experimented in controlled weather conditions. It was found that the application of a 50 and 150 g m-2 hydrogel dose is not economically proved due to the lack of harvest significant increase. In the cultivation of this particular variety of mushrooms, the optimal hydrogel dose should not be 100 g m-2 of subsoil.
Comparison of Amino Acid Content in Canned Pleurotus Ostreatus and Agaricus Bisporus Mushrooms
Gra yna Jaworska, Emilia Berna
Vegetable Crops Research Bulletin , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10032-011-0009-3
Abstract: The work compares the levels of amino acids in canned Pleurotus ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus mushrooms. Compared with A. bisporus, P. ostreatus contained significantly lower levels of ash, total nitrogen and protein nitrogen (by 17-40%), but 12% more total carbohydrates. Protein nitrogen constituted 87% of the total nitrogen in A. bisporus and 72% in P. ostreatus. The conversion factor from total nitrogen to protein was 3.45 in A. bisporus, 15% lower than in P. ostreatus. In both species, glutamine was the most abundant endogenous amino acid while leucine was the most abundant exogenous amino acid. The least abundant endogenous and exogenous amino acids were respectively glycine, and methionine and cysteine. When the results were expressed in terms of per 100 g of fresh matter, P. ostreatus contained significantly higher levels of arginine, tyrosine and valine than A. bisporus (by 14-21%), but lower levels of alanine, asparagine, glutamine, glycine, cysteine and histidine (by 5-38%). In terms of per 100 g of protein, P. ostreatus contained significantly higher levels of alanine, arginine, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine and valine (by 9-40%) than A. bisporus, but lower levels of asparagine, glutamine, proline and cysteine (by 5-37%). Compared with the FAO/WHO reference protein patterns, no limiting amino acids were found in either species. The EAA (Essential Amino Acid) index values for canned P. ostreatus were 11% higher than for canned A. bisporus.
The fungistatic activity of organic selenium and its application to the production of cultivated mushrooms Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus spp.
Savic Milena,Ane?elkovic I.,Duvnjak Dunja,Matijasevic Danka
Archives of Biological Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/abs1204455s
Abstract: The activity of organic selenium against pathogenic molds and its use as a potential selenium source in the production of enriched mushrooms were examined. The effect of commercial selenized yeast on mycelia growth was examined using a method with mycelia disks and a well diffusion method. For mushroom enrichment, different concentrations of selenium were added to a growth substrate. The results presented in this paper suggest that the most suitable concentration of selenized yeast that inhibits the growth of the mycopathogenic molds is 70-100 mg/kg of selenium. With the addition of this concentration to the substrate, mushroom fruit bodies will uptake a high level of selenium, about 100 μg/g for Pleurotus spp., and 200 μg/g for Agaricus bisporus in dry weight of the mushroom. Thereby a double effect in the cultivation of mushrooms is achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010 and br. III46001]
Determination of nutritive changes of canned mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) during storage period
Necla Caglarlrmak,Kemal Unal,Semih Otles
Micología Aplicada Internacional , 2001,
Abstract: Mushrooms (A. bisporus) have a high nutritive value. Consuming fresh mushrooms is not productive because of enzyme activity and other limiting factors. The canning process is one food treatment that provides long product shelf-life. The changes of nutrients were determined by proximate composition: fat, protein, moisture, ash, and total carbohydrates. Minerals: Zn, Cu, K, Na, Ca, Cr, and P. Water soluble vitamins: B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), folic acid, pantothenic acid, niacin and vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid). These nutrients were determined on both fresh mushrooms and during storage for six months. The analyses were made at one and one-half month intervals. Mushrooms were exposed to blanching in the canning process and were sterilized. During blanching and storage, usually the nutritive contents changed. Values of freshly canned and stored products (the first value in parenthesis belongs to the fresh product, the second value represents the end of the six month storage period) were (%): fat (0.35-0.30), protein (3.43-2.24), moisture (91.73-92.02), ash (0.71-1.60), total carbohydrate (3.78-3.84). Minerals (ppm): Zn (5.47-1.70), Cu (1.59-3.79), K (2445.50- 140.40), Na (171.59-6596.13), Fe (8.73-9.20), Ca (39.60-68.06), Cr (trace-trace), P (882.30- 446.40). Vitamins (mg/100g): B1 (thiamine) (0.094-0.028), B2 (riboflavin) (0.396-0.176), folic acid (0.078-0.020), vitamin C (ascorbic acid) (5.72-2.31), pantothenic acid (2.29-1.22), niacin (5.35-4.29).
Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus
Di Piero, Robson Marcelo;Novaes, Quelmo Silva de;Pascholati, Sérgio Florentino;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132010000200004
Abstract: the objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against cabmv by using preparations from agaricus brasiliensis and lentinula edodes mushrooms. in experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced cabmv incidence in passion fruit plants. this protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. however, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving cabmv transmission by aphid vectors. an inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on chenopodium quinoa, a cabmv local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. still in c. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. these results showed that aqueous extracts from a. brasiliensis and l. edodes fruiting bodies had cabmv infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.
Productivity, biological efficiency, and number of Agaricus blazei mushrooms grown in compost in the presence of Trichoderma sp. and Chaetomium olivacearum contaminants
Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira de;Kopytowski Filho, Jo?o;Minhoni, Marli Teixeira de Almeida;Coutinho, Leila Nakati;Figueiredo, Mário Barreto;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822007000200010
Abstract: this experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the fungi trichoderma sp. and chaetomium olivacearum on the productivity, biological efficiency and number of agaricus blazei mushrooms grown in compost (mixture of crushed sugarcane, coast-cross grass trash, soybean meal, gypsum, and calcitic limestone). the experiment consisted of 3 treatments (trichoderma sp., c. olivacearum, and a control) with 8 replications each (box containing 12kg of compost colonized by a. blazei). later, 150g of inoculum of each contaminant fungus (trichoderma sp. and c. olivacearum) were distributed on the surface of the compost previously colonized by a. blazei. the experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with a plastic roof, under relative humidity of about 60-90% and temperature between 20-34oc. productivity was determined from the relation between fresh weight of the mushroom and fresh weight of the compost. biological efficiency was determined from the relation between fresh weight of the mushroom and dry weight of the compost at the end of the harvesting period. based on results obtained, the contaminant fungi did not affect the productivity, biological efficiency, and number of a. blazei mushrooms grown in compost when introduced into previously colonized composts.
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