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THE EFFECTS OF DIETARY FOOD FORTIFIED WITH VITAMIN B4 ON LIPID PROFILES IN SERUM AND LIVER TISSUE
Yohanes Buang
Makara Seri Kesehatan , 2010,
Abstract: The effects of dietary food fortified with vitamin B4 on lipid profiles in serum and liver tissue were studied. Rats were paired-fed a 0.25% vitamin B4 diet or a diet without vitamin B4 for 10 days. Serum lipid levels were measured using enzyme assay kits. Lipids of liver tissues were extracted and the lipid contents were determined. A piece of liver was prepared to determine the activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and fatty acid β-oxidation. The results showed that animals fed a food fortified with vitamin B4 had higher level of serum TG, PL, total cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein. Their increases were approximately by 74%, 20%, 27%, and 27%, respectively. The significant changes in liver lipid were only found in PL component. This treatment promoted FAS activity, but impaired the fatty acid β-oxidation. In conclusion: Dietary food fortified with vitamin B4 induces hypertriglyceridemia and liver PL level.
Dietary shochu kasu alleviates fatty liver induced by orotic acid  [cached]
Yohanes Buang, Pius D. Ola, Teruyoshi Yanagita
Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology , 2010,
Abstract: The effects of dietary shochu kasu (5%) on orotic acid-induced fatty liver were studied in rats. Liver triglyceride content of orotic acid-fed rats increased by 5-fold in comparison to basal group. Shochu kasu reduced triglyceride content by two-third. The activities of fatty acid synthase and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase significantly decreased that was approximately by 35% and 20%, respectively. The serum lipid levels however were nearly unchanged. The alleviation of fatty liver in rats with shochu kasu, therefore, was associated with the inhibition of fatty acid synthase and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activities.
Dietary saponins of sea cucumber alleviate orotic acid-induced fatty liver in rats via PPARα and SREBP-1c signaling
Xiao-Qian Hu, Yu-Ming Wang, Jing-Feng Wang, Yong Xue, Zhao-Jie Li, Koji Nagao, Teruyoshi Yanagita, Chang-Hu Xue
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-9-25
Abstract: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, including normal control group, fatty liver model group, SSC-treated group with SSC at levels of 0.01%, 0.03% and 0.05%. Model rats were established by administration with 1% orotic acid (OA). After the experiment period, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and hepatic lipid concentrations were determined. To search for a possible mechanism, we examined the changes of key enzymes and transcriptional factors involved in hepatic lipids biosynthesis, fatty acid β-oxidation.Both 0.03% and 0.05% SSC treatment alleviated hepatic steatosis and reduced serum TG and TC concentration significantly in OA fed rats. Hepatic lipogenic enzymes, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS), malic enzyme (ME), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activities were inhibited by SSC treatment. SSC also decreased the gene expression of FAS, ME, G6PDH and sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c). Otherwise, the rats feeding with SSC showed increased carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) activity in the liver. Hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα), together with its target gene CPT and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) mRNA expression were also upregulated by SSC.According to our study, the lipids-lowering effect of dietary SSC may be partly associated with the enhancement of β-oxidation via PPARα activation. In addition, the inhibited SREBP-1c- mediated lipogenesis caused by SSC may also contribute to alleviating fatty liver.Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) evolves when large amounts of lipids deposit in the hepatocytes with no excessive alcohol consumption [1]. Population studies show that NAFLD is strongly associated with the clinical features of the metabolic syndrome such as obesity [2,3], type II diabetes [4], and dislipidemia [5]. The etiological association between NAFLD and metabolic syndrome has been shown in both obese and non-obese patients, and this leads to the suggestion that NA
Dietary sea cucumber cerebroside alleviates orotic acid-induced excess hepatic adipopexis in rats
Bei Zhang, Changhu Xue, Xiaoqian Hu, Jie Xu, Zhaojie Li, Jingfeng Wang, Teruyoshi Yanagita, Yong Xue, Yuming Wang
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-11-48
Abstract: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups including normal control group, NAFLD model group, and two SCC-treated groups with SCC at 0.006% and 0.03% respectively. The fatty liver model was established by administration of 1% orotic acid (OA) to the rats. After 10d, serum and hepatic lipid levels were detected. And the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were also determined. Besides, to gain the potential mechanism, the changes of key enzymes and gene expressions related to the hepatic lipid metabolism were measured.Dietary SCC at the level of 0.006% and 0.03% ameliorated the hepatic lipid accumulation in fatty liver rats. SCC administration elevated the serum triglyceride (TG) level and the ALT, AST activities in OA-fed rats. The activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes including fatty acid synthase (FAS), malic enzyme (ME) and glucose-6-phosphatedehydrogenase (G6PDH) were inhibited by SCC treatment. And the gene expressions of FAS, ME, G6PDH and sterol-regulatory element binding protein (SREBP-1c) were also reduced in rats fed SCC. However, dietary SCC didn't affect the activity and mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) in liver. Besides, suppression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) activity was observed in SCC-feeding rats.These results suggested that dietary SCC could attenuate hepatic steatosis due to its inhibition of hepatic lipogenic gene expression and enzyme activity and the enhancement of TG secretion from liver.
Evaluation of the content and the potential bioavailability of iron from fortified with iron and non-fortified food products
Joanna Suliburska,Zbigniew Krejpcio,Natalia Ko?aczyk
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum : Technologia Alimentaria , 2011,
Abstract: Background. Fortified food products contain usually higher amounts of certain nutrients. However, the information about the nutritional quality of such products is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the content and the release of iron from fortified and non-fortified food products available on the Polish market. Material and methods. A group of 29 fortified with Fe and non-fortified food products, such as cereal products (16) and confectionaries (13), were purchased from local market between October and November 2009. The content of Fe in these products, as well as the amount of Fe released in enzymatic digestion in vitro was determined by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry method. Results. It was found that most of the fortified with Fe food products had significantly higher amount and the potential bioavailability of this element in comparison with the non-fortified analogues, however the content of Fe determined analytically not always matched the values declared on the label. Conclusions. Products fortified with Fe appear to be better sources of potentially bioavailable Fe in comparison with the non-fortified analogues.
The production of guava juice fortified with dietary fiber
Woranong Thongsombat,Anchalee Sirichote,Suganya Chanthachum
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2007,
Abstract: The production of guava juice fortified with soluble dietary fiber as pectin extracted from guava cake (peel, pulp, seeds) was conducted. The waste guava cake from juice processing plant was used for pectin extraction using sodium hexametaphosphate method followed by pectin precipitation using acidified ethanol method. A yield of 30.50±0.34% crude pectin was achieved. Crude pectin also contained 4.71±0.18% moisture, 0.34±0.21% protein, 0.68±0.00% ash, 20.70±0.16 g (%dwb) soluble dietary fibers. pH of crude pectin was 3.06±0.02. The L* a*and b* values were 81.17±0.21, 4.76±0.04 and 15.43±0.07, respectively. Water holding capacity and bulk density were 0.90±0.01 g.water/g.solid and 0.96±0.05 g/ml, respectively. This study found that the optimum conditions for guava juice extraction using pectinase at 45oC were 0.10 % v/v pectinase concentration and 21 2 h incubation time. Under these optimum conditions, production of guava juice with different ratios of total soluble solids (oBrix) to acid as citric acid content (%) including, 24.0, 28.0, 32.0, 35.0 and 40.0 oBrix-acid ratio, and product sensory evaluation were also conducted. By the consideration from the greatest perceived scores of all sensory evaluation attributes including color, turbidity, odor, flavor and overall acceptability, the oBrix-acid ratio of 40.0 was selected for guava juice processing. The clarified guava juice was then fortified with pectin powder extracted from previous experiments using various pectin concentrations: 0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75% (w/w). It was found that the perceived scores of the overall acceptability attribute decreased (p<0.05) with increasing of pectin concentration. The greatest perceived score of the mouthfeel attribute was observed from the use of 0.25% pectin. Therefore, the optimum concentration of 0.25% soluble dietary fiber as pectin for guava juice fortification is selected for further guava juice processing.
Food variety, dietary diversity, and food characteristics among convenience samples of Guatemalan women
Soto-Méndez,María José; Campos,Raquel; Hernández,Liza; Orozco,Mónica; Vossenaar,Marieke; Solomons,Noel W;
Salud Pública de México , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342011000400003
Abstract: objective: to compare variety and diversity patterns and dietary characteristics in guatemalan women. material and methods: two non-consecutive 24-h recalls were conducted in convenience samples of 20 rural mayan women and 20 urban students. diversity scores were computed using three food-group systems.variety and diversity scores and dietary origin and characteristics were compared between settings using independent t-test or mann-whitney-u-test. results: dietary variety and diversity were generally greater in the urban sample when compared to the rural sample, depending on the number of days and food-group system used for evaluation.the diet was predominantly plant-based and composed of non-fortified food items in both areas.the rural diet was predominantly composed of traditional,non-processed foods. the urban diet was mostly based on non-traditional and processed items. conclusion: considerations of intervention strategies for dietary improvement and health protection for the guatemalan countryside should still rely on promotion and preservation of traditional food selection.
Studies on ready- to- eat Soybean Fortified Snack Food-Sorghum Sattu  [PDF]
Sumedha Deshpande, PC Bargale and M.K.Tripathi
Octa Journal of Biosciences , 2013,
Abstract: ‘Sattu’ is a roasted flour mixture of cereal and pulse combination and used as ‘ready -to-eat’ snack food in most parts of India. Owing to its high nutritional balance, long shelf life and excellent taste, sattu is also a popular supplement food especially in rural India. Efforts were made in present study to fortify soybean and sorghum with Bengal gram (Chickpea) in various proportions to prepare nutritious and ready- to- eat snack. The selected grains were moisture conditioned to 30% level, roasted and powdered and then blended in different proportions so that an acceptable final product with maximum nutritional benefit and adequate shelf life was developed. Soybeans were blended in the range of 10 to 40% while sorghum was incorporated from 10 to 35% and the proportion of Bengal gram varied in the range of 40 to 70%. The products developed were analyzed for their proximate composition, shelf life and sensory evaluation. Results indicated that protein content of the developed products increased from 20 to 70% when compared to the conventional sorghum:Bengal gram sattu, while fat content increased by 21 to 121% depending upon the level of soybean fortification. Results of sensory evaluation showed that soy-sorghum-sattu fortified up to a level of 30% soybean well accepted. The Shelf life studies indicated that soy-sattu could safely be stored in metallic containers up to 60 days during summer and rainy seasons. The economic analysis revealed that production of soy-sorghum fortified sattu could be a profitable proposition at small scale (50kg/d) pilot plant level.
Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes  [cached]
Sarah L. Booth
Food & Nutrition Research , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v56i0.5505
Abstract: Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is the major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product of bacterial production or conversion from dietary phylloquinone. Food composition databases are limited for menaquinones and their presence in foods varies by region. Dietary intakes of all forms of vitamin K vary widely among age groups and population subgroups. Similarly, the utilization of vitamin K from different forms and food sources appear to vary, although our understanding of vitamin K is still rudimentary in light of new developments regarding the menaquinones.
EXPERIMENTS OF FORTIFIED EGG YOLK POWDER IN MICE  [PDF]
Zsuzsanna Kiss,Annamária Kert,Csaba Szabó,Judit Bordán
Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The egg contains inorganic binding nutrients, which are essential in human feeding. Besides a great number of nutrients, vitamins and microelements can be accumulated in egg yolk. The enrichment of vitamins and carotinoids in egg yolk can be achieved by addition of desired supplementary compounds to the feed. Fortified egg yolk can be a good source of different carotenoids, and vitamin C. Carotenoids have protecting effect as follows: antioxidant activity, immunostimulation effect and antimutagenous effect. The ascorbic acid’s biological effect is ability of oxidation-reduction. It has reduction capacity, and takes part in regeneration after glutation oxidation. In our experiment BALBc mice were fed by fortified egg yolk powder. Carotenoid, lutein, lycopene, and vitamin C were mixed into the egg yolk before lyophilisation (lutein 0.014 %; vitamin C 0.035 %, likopin 0.035 %) in food. The other mice group was fed with syntetic form of lutein, lycopene and vitamin C. Mice were bled at 5th and 10th day of experiment. Blood and liver concentrations of lutein, lycopene and vitamin C were measured by HPLC method. In our experiment we compared utilization of lutein, lycopene and vitamin C concentration in different fortified food of BALBc mice.
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