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Agentes de onicomicosis en Costa Rica
Salas-Campos,Ingrid; Chaves-Madrigal,Olga;
Revista Costarricense de Ciencias Médicas , 2004,
Abstract: dermatophytes are the most common etiological agent of onychomycosis, however fusarium sp., aspergillus sp. y scopulariopsis brevicaulis have been identified as primary agent. in the present work we attended 330 patients which onychopathies in the clinical laboratory of the hospital calderon guardia. in total 206 patients were diagnosed with onychomycosis. of these patients, 119 were diagnosed only by direct examination, 83 by both direct examination and culture, and 4 only by culture of the etiological agent. fusarium sp. was identified among the agents of onychomycosis. this fungus respond very poorly to antifungals commonly use in onychomycosis cause by dermatophytes. thus, our finding point out the important of the identification of the etiological agent of onychomycosis.
Onicomicosis por hongos fuliginosos Onychomycosis Caused by Demateaceous Fungi
Ingrid Salas-Campos,Norma T Gross-Martinez,Pedro J Carrillo-Dover
Acta Médica Costarricense , 2009,
Abstract: Justificación y objetivo: Las infecciones de las u as producidas por hongos son un problema de frecuente consulta dermatológica. Los dermatofitos son la mayor causa de estas infecciones, siendo Trichophyton rubrum el agente etiológico más importante. Sin embargo, los hongos no dermatofitos, tanto hialinos como fuliginosos, pueden ser también responsables de estos cuadros clínicos. Debido a que estos hongos tienden a ser resistentes a los antimicóticos comúnmente usados para tratar las onicomicosis, es que se hace indispensable que el clínico se asegure por medio de un examen de laboratorio de la etiología de la infección. Métodos: Se estudiaron tres casos de pacientes con lesiones en u as, que acudieron al laboratorio de Micología Médica, Facultad de Microbiología, Universidad de Costa Rica. Se realizaron los análisis de rutina para aislamiento e identificación de hongos patógenos. Resultados: En los tres casos estudiados se observó al examen directo micelio fuliginoso. En uno de los casos se aisló e identificó Scytalidium dimidiatum, hongo que presenta resistencia a los antifúngicos utilizados para tratar onicomicosis. Conclusión. El reporte de hongos diferentes a los dermatofitos como agentes etiológicos de onicomicosis es importante para que el médico pueda elegir el tratamiento más recomendado para este tipo de infección. Background and aim: Onychomycosis is one of the commonest dermatological conditions. Dermatophytes, especially Trichophyton rubrum, are responsible for the majority of infections. However, hyaline non-dermathophyte and demataceous fungi may also cause nail infections. The antifungal agents commonly use to treat non-dermatophyte nail infections are of low efficacy. Thus, the medical doctor must be provided with a laboratory diagnosis of the etiological agent before treating the patient. Methods: Three clinical cases of nail infections were studied in the laboratory of Medical Mycology, School of Microbiology, University of Costa Rica. Routine analysis for the isolation and identification of fungal pathogens were performed. Results: In the three clinical cases studied demataceous mycelia was observed in the direct mount. In one of the cases Scytalidium dimidiatum, a fungus resistant to antifungal therapy, was isolated. Conclusion: It is important to report non-dermathophyte fungi that are known to cause onychomycosis to guide the medical doctor in the treatment of this infection.
Agentes etiológicos de onicomicosis diagnosticadas en el laboratorio de micología médica de la Universidad de Costa Rica
Salas-Campos,Ingrid; Gross-Martínez,Norma T;
Acta Médica Costarricense , 2012,
Abstract: background and aim: among the onychodistrophies, onychomycosis are the most frequently encountered. this infection not only constitutes an esthetic problem for the patients, but can also affect their daily activities. for dermatologists, it is crucial to make a differential diagnosis; thus, the medical mycology laboratory plays an important role to achieve this purpose. the fungal agents most frequently encountered are the dermatophytes, however, other filamentous non-dermatophyte fungi have been isolated and are known to be less susceptible to antifungals. in the present work, the frequency of onychomycosis among patients attending the medical mycology laboratory, ucr, was studied during four years, according to the age and sex of the patients, as well as the isolated etiological agents identified. methods: the study included all patients that requested the community service provided by the department of medical mycology, school of microbiology, ucr, between january 2007 and december 2010 and that showed nail alterations suspicious for onychomycosis. the age and sex of each patient were registered and samples were processed for direct microscopy and culture. results: a total of 431 nail samples were collected, of which 85.4% were toenails and 14.6% fingernails. the mean age of the patients was 49 years, of which 64% were females and 36% males. onychomycosis was diagnosed, either by direct microscopy and culture, or only with positive direct microscopy, in 73.4% of the sample population, of which 89.4% were toenails and 10.6% fingernails. trichophyton rubrum was the etiological agent most frequently isolated from toenails, followed by fusarium spp. c albicans was the most frequent fungal agent observed in fingernails. conclusion: the diagnosis of onychomycosis relies upon both the clinical and laboratory diagnosis. dermatophytes, yeasts and non-dermatophyte filamentous fungi were identified in the population studied. these findings should be considered due to their
El Herbario USJ de Costa Rica: trayectoria y contribuciones USJ Herbarium of Costa Rica: history and contributions
Carlos O Morales
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2012,
Abstract: En 2011 el Herbario USJ de Costa Rica cumplió 80 a os y llegó a 100 000 especímenes de todos los taxa que estudia la botánica. Se anotan datos y cifras sobre historia, fundadores y contribuciones de USJ al conocimiento florístico de Costa Rica. In 2011 the Herbarium USJ of the University of Costa Rica became 80 years old and came up with 100 000 specimens of all the taxa that traditional botany studies. Data and figures on the history, the founders, and contributions of USJ to the knowledge of Costa Rican flora are summarized
Biovisualizador: Visualizando los anfibios de Costa Rica
Franklin Hernández Castro,Erick Mata Montero,Jorge Monge Fallas
Tecnología en Marcha , 2009,
Abstract: El Biovisualizador es una novedosa herramienta con una interfaz tridimensional, orientada al público en general, para presentar información sobre especies de Costa Rica mediante el uso de árboles de conos. El Biovisualizador es producto de investigaciones llevadas a cabo conjuntamente en el (ITCR) Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica y en el (INBio) Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, dentro del marco de la cátedra UNESCO en Bioinformática, en el tema específico de dise o de interfaces tridimensionales para visualización científica. En este artículo se describe la herramienta en función de una aplicación particular que consiste en un ambiente tridimensional interactivo para visualizar y hacer informes sobre todos los anfibios de Costa Rica.
Biodiversidad marina de Costa Rica: Crustacea: Infraorden Anomura  [cached]
Rita Vargas,Jorge Cortés
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2006,
Abstract: El grupo de los cangrejos anomuros es uno de los mejor conocidos de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, pero muy poco conocidos de la costa Caribe. En esta recopilación, basada en la literatura y en las colecciones del Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, informamos de la presencia de 114 especies del Infraorden Anomura en Costa Rica, 20 especies del Caribe, 96 especies del Pacífico, y dos especies presentes en ambas costa. Veintinueve especies son informes nuevos para Costa Rica, 15 del Caribe (75% del total de especies informadas para esa costa) y 14 del Pacífica (15% del total de esa costa). La distribución de diez especies es ampliada hasta Costa Rica, siete en el Caribe y tres en el Pacífico. Seis especies son informadas por primera vez para la Isla del Coco, donde además hay cuatro especies endémicas. Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica: Crustacea: Infraorder Anomura. The anomuran crabs are among the best known crustacean groups from the Pacific coast. However, this group is poorly known from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. In this compilation based on the literature and the collection at the Zoology Museum, Biology School, University of Costa Rica, we report the presence of 114 species of the Infraorder Anomura for Costa Rica, 20 species from the Caribbean, 96 species from the Pacific (two are present on both coasts). Twenty-nine species are new reports for Costa Rica, 15 from the Caribbean coast (74% of the total of species from that coast) and 14 from the Pacific (15% of the total from the Pacific). The range of ten species is extended to Costa Rica, siete from the Caribbean and three from the Pacific. Six species are reported for the first time from Cocos Island, where there are also four endemic species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2): 461-488. Epub 2006 Jun 01.
Miguel Angel Quesada Pacheco, El espa ol colonial de Costa Rica
José Alejandro Cárdenas Bunsen
Lexis , 1994,
Abstract: MIGUEL ANGEL QUESADA PACHECO, El espa ol colonial de Costa Rica, San José, (Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica), 1990, 287 pp.
Sistema de salud de Costa Rica
Sáenz,María del Rocío; Acosta,Mónica; Muiser,Jorine; Bermúdez,Juan Luis;
Salud Pública de México , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342011000800011
Abstract: this paper describes the costa rican health system which provides health, water and sanitation services. the health component of the system includes a public and a private sector. the public sector is dominated by the caja costarricense de seguro social (ccss), an autonomous institution in charge of financing, purchasing and delivering most of the personal health services in costa rica. ccss is financed with contributions of the affiliates, employers and the state, and manages three regimes: maternity and illness insurance, disability, old age and death insurance, and a non-contributive regime. ccss provides services in its own facilities but also contracts with private providers. the private sector includes a broad set of services offering ambulatory and hospital care. these services are financed mostly out-of-pocket, but also with private insurance premiums. the ministry of health is the steward of the system, in charge of strategic planning, sanitary regulation, and research and technology development. among the recent policy innovations we can mention the establishment of the basic teams for comprehensive health care (ebais), the de-concentration of hospitals and public clinics, the introduction of management agreements and the creation of the health boards.
LA TUTELA SUPRACONSTITUCIONAL DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS EN COSTA RICA
Gilbert Armijo
Ius et Praxis (En línea) , 2003,
Abstract: El presente artículo analiza la posición de los derechos fundamentales y la recepción de los derechos humanos en el ordenamiento jurídico de Costa Rica, considerando la eficacia de los instrumentos internacionales sobre la materia y la jurisprudencia de la Comisión y la Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos. El artículo analiza especialmente la jurisprudencia de la Sala Constitucional de la Corte Suprema de Costa Rica. This article analyzes the place of human rights and their reception in the Costa Rican legal system, considering the effectiveness of international treaties on the subject and the decisions of the Inter-American Commission and Court on Human Rights. The decisions of the Constitutional Chamber of the Costa Rican Supreme Court are also commented.
The deepwater fishery along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, Central America Pesca en aguas profundas a lo largo de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, América Central  [cached]
Ingo S Wehrtmann,Vanessa Nielsen-Mu?oz
Latin american journal of aquatic research , 2009,
Abstract: Global catches of marine fishery resources declined during the last decades; however, there has been a trend of increasing exploitation of deepwater resources that are especially vulnerable to depletion. Such a tendency was noticeable in Pacific Latin América, too. In Costa Rica, the vast majority of the commercial fishing activities are concentrated on the Pacific coast. The target species for the deepwater fishery in Costa Rica are the two pandalids Heterocarpus affinis and H. vicarius as well as Solenocera agassizii, the latter one being the most important in terms of annual landings. Here we compile the information available from Costa Rica about each of the three target species. Furthermore, we describe research activities related to the Costa Rican deepwater resources and present available data about by-catch and discards in this fishery. Finally, the current situation of the administration and management of these resources in Costa Rica is described. Strengthening collaboration between governmental agencies, the fishery sector, non-governmental organizations, and the academic sector is recommended to avoid an uncontrolled overfishing of these valuable deepwater resources along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Las capturas globales de los recursos marinos pesqueros disminuyeron durante las últimas décadas. Sin embargo, se ha observado una tendencia de aumento en la explotación de los recursos de aguas profundas, los cuales son especialmente vulnerables a la extracción. Esta tendencia ha sido notable también en la pesca a lo largo del Pacífico de Latino América. En Costa Rica, la mayoría de las actividades pesqueras comerciales se concentran en la costa del Pacífico. Las especies objetivo de la pesca de aguas profundas en Costa Rica son los dos pandálidos Heterocarpus affinis y H vicarius así como Solenocera agassizii, siendo esta última la más importante respecto a las capturas anuales. Se compila la información disponible sobre las tres especies objetivo de Costa Rica. Además, se describen las actividades de investigación relacionadas con los recursos de aguas profundas en Costa Rica y se presentan los datos disponibles sobre la fauna acompa ante y el descarte en esa pesquería. Finalmente, se describe la situación actual de la administración y manejo de dichos recursos en Costa Rica. Se recomienda fortalecer la colaboración entre las agencias gubernamentales, el sector pesquero, las organizaciones no-gubernamentales y el sector académico para evitar la sobre-explotación sin control de estos valiosos recursos de aguas profundas del Pacífico de Cos
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