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Inhaladores de polvo seco para el tratamiento de las enfermedades respiratorias: Parte I Dry powder inhalers for the treatment of respiratory diseases: Part I  [cached]
Adriana Mu?oz Cernada
Revista Cubana de Farmacia , 2006,
Abstract: Se presenta una revisión acerca de la tecnología de los inhaladores de polvo seco (IPS) empleados para el tratamiento de las enfermedades respiratorias entre las que se destaca el asma bronquial y la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC). Los IPS comenzaron su desarrollo en la década de los 70 y se han reactualizado en a os recientes como una alternativa de sustitución de los inhaladores de dosis metrada con clorofluocarbono (CFC). Se describen los antecedentes de esta tecnología, se mencionan las características físico-químicas principales de este tipo de formulación, así como los factores que influyen en la desagregación y dispersión de los polvos. Por último, se menciona la técnica empleada actualmente en el desarrollo de un nuevo prototipo de IPS que permite optimizar los mecanismos de fluidización para lograr una dosificación altamente reproducible A review of the dry powder inhalers (DPI) technology used to treat respiratory diseases, such as bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, was made. The DPIs began to be developed in the 70's and they have been reupdated recently as a replacement alternative of metered-dose inhalers with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). The history of this technology is dealt with, the main physicochemical characteristics of this type of formulation are described, and the factors influencing on the disaggregation and dispersion of the powders are mentioned. Finally, the technique used at present in the development of a new prototype of DPI that allows to optimize the fluidization mechanisms to attain a highly reproducible dosage is approached
Inhaladores de polvo seco para el tratamiento de las enfermedades respiratorias: Parte II
Mu?oz Cernada,Adriana;
Revista Cubana de Farmacia , 2006,
Abstract: the dry powder inhalers (dpi) are devices that allow the aerosolization and delivery of medications for the treatment of respiratory diseases, without the use of propellants. they are easy handling, portable and durable. according to their fluidization mechanism they can be divided into two kinds: active and passive. the characteristics of the design of some of the most commercially used passive devices for the administration of powder formulations for inhalation are described in this paper. the techniques applied to conduct the in vitro studies, as well as the results of some studies undertaken with these devices are also mentioned
Inhaladores de polvo seco para el tratamiento de las enfermedades respiratorias: Parte I
Mu?oz Cernada,Adriana;
Revista Cubana de Farmacia , 2006,
Abstract: a review of the dry powder inhalers (dpi) technology used to treat respiratory diseases, such as bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd, was made. the dpis began to be developed in the 70's and they have been reupdated recently as a replacement alternative of metered-dose inhalers with chlorofluorocarbon (cfc). the history of this technology is dealt with, the main physicochemical characteristics of this type of formulation are described, and the factors influencing on the disaggregation and dispersion of the powders are mentioned. finally, the technique used at present in the development of a new prototype of dpi that allows to optimize the fluidization mechanisms to attain a highly reproducible dosage is approached
Evidencias de un programa educativo sobre el uso de inhaladores antiasmáticos por adolescentes Evidences of an educational program on the use of asthma inhalers by adolescents  [cached]
Elizabeth María de la Paz Reyes,José Rafael Laborí Ruíz,Josefina Duverger Cobián,Lourdes González Guerrero
MEDISAN , 2010,
Abstract: Se efectuó una intervención educativa en 41 adolescentes que padecían asma bronquial, pertenecientes al Policlínico Docente "Carlos Juan Finlay" de Santiago de Cuba, con el objetivo de aumentar el nivel de conocimientos sobre el uso de los inhaladores en ese grupo poblacional. Con esta intervención se mejoró considerablemente el conocimiento de los integrantes de la serie, lo cual mostró la efectividad del programa aplicado al lograr su propósito inicial. Educational intervention was performed in 41 adolescents who suffered from bronchial asthma, belonging to "Carlos Juan Finlay" Teaching Polyclinic of Santiago de Cuba, with the purpose of increasing the knowledge of the inhalers use in that population group. With this intervention the knowledge of patients of the series improved significantly, showing the effectiveness of the program implemented when achieving its initial purpose.
POLVO SEDIMENTABLE, ASMA BRONQUIAL Y ENFERMEDADES RESPIRATORIAS AGUDAS: San Antonio de los ba os, 1994-2003 Settable dust, bronchial asthma and acute respiratory diseases  [cached]
Carlos Eduardo Hernández Fuentes,Félix Luis Rodríguez Pérez,Antonio Pérez Rodríguez
Revista Habanera de Ciencias M??dicas , 2009,
Abstract: Las enfermedades respiratorias como el asma y las Infecciones Respiratorias Agudas (IRA), constituyen un importante problema de salud en el municipio San Antonio de los Ba os. En esta investigación, se emplearon 238 resultados de muestras de polvo sedimentable, correspondiente a 120 meses de observación en un período de 10 a os (1994-2003), procesadas en el Centro Municipal de Higiene y Epidemiología. Los datos de atenciones por IRA y crisis de asma se obtuvieron de la Dirección Municipal de Salud. Los resultados fundamentales consisten en que 75 % de la vigilancia de polvo sedimentable, estuvo por encima de la norma establecida (0.5 mg/cm2/30 días). A nivel municipal se reportan anualmente en promedio 29 176 casos notificados de IRA; así como 9 471 crisis de asma y se ubica dentro de los municipios que poseen alto riesgo por IRA. El análisis de la correlación y la tendencia por polvo sedimentable y las atenciones de IRA por 100 000 habitantes, reflejó que los picos de los mayores reportes por polvo sedimentable, anteceden a los mayores reportes de atenciones. Por otra parte, la comparación entre el polvo sedimentable y las tasas de atenciones por crisis de asma bronquial por 100 000 habitantes, arrojó que los picos de máxima contaminación por polvo sedimentable coinciden generalmente con mínimos de atenciones por crisis de asma bronquial. Todo ello sugiere que las crisis que ocurren ulteriormente, pueden ser asociadas con el polvo aún en suspensión. La condición de atmósfera cargada con concentraciones variables de polvo sedimentable, por encima de la norma estable-cida de 0.5 mg/cm2/30 días, pudiera exacerbar estas enfermedades respiratorias objeto de nuestro estudio. Bronchial asthma (BA) and Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) are an important health problem in the world as well as in San Antonio de los Ba os municipality. This research used the 238 samples of pollution air from 1994 to 2003 that were correlated with chronological series of BA and ARI from the same period.The main results were that 75% of the samples of contamination surveillance system were over the normal levels of pollution.The annual average ARI were 29 176 attentions and 9471 attentions on BA. AB monthly attentions rate were in a range of nearly 2000 at 9000 / 100000 inhabitants and between 22 700 and 34 000 attentions on ARI. Atmospheric pollution, measured by particulate air pollution above the standard 0.5 mg/cm 2/30 days it was increased between May to August. The biggest reports by air pollution proceeded to ARI attention increased. BA was increased generally on March and A
Evaluación de las técnicas y errores en el uso de los inhaladores de dosis medida en el paciente adulto Assessment of techniques and errors in the use of metered dose inhalers in adults  [cached]
Hernán Sotomayor L,Alvaro Vera A,Rina Naveas G,Cristián Sotomayor F
Revista médica de Chile , 2001,
Abstract: Background: Not all the techniques for the correct use of metered dose inhalers are used by patients and health care professionals. Aim: To assess the techniques and errors in the use of metered dose inhalers among patients and health care professionals. Material and methods: Evaluation of the inhaling technique, using a validated questionnaire, used by 68 patients, 30 physicians and 30 nurses working in a hospital at Concepción, Chile. Results: The "closed mouth" technique is used by 84% of patients, 40% of physicians and 73% of nurses. The rest uses the "open mouth" technique. The aerochamber is used by 12% of patients, 37% of physicians and 27% of nurses. The most frequent inhaling errors detected were not shaking the inhaler (26% of patients, 30% of physicians and 7% of nurses), not applying the puff at the start of inspiration (28% of patients, 7% of physicians and 13% of nurses), and not maintaining an apnea after the inhalation (41% of patients, 7% of physicians and 10% of nurses). Sixty percent of patients, 67% of physicians and 40% of nurses have not received instructions about the inhaler use. Conclusions: There is a high frequency of errors in the use of inhalers and most users have not been trained in its use. (Rev Méd Chile 2001; 129: 413-20)
METERED DOSE INHALERS
MASOOD JAVED
The Professional Medical Journal , 2004,
Abstract: Metered dose inhalers are the most effective, cheaper and safermethod of delivering drug to the patients with asthma and COPD. Errors in inhalatioinal technique compromisetheir use and efficacy. In the study 400 consecutive patients coming to outdoor of Allied Hospital Faisalabad,who ever had used MDIs were asked to perform inhalational technique and most common errors wereobserved. They were followed up for 8 weeks and those who remain untrained after 8 visits were declared nontrainable and accessory devices (spacer device) were added to MDIs. Errors were observed in every age groupbut generally speaking, percentage of error was more in old people and more in females. It was observed thatit is difficult to train old patients and females. Moreover it was observed that patient education anddemonstration of inhalational technique is corner stone in proper use of MDIs.
Dry Powder Inhalers - An Overview
M. Alagusundaram,N. Deepthi,S. Ramkanth,S. Angalaparameswari
International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The drug product encompasses the pharmacologic activity with the pharmaceutical properties. The ideal characte-ristics are physical and chemical stability, ease of processing, accurate and reproducible delivery to the target or-gans and availability at the site of action. A Dry powder inhaler (DPI) is a device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder. For the DPI, these goals can be met with a suitable powder formulation, an efficient metering system and a perfectly selected device. This review focuses on the dry powder inhaler formulation, evaluation, material methods and development processes. Most of the dry powder inhaler formulation en-compasses micronized drug particles blended with larger carrier particles that promote the flow properties, re-duce aggregation and help in dispersion. A combination of the physicochemical properties, particle size, shape, surface area and morphology affects the forces of interaction and aerodynamic properties, which in turn deter-mine the fluidization, dispersion, delivery to the lungs and deposition in the peripheral airways. However the properties of free micronized powders often interfere with the drug handling and with drug delivery, reducing the dose consistency. Dry powder inhalers are evaluated by the drug product characterization studies such as the in vitro dose proportionality, effect of patient dose, priming etc. The development of the new designs of the DPI is governed by the driving forces such as the regulatory and pharmacopoeial requirements, delivery systems for the NCE, clinical factors and commercial factors.
Excipient-API interactions in dry powder inhalers  [cached]
Shireesh Prakash Apte
Journal of Excipients and Food Chemicals , 2012,
Abstract: There remains a paucity of predictive models to evaluate the suitability of excipients or excipient mixtures for dry powder inhalers because a large number of interdependent variables affect both formulation and inhaler performance. The problem is compounded by empirical studies that are performed under different experimental conditions which make data comparison difficult. An easily calculable molecular parameter, the Parachor, relates structural constants to surface tension. When applied in conjunction with results obtained from inverse gas chromatography, the Parachor can be used to calculate adhesive and cohesive surface energies between excipients and active pharmaceutical ingredients. Values calculated from the Parachor are consistent with qualitative hypotheses and agree reasonably well with published quantitative results. Theability to both achieve and predict the free particle fraction from Parachor derived surface energy data represents a new paradigm worthy of further perusal.
Eliminación de As (V) y producción simultánea de polvo de cobre de un electrolito de Cu(II) - As(V) - H2SO4 mediante electrodiálisis reactiva  [cached]
Ibá?ez, J. P.
Revista de Metalurgia , 2012,
Abstract: The removal of As(V) and the simultaneous generation of powder of copper from an electrolyte made of As(V) - Cu(II) - H2SO4 was studied by using electro dialysis at several current densities, temperatures and aeration of the electrolyte. The removal of arsenic was proportional to the current density, temperature and aeration used. The removal of arsenic reached a value of 0.14 mmol/h at 500 A/m2, 25 °C and without aeration, this value increased to 0.31 mmol/h by increasing the aeration to 6.6 l/h. The Cu(II) was recovered in a 98 % as a fine arsenic free powder of metallic copper with oxides of copper. The arsenic was removed from the electrolyte by adsorption onto the anodic slimes generated from the lead anode oxidation. Se investigó la utilización de la electrodiálisis reactiva para eliminar arsénico y producir en forma simultánea polvo de cobre de una solución de Cu(II) - As(V) - H2SO4, a distintas densidades de corriente, temperatura y nivel de aireación de la solución. La eliminación de arsénico fue directamente proporcional a la densidad de corriente, aireación y temperatura. La eliminación alcanzada de As(V) fue de 0,14 mmol/h a 500 A/m2, 25 °C y sin aireación, al introducir un flujo de 6,6 l/h de aire a la solución de trabajo se incrementa la eliminación a 0,31 mmol/h. El Cu(II) se recupera en un 98 % en la forma de polvo de cobre metálico y óxidos de cobre libres de arsénico. El As(V) es eliminado de la solución de trabajo mediante su adsorción en la borra anódica generada por la oxidación del ánodo de plomo empleado.
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