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Eucalyptus essential oil action on mycorrhizal colonization and the establishment of Eucalyptus grandis in soil contaminated by copper A o do óleo essencial de eucalipto na micorriza o e no estabelecimento de Eucalyptus grandis em solo contaminado por cobre
Ricardo Bemfica Steffen,Zaida Inês Antoniolli,Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen,Rodrigo Josemar Seminoti Jacques
Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira , 2011, DOI: 10.4336/2012.pfb.67.245
Abstract: The use of eucalyptus essential oil can optimize the growth of ectomycorrhizal isolates, which aid the establishment of forest species in soils contaminated by copper. The study aimed to determine the best application of eucalyptus essential oil in the formation of mycorrhizal seedlings of Eucalyptus grandis and its influence on the establishment of these seedlings in soil contaminated by copper. It was used the ectomycorrhizal fungi (fECM) Pisolithus microcarpus. The application forms of the essential oil were evaluated in a greenhouse, by means of six treatments. Subsequently, the seedlings were transplanted and evaluated in soil contaminated by copper, greenhouse and field. It was determined height, diameter, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots, copper content in plant, colonization and survival in the field. The essential oil of E. grandis supports the growth of mycorrhizal of eucalyptus seedlings, particularly when applied to the substrate. The application of essential oil increases the colonization, promoting growth and survival of seedlings under greenhouse conditions and field. doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.245 A utiliza o do óleo essencial de eucalipto pode otimizar o crescimento de isolados ectomicorrízicos, os quais auxiliam o estabelecimento de essências florestais em solos contaminados por cobre. O trabalho teve por objetivo determinar a melhor forma de aplica o do óleo essencial de eucalipto na forma o de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis micorrizadas e sua influência no estabelecimento dessas mudas em solo contaminado por cobre. Utilizou-se o fungo ectomicorrízico (fECM) Pisolithus microcarpus. As formas de aplica o do óleo essencial foram avaliadas em casa de vegeta o, por meio de seis tratamentos. Posteriormente, as mudas foram transplantadas e avaliadas em solo contaminado por cobre, em condi es de casa de vegeta o e campo. Determinou-se altura, diametro, massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e raízes, teor de cobre na planta, coloniza o micorrízica e sobrevivência no campo. O óleo essencial de E. grandis favorece o crescimento de mudas de eucalipto micorrizadas, principalmente quando aplicado diretamente no substrato. A aplica o do óleo essencial aumenta a coloniza o micorrízica, favorecendo o crescimento e a sobrevivência das mudas em condi es de casa de vegeta o e campo.doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.245
Microbial biomassc, evolved CO2C, mycorrhizal colonization, soil fertility and corn yield under different soil management and liming = Carbono da biomassa microbiana e do CO2 liberado, micorriza o, fertilidade e produtividade do milho sob diferentes manejos do solo e calagem
Martha Regina Lucizano Garcia,Luiz Malcolm Mano de Mello,Ana Maria Rodrigues Cassiolato
Acta Scientiarum : Agronomy , 2006,
Abstract: The objective of this research was to quantify the microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and evolved CO2carbon (CO2–C), mycorrhizal colonization, soil fertility and corn production under different soil managements and surfacelimestone application. For that, an experiment was carried out consisting of four treatments, as follows: two soil managements notillage (NT) and minimum tillage (MT) and two limestone treatments (0 and 2 t ha1), with four replications. Soil managements affected the soil chemical attributes in the 00.10 m depth layer: the highest P values were observed in MT and the lowest Al levels in the NTtreatments. Once no significant differences were found among treatments for the evaluated microbial variables and corn yield, it allowed affirming that it is possible to avoid disruption of the notill sequence by applying lime on the soil surface, once the incorporation of organic matter and limestone caused little changes to the system stability. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar o carbono da biomassa microbiana (CBM) e do CO2 (CCO2) liberado, a micorriza o, fertilidade e a produtividade do milho em raz o do manejo do solo eda calagem aplicada à superfície. Para tanto, instalouse um experimento com quatro tratamentos constituídos de dois manejos do solo, plantio direto (PD) e cultivo mínimo (CM), com e sem calcário (0 e 2 t ha1), com quatro repeti es. Os manejos afetaram os atributosquímicos do solo na camada 00,10 m: o maior valor de P foi observado no CM e o menor de Al no PD. Uma vez que n o foram observadas diferen as significativas entre tratamentos para as variáveis microbiológicas e produtividade de milho, isto permite afirmar que é possível evitar a interrup o do PD com aplica o de calcário na superfície, visto que a incorpora o do material de cobertura e a calagem pouco alteraram a estabilidade do sistema.
Stimulatory effect of eucalyptus essential oil on the germination and early growth of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings Efeito estimulante do óleo essencial de eucalipto na germina o e crescimento inicial de mudas de Eucalyptus grandis
Ricardo Bemfica Steffen,Zaida Inês Antoniolli,Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen
Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira , 2010, DOI: 10.4336/2012.pfb.63.199
Abstract: The use of essential oil and extracts from plants is becoming an efficient alternative in the biostimulation on growth and protection of plants. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of leaf essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis on the germination and the development of Eucalyptus grandis seedlings in nursery conditions. The eucalyptus seeds were exposed to the concentrations of 0, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 μL L-1 of the essential oil in controlled conditions. The eucalyptus seedlings were sprayed with 0, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 μL L-1 of the essential oil per plant, at intervals of seven days. The effect of this application on the seedling development were analyzed after 30 and 60 days. The results show that the germination was significantly higher when the seeds were exposed to 25 μL L-1 of the essential oil. The application of essential oil in the concentration of 30 and 40 μL L-1 provided higher growth of the aerial part and of the roots in greenhouse conditions, being an effective alternative to biostimulation the vegetative growth of eucalyptus seedlings. doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.63.199 A utiliza o de extratos e óleos essenciais de plantas vem sendo uma alternativa eficiente no bioestímulo do crescimento e prote o vegetal. O trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a utiliza o do óleo essencial extraído de folhas de Eucalyptus grandis sobre a germina o e o desenvolvimento inicial de mudas de eucalipto em condi es controladas, em casa de vegeta o. Sementes de eucalipto foram incubadas em concentra es de 0, 10, 25, 50, 75 e 100 μL L-1 do óleo essencial em ambiente controlado. Posteriormente, pulverizou-se plantulas de eucalipto com 0, 20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 μL L-1 do óleo essencial por planta, em intervalos de sete dias. Avaliou-se o efeito do óleo sobre o desenvolvimento vegetal aos 30 e 60 dias após o transplante. Os resultados evidenciam que a germina o foi significativamente maior quando as sementes foram tratadas com 25 μL L-1 do óleo essencial. A aplica o do óleo essencial nas concentra es de 30 e 40 μL L-1 proporcionou maior crescimento das raízes e da parte aérea das mudas de eucalipto em ambiente controlado, sendo uma alternativa eficiente na bioestimula o do crescimento vegetativo de mudas de eucalipto. doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.63.199
Biochemical changes in cotton plants by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal colonization
Damodaran, P. N.,,Udaiyan, K,Jee H. J
Research in Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: Biochemical changes in ten cultivars of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. Merr. ) inrelation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization was studied. Proteins, sugars,amino acids and phenols in both leaves and roots were quantified and compared with themycorrhization levels of the cultivars. Cultivars showed varying levels of mycorrizationwhich correlated with the biochemical levels of the plants. It is concluded that cultivarswhich are more mycorrhizal do show increased levels of phenols and proteins which inturn help them to resist pathogenesis.
Reduced arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in tomato ethylene mutants
Zs?g?n, Agustin;Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues;Benedito, Vagner Augusto;Figueira, Antonio Vargas de Oliveira;Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira;
Scientia Agricola , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162008000300006
Abstract: plant hormones are likely key regulators of arbuscular mycorrhizae (am) development. however, their roles in am are not well known. here mutants in five hormone classes introgressed in a single tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill. syn solanum lycopersicum l.) background (cv. micro-tom) were used to determine their effects on am development and the expression of defense-related genes (chitinases and b-1,3-glucanases) in roots. under low p conditions, mutant epinastic (epi) and never ripe (nr), ethylene overproducer and low sensitivity, respectively, had the intraradical colonization by glomus clarum highly inhibited, as compared to the control micro-tom (mt). no significant alterations in fungal colonization were observed in mutants affecting other hormone classes. under low p conditions, the steady state levels of transcripts encoding a class i basic chitinase (chi9) were higher in mycorrhizal epi and nr mutant roots as compared to mt controls. in contrast the steady state levels of a class iii acidic b-1,3-glucanase (tompr-q'a) transcripts in mycorrhizal epi mutant roots were significantly lower than in mycorrhizal mt roots. root colonization in epi mutants was accompanied by several alterations in fungal morphology, as compared to root colonization in mt controls. the data suggest that ethylene may play an important role in controlling intraradical arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal growth.
Soil Salinity Affects Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization of Halophytes  [PDF]
H.R. Asghari,M.R. Amerian,H. Gorbani
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: In order to determine the effects of soil salinity on AM fungi colonization in halophytes, plants of semi-arid region of North-Eastern Iran were examined for their colonization in soils with different salinity levels. Roots of several halophytes were colonized and showed typical structure of AM fungi with different levels of colonization. Haloxylon aphyllum, Kochia stellaris, Halocnemum strobilaceum, Seidlitzia rosmarinus and Salsola sp. of the Chenopodiaceae and Zygophyllum eurypterum and Peganum harmala of the Zygophyllaceae were found to be colonized by AM fungi. In several species the mycorrhizal status is reported for the first time. The results of this study revealed that AM colonization in halophytes in soil with high salinity level (16 dS m-1), but colonization was inhibited by very high salinity (45 dS m-1). The AM fungi colonization was absent in halophytes in very high soil salinity conditions may was due to inability of AM fungi to survive such salinity conditions, which may limit the beneficial effects of AM fungi in halophytes.
Mycorrhizal fungi inoculation and phosphorus fertilizer on growth, essential oil production and nutrient uptake in peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) Inocula o com fungos micorrízicos e aduba o fosfatada no crescimento, produ o de óleo essencial e absor o de nutrientes em hortel -pimenta (Mentha piperita L.)  [cached]
M.C. Arango,M.F. Ruscitti,M.G. Ronco,J. Beltrano
Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais , 2012,
Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of inoculation with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices A4 and Glomus intraradices B1 and two phosphorus levels (10 and 40 mg kg-1) on root colonization, plant growth, nutrient uptake and essential oil content in Mentha piperita L. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in 4x2 factorial arrangement, in completely randomized design. At sixty days after transplanting, the mycorrhizal plants had significantly higher fresh matter, dry matter and leaf area compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. The inoculation increased P, K and Ca levels in the shoot which were higher under 40 mg P kg-1 of soil. Plants grown with 40 mg P kg-1 soil increased the essential oil yield per plant by about 40-50% compared to those cultivated with 10 mg P kg-1, regardless of the mycorrhizal treatment. Among the studied fungal species, inoculation with G. intraradices A4 and a high level of P significantly increased plant growth and essential oil yield, compared to the other studied mycorrhizal fungal species. In conclusion, inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi into peppermint plants is a feasible alternative to increase the essential oil production and reduce the use of fertilizers required to obtain economic production of peppermint under phosphorus-deficient soil condition. Este estudo avaliou os efeitos da inocula o de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices A4 e Glomus intraradices B1 e duas doses de fósforo (10 e 40 mg kg-1) sobre a coloniza o radicular, crescimento, absor o de nutrientes e óleos essenciais em Mentha piperita L. O estudo foi conduzido em casa de vegeta o no delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4x2. Sessenta dias após o transplantio, as plantas micorrizadas apresentaram massa fresca, massa seca, e área foliar significativamente maior em compara o as n o-micorrizadas. A inocula o aumentou o teor de P, K e Ca na parte aérea sendo superiores em 40 mg P kg-1 de solo. As plantas cultivadas com 40 mg P kg-1 de solo aumentaram a produ o de óleo essencial por planta cerca de 40-50% em rela o às cultivadas com 10 mg de P kg-1, independentemente da micorriza o. Dentre as espécies fúngicas estudadas, a inocula o com G. Intraradices A4 e com um elevado nível de P, aumentou significativamente o crescimento e rendimento de óleos essenciais em compara o com outras espécies de fungos micorrízicos estudados. Em conclus o, a inocula o dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em plantas de hortel é uma alternativa viável para aumentar a produ
A Rice GRAS Gene Has an Impact on the Success of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization  [PDF]
Valentina Fiorilli, Veronica Volpe, Silvia Zanini, Marta Vallino, Simona Abbà, Paola Bonfante
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.612191
Abstract: Arbuscular mycorrhiza?(AM) is one of the most spread symbiosis established between 80% of land plants and soil fungi belonging to the Glomeromycota. Molecular determinants involved in the formation of arbuscular mycorrhizas are still poorly understood. It has been demonstrated that in both Legumes and rice plants, several GRAS transcription factors are directly involved in both mycorrhizal signaling and colonization, namely NSP1, NSP2, RAM1, DELLA, DELLA-interacting protein (DIP1) and RAD1. Here, we focused on a rice GRAS protein, named Arbuscular Mycorrhizal 18 (OsAM18), previously identified as specifically expressed in rice mycorrhizal roots, and considered as an AM-specific gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that OsAM18 had a peculiar amino acid sequence, which clustered with putative SCARECROW proteins, even though it formed a separate branch. Allelic osma18 mutant displayed a drastic reduction in mycorrhizal colonization in-tensity and in arbuscule abundance, as mirrored by OsPT11 expression level. Non-mycorrhizal osam18 plants displayed a comparable plant development and root apparatus compared with the WT, while mycorrhizal osam18 mutants showed a reduction of plant biomass compared with mycorrhizal WT plants. The results suggest that OsAM18?is a rice protein, which is likely to have an impact not only on the colonization process and AM functionality, but also on the systemic effects of the AM symbiosis.
Nodulation, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and growth of some legumes native from Brazil
Patreze, Camila M.;Cordeiro, Lázara;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33062005000300014
Abstract: the effects of rhizobial and mycorrhizal inoculation, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on nodulation, mycorrhizal colonization and initial growth were examined in brazilian native plants, enterolobium contortisiliquum (vell. conc.) morong, inga laurina (sw.) willd., lonchocarpus muehlbergianus hassl and platypodium elegans vogel. the experiment was carried out in a glasshouse using plastic bags filled with a mixture of sandy soil from riparian forest and vermiculite (2:1) amended with basal nutrients including np, p and n and infected with rhizobia (r), mycorrhiza (m) or both (rm), amounting seven treatments: np, p, p+r, p+rm, n, n+m and n+rm, with ten replications each. the plants were analyzed at 120 and 255 days after sowing. p deficiency negatively affected growth and nodulation of all species. autochton arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf) colonized host roots and fungal inoculations did not enhance mycorrhizal colonization, which was also favored by added p. nodulation was relatively higher in e. contortisiliquum and l. muehlbergianus, mainly in treatments containing p, and with rhizobial inoculation (p+r). plants from these treatments developed better than others and, despite the rhizobia inoculated had no synergistic relationship with inoculated amf, they also showed the best percentages of mycorrhizal colonization. moreover, these two species showed highest rates of acetylene reduction and highest leghemoglobin content. these results suggest that e. contortisiliquum and l. muehlbergianus can have advantages for establishment in soils with low nitrogen levels.
The effect of different soil properties on arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of peanuts, sorghum and maize
Carrenho, Rosilaine;Trufem, Sandra Farto Botelho;Bononi, Vera Lúcia Ramos;Silva, Eraldo Schunk;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33062007000300018
Abstract: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf) are important for plant growth since they increase mineral influx. however, symbiosis efficiency is affected by many environmental factors. this study evaluated the effects of different treatments (+/- phosphorus; +/- liming; +/- organic matter; field, sandy or clayey soil textures) on root colonization (rc) of peanuts, sorghum and maize. the combination of these resulted in seventy-two treatments. the 2×2×2×3×3 factorial experiment was laid out in a randomized design. all data were subjected to variance analysis and the means were compared (tukey at p<0.05). three months after seed germination, roots were collected to evaluate the percentage of rc. results showed that soil texture and liming were the most important factors influencing colonization percentage in maize, sorghum and peanuts by amf. significant differences were also observed between the phytobionts. organic matter (om) had very little influence and phosphorus addition had no effect on rc.
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