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Cephalometric Evaluation of the Airway Space and Hyoid Bone in Children with Atypical Deglutition: Correlations Study
Machado Júnior,Almiro J; Crespo,Agrício N;
International Journal of Morphology , 2012, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022012000100060
Abstract: although there is a close relationship between swallowing and breathing are no studies that relate to atypical swallowing radiographic anatomy of the airway space and its possible correlation with the radiographic position of the hyoid bone. the aim was to evaluate the possible correlation with the radiographic position of the hyoid bone and airway space in lateral radiographs of children with atypical deglutition. using cephalometric analysis on lateral teleradiographs, the distances of h-mp (hyoid to mandibular plane) and h-t (hyoid to tuber) were spearman's correlation analysis was performed with pas (airway space) in two groups: the experimental group with atypical deglutition and the control group normal deglutition. both groups included subjects in mixed dentition stage. thevariable t-h had statistically significant correlation with pas (0.0286) and the variable mp-h had significant correlation with variable pas (0.0053). ourresults show that advanced positive correlation of the radiographic position of the hyoid bone to the airway space only in the group of normal swallowing. the lower airway in patients with atypical swallowing, causing changes in tongue posture which leads to change in the position of the hyoid bone.
Estudio cefalométrico del hueso hioides en ni os respiradores bucales de 11a os (I parte) Cephalometric study of the hyoid bone in mouth-breathing children aged 11 (first part)  [cached]
Dariel Carulla Martínez,Desiderio Espinosa Quiros,Tania Mesa Levy
Revista Cubana de Estomatolog?-a , 2008,
Abstract: Objetivo: El presente trabajo se realizó con el propósito de describir el comportamiento de la posición del hueso hioides, en ni os respiradores bucales y no respiradores bucales. Métodos: Se recogieron historias clínicas de 60 pacientes con edad de 11 a os que acudieron a la consulta de Ortodoncia en el área de salud de la Facultad de Estomatología y nos propusimos comparar desde el punto de vista cefalométrico a un grupo de pacientes respiradores bucales, con el objetivo de determinar si existían diferencias en el comportamiento de la posición del hioides con ciertas variables cefalométricas (lineales y angulares), con respecto a pacientes no respiradores bucales (controles). Para cada una de las mediciones se calculó la media y la desviación estándar. Para determinar la posible diferencia de las mediciones para muestras independientes se realizó Prueba de t de Student para muestras independientes o su equivalente no paramétrico (Mann- Whitney y Kolmogorov- Smirnov). En todas las pruebas de hipótesis se utilizó un nivel de significación del 5 %. Resultados: El mayor número de pacientes se encuentra entre los rangos de 30-35 mm. Los valores y la frecuencia de las variables H-C3 y H-PPF tienen una distribución similar tanto en el grupo de Control como en el Grupo Respirador Bucal. La variable Gn-H muestra su mayor frecuencia en el rango de 40-45 mm. Conclusiones: Se encontró una resistencia de los músculos constrictor medio de la faringe, estilohioideo y vientre posterior del digástrico y del ligamento estilohioideo al traslado del hioides en sentido anterior, resistencia que ejercen los músculos milohioideo, genihioideo y vientre anterior digástrico en los respiradores bucales (descenso del hueso) OBJECTIVE: this paper is aimed at describing the behavior of the position of the hyoid bone in mouth- and non-mouth breathing children. METHODS: the medical histories of 60 patients aged 11 that were seen at the Orthodontics Department in the health area of the Faculty of Stomatology were collected to compare from the cephalometric point of view a group of mouth-breathing patients in order to determine if there were differences in the behavior of the position of the hyoid bone with certain cephalometric variables (linear and angular) with respect to non-mouth breathing patients (controls). The mean and standard deviation were calculated for each of the measurements. To determine the possible difference of the measurements for independent samples, the Student's t test for independent samples or their non-parametric equivalent (Mann- Whitney y Kolmogorov- Smirn
ANATOMíA RADIOLóGICA DEL HUESO HIOIDES RADIOLOGICAL ANATOMY OF THE HYOID BONE  [cached]
J. Henríquez,P. Sandoval,R. Fuentes
Revista chilena de anatomía , 2000,
Abstract: Se analiza la anatomía radiológica del hueso hioides de 46 estudiantes (26 mujeres y 20 hombres) que cursan el primer a o, en la Facultad de Medicina, de la Universidad de La Frontera cuyo promedio de edad era de 19 a os 6 meses. Se tomaron telerradiografías de perfil en posición de reposo mandibular, realizándose trazados y mediciones cefalométricas orientadas en una vertical y horizontal verdaderas, además de puntos, planos y ángulos craneofaciales. Por sus características esqueletales se dividió la muestra en dos grupos, específicamente la relación sagital máxilo-mandibular y el tipo de rotación mandibular. El análisis estadístico de las variables comprendió diferencias por grupos (t de Student) y correlación (Pearson). La anatomía radiológica mostró los cuernos mayores separados en el 56,5% de los individuos, indicativo de una rotación en el plano coronal, del eje sagital. El cuerno menor fue difícil de observar (36%). El cuerpo presenta una variedad de formas ovoídeas que contenían zonas radio-opacas marcadas, similares a un signo mayor que (>) con o sin centro radiolúcido, estaba orientado 64o respecto a la horizontal verdadera (HV). La orientación del hueso hioides fue de 19o (ds 7.8) respecto a HV, con los cuernos mayores más elevados que el cuerpo y 34o (ds 8.5) al plano silla-nasion. Su posición promedio se encontraba a 36 mm (ds 5.0) de la columna cervical, 8 mm por delante de la vertical pterigoídea, 108 mm de la silla turca, 4 mm bajo la tercera vértebra cervical y 14 mm del plano mandibular. Existe una gran variación en los adultos jóvenes respecto a la posición y orientación del hueso hioides. La distancia entre hioides y columna cervical es la de menor variación. Existe diferencias significativas por género tanto en las posición horizontal y vertical de ésta pieza ósea. No existen diferencias en la posición u orientación del hueso hioides respecto al tipo de relación esqueletal máxilo-mandibular The hyoid bone study is of great clinical importance, because of their relationship attributed to the function of the stomatognatic and respiratory systems. Several authors point the hyoid as an active participant in the erect posture of the head.In this work the radiological anatomy of the hyoid bone is analyzed in 46 random choice students, 26 females and 20 males at the Universidad de La Frontera. The average age was 19 years and 6 months.This study was based on the analysis of individual profile teleradiography taken under mandibular rest. In them it was performed sketches and cephalometric measurement orientated in a true vertical and horizon
Estudio cefalométrico del hueso hioides en ni os respiradores bucales de 11 a os.: Segunda parte Cephalometry study of hyoid bone in children aged 11 mouth-breathing (second part)
Dariel Carulla Martínez,Desiderio Espinosa Quiros,Tania Mesa Levy
Revista Cubana de Estomatolog?-a , 2010,
Abstract: Se realizó una correlación entre el comportamiento de la posición del hioides con el crecimiento del maxilar y de la mandíbula, los ángulos cérvico-basio-hioideo y el espacio aéreo póstero-inferior, desde el punto de vista cefalométrico, a un grupo de pacientes respiradores bucales. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de 60 pacientes, de 11 a os de edad, que acudieron a la consulta de Ortodoncia en el área de salud de la Facultad de Estomatología. Se utilizaron matrices de coeficiente de correlación lineal de Pearson, para evaluar la posición del hioides con respecto a dichas variables. Se encontró descenso del hueso, y relaciones significativas con las variables que reflejan el crecimiento maxilar y mandibular, así como la posición de la columna vertebral (segmento cervical) y de la cabeza, además del espacio aéreo posterior de la faringe, con un nivel de significación del 5 %. A correlation between the behavior of hyoid bone location and the maxilla and the mandible growth, the cérvico-basio-hyoid angles and the lower posterior aerial space from the cephalometry point of view in a group of patients mouth-breathing. The medical records from 60 patients aged 11 seen in the Orthodontics consultation from the health area of Stomatology Faculty were reviewed. We used matrix of Pearson's linear correlation to assess the hyoid bone location regarding such variables; noting a bone drop and significant relations with above variables reflecting the maxillary and mandibular growth, the spinal column position (cervical segment) and the head; as well ass the posterior aerial space of the pharynx with a 5 % significance level.
Comparison of the characteristics of dentoalveolar and skeletal complex, pharynx, soft palate and hyoid bone in lateral cephalometric radiographs of patients presenting obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome with or without metabolic syndrome.
Sofia K. Mavroudi,Eufimia Daskalopoulou-Vlachogianni,Athanasios E. Athanasiou
Hellenic Orthodontic Review , 2012,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare vertical and antero-posterior ratios of facial structures, pharyngeal dimensions and of the soft palate at the sagittal plane as well as the position of the hyoid bone using lateral cephalometric radiographs in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS) and Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and patients with OSAS without MS. SUBJECTS (MATERIALS) AND METHODS: Prospective and cross-sectional trial conducted between 2007 and 2009 at the Postgraduate Orthodontics Clinic, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Thirty nine patients aged between 29 and 62 years old (4 females and 35 males) with OSAS and ΑΗΙ≥30 were enrolled and assigned into two groups. The first included 19 subjects diagnosed with OSAS and MS and the second included 20 subjects diagnosed with OSAS, but with a negative diagnosis of MS. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of all subjects were obtained in Natural Head Position. The cephalometric radiographs were processed electronically and resulted in measurements regarding skeletal structures, pharyngeal dimensions, palate dimensions, and the hyoid bone position. A statistical analysis of the results was performed using Student’s t-test and the Mann Whitney test. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. RESULTS: The subjects with OSAS and MS were found to have a greater distance between the superior wall of the nasopharynx and the posterior nasal spine (PNS-SPW) (p<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of the hyoid bone position, the soft palate dimension, the antero-posterior pharyngeal dimensions, the vertical facial structure ratios and the antero-posterior maxillary position. However, in relation to mandibular position, the facial angle was found significantly increased in the group of subjects with OSAS and MS (p<0.017).CONCLUSIONS: This study compared the characteristics in lateral cephalometric radiographs of subjects with OSAS and MS and subjects with OSAS without MS and found that subjects with MS have a statistically significant greater distance between the superior wall of the nasopharynx and the posterior nasal spine, as well as a greater facial angle.
ANATOMíA RADIOLóGICA DEL HUESO HIOIDES
Henríquez,J.; Sandoval,P.; Fuentes,R.;
Revista chilena de anatomía , 2000, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-98682000000100016
Abstract: the hyoid bone study is of great clinical importance, because of their relationship attributed to the function of the stomatognatic and respiratory systems. several authors point the hyoid as an active participant in the erect posture of the head.in this work the radiological anatomy of the hyoid bone is analyzed in 46 random choice students, 26 females and 20 males at the universidad de la frontera. the average age was 19 years and 6 months.this study was based on the analysis of individual profile teleradiography taken under mandibular rest. in them it was performed sketches and cephalometric measurement orientated in a true vertical and horizontal lines, besides reference points, planes and craniofacial angles. the sample was divided in two groups according to their skeletal characteristics. the greater horns were observed separately in 56,6% of the individual. this fact indicated a rotation in the coronal plane at the sagittal axis. by other side the lesser horns was difficult to be observed. the body presents a variety of ovoid form with marked radiopaque zones, with or without radiolucent centers, their orientation presents a 64 degrees angle from the true horizontal line. the hyoid bone orientation is 19 degrees (sd 7,8) respect to the true horizontal line, with the greater horns located upper to main body and 34 degrees (sd 8,5) respect to the sella-nasion plane. their average position is found 36 mm (sd 5,0) away from the cervical column, 8 mm in front of the vertical pterygoid, 108 mm from the sella turcica, 4 mm under the third cervical vertebrae and 14 mm of the mandibular plane. this work allows us to conclude the existence of a variation respect to position and orientation of the hyoid bone in young adults where we found the distance between the hyoid and the cervical column as the most conservative
Estudio de la fusión del asta mayor del hioides en relacion con la edad y revisión bibliográfica sobre las fracturas del hioides en medicina forense A study of the coalition of major cornua of the hioides in connection with the age and bibliographical revision on the fractures of the hioides in forensic medicine  [cached]
PM. Garamendi,I. Alemán,MC. Botella,MI. Landa
Cuadernos de Medicina Forense , 2007,
Abstract: Se presenta un estudio de revisión sobre las características generales de las fracturas del hioides en el contexto de la medicina forense. Junto con esta revisión, se incluye un estudio sobre el estado de fusión de las astas mayores con el cuerpo del hioides en una muestra de Ortopantomografías dentales digitales. La conclusión del trabajo es la de que el estado de fusión en la unión de las astas mayores del hioides con el cuerpo no puede predecirse por la edad o el sexo de un sujeto, ni tampoco puede presuponerse por este estado que vayan a existir o no fracturas de las astas mayores en casos de asfixia mecánica por compresión cervical. Se recomienda la práctica previa, en todos los casos de autopsias por asfixia mecánica con sospecha de compresión cervical de un estudio radiográfico del bloque cervical previo a la disección y, tras ésta, el análisis histopatológico del mismo para evitar errores de diagnóstico diferencial entre fracturas vitales y postmortales y ausencias de fusión del asta mayor con el cuerpo del hioides. We present a review of the medico legal literature on hyoid bone fractures. It is also included a research on bone fusion of major cornua and hyoid bone body. This research has been conducted in a sample of digital dental Orthopantomographies. This research suggests that it isn′t possible to predict the state of fusion of the major cornua in subjects of known sex and age. In cases of non union of major cornua it shouldn′t be supossed that fractures of the hyoid won’t happen. In all cases of forensic autopsies when mechanical asphyxia is suspected it is recommended to perform a radiological study of cervical tissues prior to extraction and after extraction it should be performed hystopathological studies.
Changes of hyoid bone position following treatment of class II div1 malocclusion with Farmand functional appliance
Yassaei S,Soroush MM
Journal of Dental Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: Background and Aim: Unlike other bones of the head and neck, hyoid bone has no bony articulations. It is connected to mandible, cranium and pharynx through muscles and ligaments. During treatment with functional appliance in patients with class II div1 malocclusion, mandible is positioned in inferior and anterior direction. Regarding the relation between hyoid and mandibular bone, alterations of hyoid bone position can be a result of functional appliance therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of hyoid bone position following treatment with Farmand functional appliance in patients with class II div 1 malocclusion. Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 28 patients with class II div 1 malocclusion which were under treatment with Farmand functional appliance for 11 months were selected. Facial growth in vertical, normal or horizontal direction was determined by cephalometric measurement. Data were analyzed with Paired-t test to compare the differences of mean values pre and post treatment. Variance analysis was used to compare the three growth patterns. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Hyoid bone shifted significantly forward in horizontal dimension (P<0.01) and non-significantly upward in vertical dimension. There was no significant difference among the three studied groups with respect to hyoid bone position alterations in horizontal dimension but significant difference was observed between horizontal and vertical growth pattern in vertical dimension (P<0.05). There was significant correlation between decrease of ANB angle and forward movement of hyoid bone. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, treatment with Farmand functional appliance (Fa II) leads to significant alterations in the position and anterior displacement of the hyoid bone.
A low-grade chondrosarcoma presenting as an unusual cervical mass in the hyoid bone: a case report
Hirohiko Tachino, Hiroaki Fushiki, Masayuki Ishida, Yukio Watanabe
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-6-21
Abstract: A 42-year-old Japanese man noticed a mass in the right submandibular region of his neck. A hard 3.0 × 2.8 cm tumor was noted on the right side of his hyoid bone. The mass was immobile and moved with deglutition.Even though radiographic studies, including positron emission tomography-computed tomography, were inconclusive, the cartilaginous tumor was surgically removed en bloc, and the tumor was diagnosed based on the results of pathological investigations. Close follow-up is recommended in such cases due to the potential for recurrences, because local recurrence occurred in 50% of the reported cases of grade one chondrosarcomas.Chondrosarcoma, a malignant tumor characterized by the production of a cartilage matrix, accounts for about 11% cases of primary malignant bone tumors [1]. The parts of the body where it develops at relatively high incidences include the long bones, the pelvis and the ribs [1]. The head and neck area are seldom affected; chondrosarcomas in this area reportedly account for 1% to 12% of all reported cases of the disease [1]. Chondrosarcoma of the hyoid bone is extremely rare, with only 15 cases being reported in international literature. Here, we describe a case of low-grade chondrosarcoma of hyoid origin. We also discuss its preoperative imaging features and its recurrence rate.A 42-year-old Japanese man noticed a mass in the right submandibular region of his neck in June 2010. He visited the department of otolaryngology at a nearby general hospital the next month and was referred for medical treatment. More than two weeks later, he visited our University Hospital. A hard 3.0 × 2.8 cm tumor was noted on the right side of his hyoid bone. The mass was immobile and moved with deglutition. No spontaneous or tender pain was noted.Laryngeal endoscopy revealed no contributory abnormal findings. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a gourd-shaped distension of bone in the area extending from the body of the hyoid bone to the right greater horn. A mul
Thyroid shields and neck exposures in cephalometric radiography
Philippe Hujoel, Lars Hollender, Anne-Marie Bollen, John D Young, Joana Cunha-Cruz, Molly McGee, Alex Grosso
BMC Medical Imaging , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2342-6-6
Abstract: Cephalometric radiographs at one academic setting were sampled and neck exposure was related to calendar year and patient's gender and age.In the absence of shields, children have more vertebrae exposed than adults (p < 0.0001) and females have more neck tissue exposed inferior to the hyoid bone than males (p < 0.0001). The hyoid bone-porion distance increased with age (p <0.01). Thyroid shields were visible in 19% of the radiographs and depended strongly on the calendar year during which patient was seen (p-value <0.0001). Compared to adults, children were less likely to wear thyroid shields, particularly between 1973 and 1990 (1.8% versus 7.3% – p-value < 0.05) and between 2001 and 2003 (7.1% versus 42.9% – p-value < 0.05).In the absence of a thyroid shield, children have more neck structure exposed to radiation than adults. In agreement with other reports, thyroid shield utilization in this study was low, particularly in children.Several radiosensitive organs such as the thyroid, the esophagus, and vertebral bone marrow are located in the neck tissues. The extent to which these organs are exposed to ionizing radiation under real-life conditions has not been reported and can vary due to person-to-person variability in location of thyroid position [1], due to the age-dependent caudal movement of the thyroid through puberty [2], due to clinician's request regarding what should be visualized on the radiograph [3], and due to differences in radiographic practices. There have been assertions that thyroid shields are commonly used in "modern" dentistry [4-6], but these assertions are inconsistent with survey information [7,8].Current guidelines from the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) on thyroid collar utilization during cephalometric radiography are unclear. The NCRP reported that: "thyroid shielding shall be provided for children, and should be provided for adults, when it will not interfere with the exam" [9], and that 'no anatomical
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