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An Exploration of Foreign Language Anxiety and English Learning Motivation  [PDF]
Meihua Liu,Wenhong Huang
Education Research International , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/493167
Abstract: Perceived to be two important affective variables, anxiety and motivation have been found to be highly correlated to second/foreign language acquisition. In order to examine the relationship between foreign language anxiety, English learning motivation, and performance in English, the present study investigated 980 undergraduate students from three universities in China who answered a 76-item survey. Analyses of the data revealed that (1) the respondents generally did not feel anxious in English and were moderately motivated to learn English, (2) foreign language anxiety and English learning motivation were significantly negatively correlated with each other, and (3) both foreign language anxiety and English learning motivation were significantly correlated with students' performance in English. Among the scales, foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCAS), intrinsic motivation (IntrinM), instrumental motivation (InstruM), fear of being negatively evaluated (FLCAS1), and interest in foreign languages and cultures (IFLC) proved to be powerful predictors for the latter. 1. Introduction Anxiety, one of the most prominent and pervasive emotions, was defined as a feeling of uneasy suspense by Rachman [1] and has been a focus of research in foreign language education since early 1970s. Over the years, state anxiety, trait anxiety, and situation-specific anxiety have become three mainstream approaches to anxiety research in language teaching and learning [2–4]. As Speilberger [4] distinguished, state anxiety was transitory and fluctuated over time and situation, while trait anxiety was relatively stable all the time. Among situation-specific anxieties, foreign language classroom anxiety has been extensively researched [2, 3, 5–10] since Horwitz et al. [2] advanced a theory of foreign language classroom. They believed foreign language anxiety was responsible for students’ negative emotional reactions to language learning since they had to deal with a totally foreign language and culture. They identified three components of foreign language classroom anxiety: communication apprehension, fear of negative evaluation, and test anxiety. To measure the anxiety, they designed the 33-item Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS). Gardner [5] had also acknowledged that second/foreign language (SL/FL) anxiety was situation-specific and claimed that individual differences in anxiety contributed to differences in achievement. The French Use Anxiety Scale and French Class Anxiety Scale were proposed [3, 5, 9] to measure this anxiety. Since then, studies on foreign
Sino-English Culture Difference and Teaching in Foreign Language Education  [cached]
Shuying An
Asian Social Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v7n7p190
Abstract: In the foreign education, the importance of teaching of foreign culture has been widely recognized. How to teach culture in foreign language education is faced by language educators all over the world. The question is very complicated since the answer relies on our understanding of the relation between the home culture and foreign culture, the relation between language and culture. This article deals with the deep connotation of English culture. It sets forth the differences between Chinese and English culture in such aspects as attitudes to compliments and business activities. It also concerns several options for the teaching of foreign culture in language programmes. As a conclusion, it points out that the English teachers in China should focus on cultivating the students’ cultural creativity in foreign language education.
English is an Asian Language: Do Our Textbooks Reflect This?
Toh Knon Peng
TEFLIN Journal , 1997,
Abstract: : Because of the economic boom, the extensive use of English, and the vital process of acculturation, English is now used in South East Asia to communicate amongst South East Asians, to express sociocultural meanings. Hence English should not be treated as a foreign language and learners of English should be firmly grounded in their own culture, traditions and values.
An Exploration of Foreign Language Anxiety and English Learning Motivation  [PDF]
Meihua Liu,Wenhong Huang
Education Research International , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/493167
Abstract: Perceived to be two important affective variables, anxiety and motivation have been found to be highly correlated to second/foreign language acquisition. In order to examine the relationship between foreign language anxiety, English learning motivation, and performance in English, the present study investigated 980 undergraduate students from three universities in China who answered a 76-item survey. Analyses of the data revealed that (1) the respondents generally did not feel anxious in English and were moderately motivated to learn English, (2) foreign language anxiety and English learning motivation were significantly negatively correlated with each other, and (3) both foreign language anxiety and English learning motivation were significantly correlated with students' performance in English. Among the scales, foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCAS), intrinsic motivation (IntrinM), instrumental motivation (InstruM), fear of being negatively evaluated (FLCAS1), and interest in foreign languages and cultures (IFLC) proved to be powerful predictors for the latter.
MULTIPLE CHOICE ENGLISH GRAMMAR TEST ITEMS THAT AID ENGLISH GRAMMAR LEARNING FOR STUDENTS OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE  [cached]
D. Wagiman Adisutrisno
K@ta : a Biannual Publication on the Study of Language and Literature , 2008,
Abstract: In the teaching of English as a foreign language in Indonesia, the teaching and testing of English grammar are indispensable. To test English grammar mastery, the multiple choice test must be used due to its merit of guaranteeing the fulfillment of the content validity of achievement tests. Unfortunately, the construction of many multiple choice test items has not been based on a very important consideration to aid learning processes. This paper discusses the need to use multiple choice test in English grammar achievement testing, two cognitive learning theories that underlie the importance of constructing multiple choice items that aid learning processes, and examples of faulty multiple choice test items and their revisions.
English as a Foreign Language at the University of Yaounde 1: Attitudes and Pedagogic Practices  [cached]
Eric Ekembe Enongene
English Language Teaching , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/elt.v6n3p57
Abstract: Learners’ goals and attitudes constitute an essential determinant of how they learn the target language. Whether positive or negative, they determine classroom practices and are affected by what happens in the classroom (D rnyei 2003). The complex relationship between learners’ attitudes and the actual teaching of English as a foreign language at the University of Yaounde 1 challenges the purpose for which English is learned. Given the increasing space and awareness English is gaining around the world, its teaching deserves more attention than is given at the university level in Cameroon. From a survey of 966 students and 27 teachers this paper examines how the attitudes of current EFL learners at the Yaounde 1 University are affected by the actual teaching of English from a process oriented perspective. Teacher practices account for learners’ negative attitudes towards English on a significant note. While this has implications for both academic policies and professional training in general, the question of a more situated framework for training is emphasised.
Using humour in teaching English as a foreign language at more advanced levels  [PDF]
Prodanovi?-Stanki? Diana
Zbornik Instituta za Pedago?ka Istra?ivanja , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/zipi1102254p
Abstract: The unique properties of humour make it a valuable tool in the process of teaching and acquiring English as a foreign language, especially when more advanced courses at the university level are concerned. In the first place, using humour based on language play (involving different aspects of linguistic structure) in a variety of teaching materials can be very beneficial to helping students improve their ability with language structures. Moreover, it is important that students develop an awareness of humour that is related to culture in order to achieve better command of English. In order to determine the effect humour has on students’ level of attainment, a small-scale study was conducted at the English Department, University of Novi Sad in the course Integrated Language Skills. In the study, humour was used both as a tool, to improve the learning environment, and as a resource for teaching new vocabulary or revising grammatical structures. The results of the study indicate that humour can be applied to teaching a foreign language and improving students’ proficiency level. Moreover, using humour both as a tool and as a resource affected students’ motivation and willingness to study.
Promoting Pragmatic Competence in Teaching English as a Foreign Language
Xiaoyang Shu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104398
Abstract:
Pragmatic competence is an indispensable element of communicative competence. Whoever wants to communicate successfully in a foreign language wants to promote their communicative competence, as well as their pragmatic competence. This paper begins with clarifying the definition of pragmatic competence by referring to other linguists’ explanations. Then it discusses the importance of promoting language learners’ pragmatic competence in communication, and tries to explore the necessity and feasibility of teaching pragmatic competence in FL teaching process. Finally, the paper proposes some tentative approaches to promote pragmatic competence in teaching English as a foreign language.
The English as a Foreign Language / Lingua Franca Debate: Sensitising Teachers of English as a Foreign Language Towards Teaching English as a Lingua Franca  [cached]
Mansfield Gillian,Poppi Franca
Profile Issues in Teachers` Professional Development , 2012,
Abstract: The function of English as a lingua franca for communication needs rethinking in the teaching of English as a foreign language classroom as a consequence of globalisation. The present contribution is an empirical study carried out in an Italian university environment which aims to show how teachers should take on board awareness raising activities in the recognition of other varieties of English which, albeit not exploited as benchmarks for language testing and certification, must nevertheless boast a relevant place in the global scenario. This can be achieved in practical terms by interrogating an expressly made corpus of Chinese English news texts and carrying out simple concordance activities. Debido a los procesos de globalización, la función del inglés como herramienta internacional o como lengua franca para la comunicación exige un replanteamiento de la ense anza del inglés como idioma extranjero. En este artículo se presenta un estudio empírico llevado a cabo en un contexto universitario italiano que pretende mostrar cómo los docentes deberían desempe ar actividades para facilitar el reconocimiento de otras variedades del inglés que, al no ser utilizadas como modelos de evaluación y certificación lingüística, exigen en cambio una mayor atención en el escenario global. En la práctica, esto puede realizarse analizando un corpus específico de textos periodísticos en inglés chino y llevando a cabo actividades sencillas de concordancias.
Pre-service Teachers’ Beliefs Related to English as a Second Language and English as a Foreign Language: Where is the Difference?
Francis Bangou,Douglas Fleming,Carol Ann Goff-Kfouri
Theory and Practice in Language Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.4304/tpls.1.9.1031-1040
Abstract: This article reports the findings of a qualitative case study examining the knowledge base held by English language teacher candidates enrolled in two university pre-service programs in Lebanon and Canada. Through an examination of blog postings and the data collected through semi-structured interviews, eight Canadian and eleven Lebanese respondents were polled while taking courses focusing on second language teaching methodology. Based on our findings, we argue that what teacher candidates know about their field of expertise is communal, contextually bounded and uniquely rooted in their experiences within and outside their pre-service programs. Moreover, the multitude of beliefs shared by these two groups of pre-service teachers demonstrate that there is indeed a universal knowledge base associated with the teaching of English as a Second Language (ESL) and English as a Foreign Language (EFL). However, we have also found significant differences between these fields based on specific and local contexts.
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