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Le politique, opérateur de la construction des savoirs géographiques modernes: l'exemple des voyages d'Alexander von Humboldt
Laura Péaud
HiN. Alexander von Humboldt im Netz , 2011,
Abstract: RésuméA la charnière du XVIIIème et du XIXème siècle, Alexander von Humboldt réalise une série de voyages scientifiques et géographiques en Europe, en Amérique et en Asie. Connus en grande partie par sa très riche correspondance, ces voyages sont tous marqués par la présence et l’intervention d’acteurs du monde politique européen. Par leur soutien financier, matériel et moral, ainsi que par leur délimitation spatiale, temporelle voire thématique des objets des expéditions, ceux-ci structurent pratiquement et intellectuellement le déroulement des expéditions humboldtiennes.Aux alentours du moment 1800, la géographie se trouve alors engagée dans un mouvement de construction disciplinaire, questionnant ses objets, ses méthodes et ses pratiques. Inséré dans ce processus, le voyage constitue un enjeu identitaire fort de l’élaboration et de la définition des savoirs géographiques modernes. La participation des acteurs politiques dans les voyages interroge leur r le d’opérateurs de la fabrique scientifique. A partir de l’exemple humboldtien, dans une optique d’histoire et d’épistémologie de la géographie, cet article propose d’engager une analyse relationnelle du couple géographie/politique.ZusammenfassungZwischen 1799 und 1829 unternahm Alexander von Humboldt eine Reihe wissenschaftlicher Reisen durch Europa, Amerika und Asien. Nicht zuletzt dank der überlieferten Korrespondenz sind die Reisen sehr gut dokumentiert: Politische Akteure spielten eine gro e Rolle bei der Planung und Umsetzung der Reisen. So unterstützten sie Humboldts Reisen sowohl mit materiellen als auch ideellen Mitteln. Mitunter nahmen sie Einfluss auf Routen sowie auf Dauer und thematische Ausrichtung der Reisen. Dies strukturierte die Humboldt’schen Reisen intellektuell und in ihrer praktischen Umsetzung.Um 1800 bildete sich die Geographie zur wissenschaftlichen Disziplin heraus, ihre Forschungsgegenst nde, Methoden und Praktiken wurden überprüft. Bei der Herausarbeitung und Definition des modernen geographischen Wissens stellte die Forschungsreise eine gro e Herausforderung dar. Welche Rolle spielten die politischen Akteure in diesem Prozess? Was war ihr Anteil an der Produktion wissenschaftlichen Wissens? Am Beispiel Humboldts untersucht der Artikel das Beziehungspaar Geographie und Politik aus dem Blickwinkel der Geschichte und Epistemologie der Geographie.AbstractBetween 1799 and 1829 Alexander von Humboldt travelled through Europe, America and Asia. These voyages are well documented in the extensive body of his correspondences, which give evidence of the strong political influence on
Considera??es sobre os conceitos de natureza, espa?o e morfologia em Alexander von Humboldt e a gênese da geografia física moderna
Vitte, Antonio Carlos;Silveira, Roberison Wittgenstein Dias da;
História, Ciências, Saúde-Manguinhos , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-59702010000300003
Abstract: the article discusses how alexander von humboldt developed the concepts of nature, space, and morphology in his works and impacted the shaping of modern physical geography. influenced by kant's ideas in critique of judgment and also by the writings of goethe and schelling, humboldt devised a new interpretation and representation of nature on earth's surface, wherein the concept of space is essential to explaining natural phenomena. modern physical geography is grounded in a complex interweaving of aesthetic and instrumental influences fashioned by humboldt, with the principle of connection playing an important role in the artistic and scientific development of the notion of a geographic landscape.
La expedición americana de Alexander von Humboldt y su contribución a la ciencia del siglo XIX
Rebok, Sandra
Bulletin de l'Institut Francais d'études Andines , 2003,
Abstract: Cet ouvrage étudie le sens des élaborations et des publications scientifiques d′Alexandre von Humboldt - fruits de sa fameuse expédition américaine (1799-1804) - pour le développement des sciences de son temps. Dans tous les écrits on emphatise généralement l immense contribution de ce voyageur prussien à la recherche scientifique. Nous analyserons ici plus en détails et de fa on critique la nature exacte de cet apport. On étudiera les répercussions de la somme d informations sur l Amérique comme son concept interdisciplinaire novateur et holistique de la science. La classification selon les différentes disciplines académiques ne nous intéresse pas et lui préférerons l étude, dans sa vision générale, du c té novateur et précieux de son information, son approche scientifique et sa méthode pour le progrès des sciences en Europe et en Amérique. Este trabajo estudia el significado de las elaboraciones y publicaciones científicas de Alexander von Humboldt -que resultaron de su famosa expedición americana (1799-1804)- para el desarrollo de las ciencias de su época. Tradicionalmente en todo tipo de escritos se enfatiza la inmensa aportación de este viajero prusiano a la investigación científica. Aquí será analizada más detalladamente y críticamente en qué consiste exactamente dicha aportación. Se estudiará la repercusión que ha tenido tanto la gran información sobre América como su nuevo concepto interdisciplinario y holístico de la ciencia. No nos interesa clasificar su aportación según las distintas disciplinas académicas, sino en su visión general, ver lo novedoso y valioso de su información, su planteamiento científico así como su método para el avance de las ciencias tanto en Europa como en América. The aim of this study is the significance of the development of the Alexander von Humboldtpublications?, resulting from his famous American expedition (1799-1804). Various authors have stressed the immense contribution of this Prussian voyager to scientific investigation. Here I analyze critically and in greater detail the precise nature of his contribution examining the impact of both the great information about America, and his new interdisciplinary and holistic concept of science. The goal of this work is not to classify his contribution to distinct academic disciplines. I attempt to study the impact of his greater vision and to see what was new and valuable in his accounts and his scientific investigation, as well as his method for the advance of science in both Europe and America
La fabrique du savoir Essai sur les carnets de voyage d'Alexander von Humboldt
Marie-No?lle Bourguet
HiN. Alexander von Humboldt im Netz , 2006,
Abstract: Article in French, Abstract in English.Whilst the notebook belongs to the imagery of the enlightened scientist's persona (an auxiliary tool kept by his side to be hastily scribbled with data, when at the bench or in the field), it has been given little attention by historians of science, who are used to consider its manuscript pages as a documentary resource to complement the printed text, but rarely take the notebook as a material and cultural object by itself, the history and epistemology of which is to be explored. Only recently have new trends in the historiography, by historians of printed books and reading practices, and by social and cultural historians of knowledge, called for a fresh look and opened the way for new approaches. Taking Alexander von Humboldt as a paramount example, who expressly devoted his life to "observing and recording" the world, pen in hand, this paper explores the note-taking practices at work in his travel diaries and notebooks from the perspective of the history of scientific observation and cognitive practices. Four themes are successively considered : the question of method and apprenticeship ; the timing of note-taking practices ; the nature and status of the data jotted down on the page ; finally, their uses in the production of scientific knowledge. In the back and forth movement between the observation of the world and the writing of science, the notebook stood as a crucial intellectual step and cognitive tool.
Hallar e inventar a un público. Nuevos proyectos editoriales acerca de la obra de Alexander von Humboldt
Ottmar Ette
HiN. Alexander von Humboldt im Netz , 2008,
Abstract: Article in espa ol, abstracts in englisch, espa ol and german.In Latin America, Alexander von Humboldt was and is known as one of the most famous historic and literary figures; in his own country, though, the acquaintance with his texts has until the 80s been reduced to groups of specialized scholars. Yet, for a couple of years, a growing interest in the works of Humboldt can be noticed, based on numerous new editions, which have been published since. Among others, these are the new edition of the Relation historique (1991), the editions of the Humboldt Project“ (2004-2006) as part of the Andere Bibliothek“, as well as current projects on German editions concerning Asie Centrale and the Examen critique.
A Metabiography of Alexander von Humboldt
Nicolaas A. Rupke
HiN. Alexander von Humboldt im Netz , 2006,
Abstract: Article in English.The author's recently published monograph on Alexander von Humboldt describes the multiple images of this great cultural icon. The book is a metabiographical study that shows how from the middle of the nineteenth century to the present day Humboldt has served as a nucleus of crystallisation for a variety of successive socio-political ideologies, each producing its own distinctive representation of him. The historiographical implications of this biographical diversity are profound and support current attempts to understand historical scholarship in terms of memory cultures.
Alexander von Humboldt y la comparación de las esclavitudes en las Américas
Miachel Zeuske
HiN. Alexander von Humboldt im Netz , 2005,
Abstract: This article has two main aims. Both are motivated by the Humboldtian diary about Cuba in 1804, unknown until today (found by Ulrike Leitner in the Biblioteka Jagiellonska Kraków). First, the article will present the in fact discontinuous but coherent development of the Humboldtian image of slavery in Spanish America (which is culminating to some extent in the diary and builds in nuce what later will become the “Essay on the Island of Cuba”). Second, the article presents the sensation in history of science, that Humboldt starts to apply systematically main elements of scientific method of comparison on social, historical and socioeconomic themes of slavery, when he heard of the proclamation of the new state of “Haity” in Veracruz or Havana in 1804. These two findings (and the diary itself) are changing profoundly our knowledge about Humboldt’s political relationship with two larger groups of the population of Spanish America (the parts of the Creole elite who were planning to found “a white republic”, following the French model and the very large group, or caste, of the “pardos”) on the “Eve of the Independence Movement”.
Alexander von Humboldt: Biblioteca digital  [cached]
Sandra Rebok
HiN. Alexander von Humboldt im Netz , 2005,
Abstract: Article in Spanish, Abstracts in English, Spanish and German.This article presents a project for the digitization of the works of Alexander von Humboldt, which is being undertaken in collaboration with the Ignacio Larramendi Foundation. Like other projects of this type, its aim is to utilize modern technology to make a significant part of Humboldt’s legacy available to researchers and other readers, thereby facilitating the study and reading of these works. This project will focus on the Spanish translations that have been undertaken over the years. Humboldt’s works in their original French and German versions will subsequently be included alongside their respective Spanish translations. Finally, this edition will be accompanied by a comprehensive introduction devoted to the history of these Spanish translations and the impact they have had in Spain, as well as to the people who have dedicated themselves to the translation and dissemination of these works in this country.
Un condiscípulo espa ol de Alexander von Humboldt en la Bergakademie de Freiberg: Josef Ricarte y su informe sobre el método de amalgamación de Born (1788)  [cached]
Pelayo, Francisco,Rebok, Sandra
Asclepio : Revista de Historia de la Medicina y de la Ciencia , 2004,
Abstract: This article presents the work of Joseph Ricarte who stayed in Paris as a fellow and, afterwards, he went to Central Europe to study Born's amalgamation method. The work of Ricarte was specially interesting at the School of Minery in Schemnitz directed by profesor Antón Ruprecht at that time (1787). The article also refers to the instruction journeys made by Josep Ricarte and Andrés Manuel del Río to different regions of Central Europe (Hungary, Austria, Bohemia, etc...) until their arriving in Freiberg, Saxony; where they studied with A. Werner and both of them were col leagues of Alexander von Humboldt. The article is supported by a dissertation of Ricarte about Ruprecht improvement of Born's method. Se estudia la labor de Joseph Ricarte, pensionado en París y luego en Centroeuropa, para estudiar el método de amalgamación de Born. El trabajo de Ricarte fue especialmente interesante en la Escuela de minas de Schemnitz, a cargo del profesor Antón Ruprecht, en 1787, aunque también se exponen los viajes de aprendizaje con Andrés Manuel del Río por diversas regiones centroeuropeas (Alta y baja Hungría, Austria, Bohemia,etc...) hasta su llegada a Freiberg, en Sajonia, donde estudiaron con A. Werner y fueron compa eros de Alexander von Humboldt. Acompa a al artículo una disertación de Ricarte sobre las mejoras introducidas por Ruprecht al método del barón de Born.
Alexander von Humboldt and the Beginning of the Environmental Movement
Engelhard Weigl
HiN. Alexander von Humboldt im Netz , 2001,
Abstract: Article in English, Abstracts in English and German.In the middle of the 19th century the question whether expanding civilization and industrialization had an effect on climate was discussed intensely worldwide. It was feared that increasing deforestation would lead to continuous decrease in rainfall. This first scientific discussion about climate change as the result of human intervention was strongly influenced by the research Alexander von Humboldt and Jean-Baptiste Boussingault had undertaken when they investigated the falling water levels of Lake Valencia in Venezuela. This essay aims to clarify the question whether Alexander von Humboldt can be counted among the leading figures of modern environmentalism on account of this research as is being claimed by Richard H. Grove in his influential book Green Imperialism. Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens and Origins of Environmentalism, 1600-1860 (1995).
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