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Case and Adverbials in Inari Saami and Finnish  [cached]
Diane Nelson
Nordlyd : Troms? University Working Papers on Language & Linguistics / Institutt for Spr?k og Litteratur, Universitetet i Troms? , 2003,
Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between case-marked adverbials and event structure in two related languages, Inari Saami and Finnish. New data is presented to show that while oblique case-marked adverbials do not delimit events in either language, the two languages diverge with respect to accusuative adverbials. Finnish shows a one-to-one mapping between case and event delimitation, while in Inari Saami not all accusative adverbials delimit events. These findings lend support to proposals by Arad (1998) and Tenny (1987) that each predicate may contain only one event delimiter.
Norwegian Sociology and the Recognition of the Saami Minority  [PDF]
Hans Petter Sand
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2014.45017

At a time when the Saami ethnic minority got little attention by the Norwegian public and the political authorities of the country, sociologists did much to raise public awareness about the conditions of this ethnic minority. In the postwar period of the 1950s and 1960s, sociologists of Norway focused to a large degree on social groups that fell outside the emerging welfare state. Norwegian sociology has been characterized by an approach named “problem-oriented empirism” and also by sociologists playing a vital role as public intellectuals. Sociology professor Vilhelm Aubert (1922- 88) coined the term “problem-oriented empirism” to characterize Norwegian sociology from the end of the Second World War to around 1975. Empirism refers to the importance of sociology being close to social reality. Problem-orientation refers to the importance of choosing research questions that are not only scientifically interesting, but also relevant to society. Vilhelm Aubert was also a leading figure among sociologists playing the role of public intellectuals in this period. Problem-oriented empirism and sociologists as public intellectuals have in particular been the case with regard to Saami research.

Ussi ja siksaki motiivid Soome kaljumaalingutel ja Saami trummidel  [cached]
Eero Autio
M?etagused. Hüperajakiri , 1999,
Abstract: The main problem with the interpretation of Finnish rock paintings is the significance of shamanism. After surveying the most shamanistic motifs in the rock art and Saami drums E. Autio concludes that there are other possibilities besides shamanism for construckting an interpretation of the rock paintings (the votive offer, mythological beings, etc.).
The acquisition of grade alternation in North Saami  [cached]
Berit Anne Bals
Nordlyd : Troms? University Working Papers on Language & Linguistics / Institutt for Spr?k og Litteratur, Universitetet i Troms? , 2004,
Abstract: This paper looks at how the North Saami grade alternation system develops in children. Grade alternation is a morphophonological process, in which foot-medial consonants alternate between two forms, the strong and the weak grade. There are qualitative alternations, quantitative alternations and in some patterns, both the length and quality of the consonants alternate. These alternations happen in the declension of nouns and the conjugation of verbs. Some case forms of nouns and some forms of verbs are connected to the strong grade, whereas others are connected to the weak grade.The task with which children are faced, is to learn all the different phonological alternations and to connect them to morphology. This paper focuses on the order of acquisition of the various patterns, and on the types of mistakes that children make. We show that the type of alternations to be acquired first are quantity alternations, in which the length of the consonants alternates. The next patterns to be acquired are qualitative alternations, such as devoicing. In the third stage, children learn to combine qualitative and quantitative alternations, such as in deglottalization with nasal legthening. The last patterns to be acquired are patterns with complex foot medial consonants or consonant clusters. The article argues that children′s errors are purely phonological. Connecting the alternations to morphology happens early in the development, and that the remaining errors have to do with the complexity of the phonological alternation.
The Ghost of Development Past: the Impact of Economic Security Policies on Saami Pastoral Ecosystems
Vera H. Hausner,Per Fauchald,Torkild Tveraa,Elisabeth Pedersen
Ecology and Society , 2011, DOI: 10.5751/es-04193-160304
Abstract: To ensure economic viability over time, any efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals need to reconcile conservation with development interventions. Particularly, in marginal and risk prone areas erosion of resilience could make production systems more susceptible to environmental risks that compromise the economic security. By longitudinal analyses of long-term data records we investigated the impacts of big push policies on Saami pastoral ecosystems in Arctic Norway. The big push was accompanied by reindeer herd accumulation and a corresponding degradation of resilience, increasing the susceptibility to herd losses to predators and adverse winters. For the last 20 years the Norwegian government has worked to halt degradation of pasture ecosystems and reduce susceptibility to environmental risks. These intended win-win policies have mainly been based on economic incentives, which have been developed together with Saami pastoralists through negotiated agreements. We argue that the continued degradation of the Saami pastoral ecosystems is a "ghost of the development past", as the big push policies have resulted in an economic security trap (EST). The gradual reduction of resilience has persisted as the ex post payments of disaster relief and predator compensation have impeded the long-term actions to reduce susceptibility to environmental risks, i.e., ex ante policies, thereby increasing dependency on elevated economic inputs to manage the risks. The transfer of liability for managing risks to the benefactor, both through ex ante and ex post policies, has further discouraged and constrained opportunities for adaptation by the pastoralists.
Pohjoissaamen ja suomen kielen koloratiivikonstruktio vertailussa
Marjatta Jomppanen
L?hiv?rdlusi. L?hivertailuja , 2011,
Abstract: This paper focuses on serial verbs, so-called the colorative constructions, in the Finnish and North Saami languages. These serial verbs consist of two two components. In Finnish an infinitive verb forms the head of the construction and a finite verb, dependent on the head, dramatizes or specifies the denotative meaning of the construction. In North Saami, both components are neutral finite verbs. The material for the study comes from North Saami and Finnish fiction that was published in 1979–1997: it comprises of texts from 18 authors in both languages. The study is qualitative and its main emphasis is on North Saami.
Переключение кодов или смешанныи лект ?
(Code switching or “mixed lect”?)

David Pineda
Poljarnyj Vestnik , 2009,
Abstract: In this article I consider code-switching between Russian and Saami in the Saami community on the Kola Peninsula. Among the existing theoretical approaches to code-switching, the conversation analysis-based approach appears to be most suitable for data under scrutiny. Following Auer's (1998, 1999) distinction between code-switching proper, language mixing and fused lect, it is argued that some, but not all, forms of mixed Russian-Saami language can function as a conversation structuring devices.
“Куэссь не получается сa мас, рyшас полегче” – codeswitching on the Kola Peninsula
David Pineda
Poljarnyj Vestnik , 2008,
Abstract: This paper examines a number of examples of codeswitching between Kildin Saami and Russian on the Kola Peninsula, and tries to explain their possible discourse-related meanings in the light of existing theories on codeswitching.
H imlane verej e tagant: Saami muinaslood tootemp drast. IV  [cached]
Enn Ernits
M?etagused. Hüperajakiri , 1998,
Abstract: It is made an excursion to other Lapp fairytales depicting people transforming into animals and marrying them. In the summarising part of the marrying stories of Meandash, the different and similar traits of all stories are pointed out (tables 5-7). Also, the three possible ideal versions of all the three subtypes are presented. The scarcity of variations and literary influences do not allow wide suggestions about their origin to be made. The story of Meandash leaving consists of three parts: 1) the misdeed (pissing on a sleeping-skin), what in its turn conists of two subparts, namely a) a reindeer's monition and b) the act; 2) the misdeed is followed by eloping from home and 3) the mother's reaction to this (admonition, threat, joining). The motif of fleeing reasons 1) why the reindeer no longer live with men and 2) how the wild reinder became the Lapps' main food. Thus this is partially an explanatory myth. More closely are analysed the stories I-VI and VIII-X.
H imlane verej e tagant: Saami muinaslood tootemp hjap drast. V  [cached]
Enn Ernits
M?etagused. Hüperajakiri , 1998,
Abstract: In the current publication is continued the analysis of the 12th, 14th, 15th, 18th, 20th and 22st leaving stories and a summary of the whole block is given. In the Meandash stories, there are two kinds of escaping: one from the mother, the other from the wife. The second leaving type has been recorded all in all 13 times, including those recorded near the Imandra, Aahkel and from the Koltas, each story having two versions, the Kildin four and Turjala three versions. In addition, three more stories of the first type are known (two from the Koltas and one from the Turjala's).The leaving block can accompany all three kinds of marrying (table 8). However, half the cases (3 versions) are of the first type. In these two versions the mother's reaction does not reveal which escaping type we are dealing with. In a Kolta story (version III) the mother wanted to breast feed her adult son what does not seem plausible. In the differing Aahkkel story (22st) it is not clear what upset the reindeer. In the 14th story we encounter burning the spouse's skin; this is a loaned motif. In two stories from Imanrda and one Koltan version, only the child pissing on the bed-skin is mentioned. In the rest 8 stories (61.5 %) the rules of treating a pissed skin are violated: it is not been thrown into water but put to dry in the sun. In two Kildin stories (9th and 10th) and in one version of unknown origin (18th) the skin is pissed at night by the father-in-law (a total of 23 %), while in 8 cases (61.5 %) by the child. The 18th version is known for forgetting several facts (see "M etagused", 1998, 7). In other versions it is unclear whether the pisser is maybe not mentioned because it was unimportant compared to violating the taboo and what followed this. Before the children left, the mother did the following:1) offered them breast food,2) warned about dangers (men, animals),3) cursed the son and/or4) gave advice for life (table 9).In 9 cases (56.2 %) the mother breast fed the children and in 7 cases (43,8 %) warned them about men. Other reactions are exceptional. Thus it can be concluded that the escaping block that has small differences in different versions graphically reflects violation of an ancient taboo and the connected phenomena, also helping to answer some etiologic questions: 1) why reindeer do not live with men? (version 8) 2) how reindeer-hunting was started? (story 4) and 3) why the reindeer is shy? (version 5).
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