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Toxicity of Citrate-Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)
Byoungcheun Lee,Cuong Ngoc Duong,Jaegu Cho,Jaewoo Lee,Kyungtae Kim,Youngrok Seo,Pilje Kim,Kyunghee Choi,Junheon Yoon
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/262670
Abstract: Juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were used as a model to investigate acute toxicity and oxidative stress caused by silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). The fish were exposed to different concentrations of Ag-NPs for 48 h and 96 h. After exposure, antioxidant enzyme levels were measured, including glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxidase dismutase, and catalase (CAT). Other biochemical parameters and histological abnormalities in different tissues (i.e., the liver, gills, and brain) were also examined. The results showed that Ag-NPs agglomerated in freshwater used during the exposure experiments, with particle size remaining <100 nm. Ag-NPs had no lethal effect on fish after 4 days of exposure. Biochemical analysis showed that enzymatic activities in the brain of the fish exposed to 200 g/L of Ag-NPs were significantly reduced. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded in the liver and gills. Varied antioxidant enzyme activity was recorded for CAT in the liver and GST in the gills of the fish. However, the recovery rate of fish exposed to 200 g/L of Ag-NPs was slower than when lower particle concentrations were used. Other biochemical indices showed no significant difference, except for NH3 and blood urea nitrogen concentrations in fish exposed to 50 g/L of Ag-NPs. This study provides new evidence about the effects of nanoparticles on aquatic organisms.
Pathological study of experimental cadmium toxicity in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)  [PDF]
S. K. I. Al-Taee,A. H. A. Al-Hamdani
Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: The median lethal concentration of cadmium chloride CdCl2 at 24 hour in Cyprinus carpioL was determined. The toxic effect of sublethal concentration of CdCl2 was studied for 4, 7, 15 day. There was estimated significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, Packed cell volume (PCV) and lymphocyte counts, with significant increase (P≤0.05) in the serum alanine aminotransferase and creatine phosphokinase activity correlated with progression of exposure period. The elevation was more significant on the 15th day in all groups in comparison with non treated control group. The fish treated with sublethal concentration of CdCl2 showed behaviors of nervous signs manifested as abnormal swimming and jumping above the water surface. The gross lesions of sublethal concentration toxic effects included congestion of gills. Histopathological lesions revealed hyperplasia of epithelial cells with hyperatrophy of piler cells and inflammatory cells infiltration which lead to adhesion of the secondary lamellae of gills. The same lesions were observed on the 15th day of exposure but were more severe. In liver and kidney which appeared congested with presence of pale areas, histopathological lesions include infiltration of inflammatory cells, specially melanomacrophage and mononuclear cells in hepatic tissue with thickening of the bile duct wall, hemorrhage and necrosis in hepatic tissue. In the kidney, there was a congestion of blood vessels and deposition of hyaline casts in the renal tubules. Accumulation of cadmium in gills, kidney and liver after 4, 7 and 15th day of exposure showed an increase in level of accumulation with progression of exposure period.
Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Common Carp Fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio) at Different pH Levels  [PDF]
Hossam H. Abbas
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: The toxicity (LC50) of total and un-ionized ammonia was tested on different sizes (5, 10, 15 g) of common carp Cyprinus carpio maintained at three different pH levels within the range of 6.5-8.5. Within the same pH, the toxic effect of ammonia was independent of fish size. In addition, the toxicity of un-ionized ammonia increased at lower pH. However, total ammonia exerts some measure of toxicity and/or increased H+ concentration increases the toxicity of un-ionized ammonia. Common carp fingerlings (15 g) were exposed to the 96 h LC50 of un-ionized ammonia (0.93 mg NH3-N/L) at pH 7.5. Changes in hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were recorded. Blood Hb decreased after 6 and 96 h of exposure while Ht decreased after 3 h of exposure. Serum Na+ and K+ increased during the experimental period (96 h). Glucose concentration increased initially and then returned to less than the control value after 96 h of exposure. There was a significant decrease in AST, ALT and LDH activities after 6 h of exposure, after which enzyme activity increased until the end of the experimental period.
Acute and chronic un-ionized ammonia toxicity to ‘all-fish’ growth hormone transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
Bo Guan,Wei Hu,TangLin Zhang,Ming Duan,DeLiang Li,YaPing Wang,ZuoYan Zhu
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-010-4165-5
Abstract: Ammonia is toxic to fish in natural and artificial waters. We evaluated the acute (96 h) and chronic (21 d) toxicity of un-ionized ammonia to GH transgenic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and non-transgenic common carp using a static-renewal bioassay. The 24, 48, 72 and 96 h median lethal concentrations (LC50) of un-ionized ammonia were slightly lower in transgenic carp (2.64, 2.44, 2.28 and 2.16 mg N/L, respectively) than in non-transgenic carp (2.70, 2.64, 2.52 and 2.33 mg N/L, respectively). Similarly, the median lethal time (LT50) was significantly shorter for transgenic carp (1.41, 7.91 and 117.42 h) than for non-transgenic common carp (2.53, 14.06 and 150.44 h) following exposure to 3.86, 3.29, or 2.09 mg N/L, respectively. Moreover, the mortality of transgenic carp was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic carp at all un-ionized ammonia concentrations ((0.91 ± 0.12), (0.48 ± 0.06) and (0.12 ± 0.01) mg N/L) during the 21 d chronic toxicity test. Our results suggest that GH transgenic carp are less tolerant of un-ionized ammonia than non-transgenic carp. Our data are useful for evaluating potential environmental risk, optimizing stocking density in intensive aquaculture and establishing water quality criteria for ammonia in aquaculture.
THE IMPACT OF TOXIC HEAVY METALS ON THE HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN COMMON CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO L.)
R. Vinodhini ? M. Narayanan
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering , 2009,
Abstract: The aim of the present investigation was to determine the effect of heavy metal pollutants such as cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead in aquatic system on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by using a set of biochemical parameters. The experimental group of fish was exposed to a sublethal concentration of 5 mg/L of combined (Cd+Pb+Cr+Ni) metal solution containing 1.25 mg/L of each metal ion (1/10th of LC 50/48 h) for a period of 32 days. The results indicated that the values of the hemoglobin were in the range of 55.30±1.20 g/L to 74.55±1.33 g/L (p<0.001) and the packed cell volume was in the range of 26.72±0.26% to 30.68±0.43% (p<0.01). Concentrations of red blood cells, blood glucose and total cholesterol were significantly elevated. The level of serum iron and copper was increased. The results showed the decreased activity of vitamin C during chronic exposure to toxic heavy metals, which indicates the presence of reactive oxygen species–induced peroxidation. The study suggested that the presence of toxic heavy metals in aquatic environment has strong influence on the hematological parameters in the fresh water fish common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).
Effect of heavy metals on the level of vitamin E, total lipid and glycogen reserves in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)
Vinodhini Rajamanickam
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine some changes in the biochemical profile of the liver tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) exposed to a sublethal concentration of heavy metal mixture (cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead). The biochemical profile, specifically glycogen, total lipid and vitamin E content in the liver tissue was examined and compared to that of the control group. The exposed group showed a marked decline in glycogen and vitamin E reserves. Conversely an increase in total lipid in comparison to control was observed. The result reflects the sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to the effects of sublethal levels of combined heavy metals for this the widely consumed freshwater fish.
Serum biochemical parameters of farmed carp (Cyprinus carpio)  [PDF]
Tan?i Patriche,Neculai Patriche,Elena Bocioc,Marian T. Coada
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation , 2011,
Abstract: Despite advances in ichthyo-pathology of recent years, interpretation of fish serum biochemical parameters is often difficult by lack of reference values. That is why to know the value of the serum biochemical parameters can be a useful tool for monitoring health status, detecting illnesses and responses to therapy. This paper provides data concerning biochemical composition of carp serum (Cyprinus carpio) bred at Brate Farm of Institute of Research and Development for Aquatic Ecology, Fishing and Aquaculture from Gala i and Plea a Farm from Ploie ti, Romania. In research conducted onCyprinus carpio were determined following serum biochemical parameters: glucose (GLU), total proteins (TP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), cholesterol (CHOL), triglyceride (TRIG), sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), iron (Fe).
Data on the parasite fauna of the European common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio and Asian common carp Cyprinus carpio haematopterus support an Asian ancestry of the species  [PDF]
Kalman Molnár
Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation , 2009,
Abstract: The common carp subspecies (Cyprinus carpio carpio) has been regarded as an autochtonous species of Europe. Evidence obtained by comparing the parasite fauna of the European and the Asian subspecies (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) establish that such fish in the Far East harbour a significantly richer array of parasite species, and were the exclusive hosts of most of the specific parasites, including all monogenean and myxosporean spp., until recent intensive fish translocations from the Far East. I therefore propose that the common carp originated in the Far-East. The commoncarp would have originally inhabited only the Far East freshwaters, arriving in Europe in the Middle Ages by anthropogenic transfers. During the long trip from China to Europe, the common carp lost its original parasite fauna. In its new habitat, it acquired some parasite from the crucian carp, Carassius carassius, a closely related fish. Infection of the European subspecies with the Asian parasites that had been lost in Europe recommenced only in the middle of the last century, when the Amur wild carp and the coloured carp variations became introduced to Europe. The examination of the parasite fauna of fishes is an excellent tool for surveying the origin of fishes.
SELECTION OF CARP POPULATION (CYPRINUS CARPIO CARPIO, L) BASED ON MORPHOMETRIC PATTERNS.
Enton Spaho,Lumturi Papa,Anila Hoda
Albanian Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The improved Hungarian carp populations of scaled phenotype (Cyprinus carpio carpio L.,1758) of two cyprinids cultivation ponds of Tapiza and Klos respectively near Fushe-Kruja and Elbasan regions were used in this study. Six indices calculated from morphometric measures are analysed. The populations age was from 0 + (from fingerling up to 11 months) and 1+( 12 up to 23 months). The aim of study was to use the exterior indices in a selective breeding program for semi intensive cultivation conditions. Significant differences are noticed for body height index (1/H), head length index (1/cf) and index of body compress feature (O/1)at age of 0+ up to 1+ (p>0.999). After this age the differences were small. There was not significant differences for the index of body compress feature (O/1) at respective age (P<0.95). Condition coefficient( Kf) and zootecnic coefficient (Kz) increased in absolute values by age 0 to age 1+ and then the values reduced because of limited feeding. The proposed selection schemes dictate the inclusion of all exterior indices during the interval of age group 0+ up to 1+. At ages 1+ up to 2+ the selection scheme may include four indices. At ages of three and four years the selection must be based only on head length.
The Effectiveness of Clove Oil as an Anaesthetic on Adult Common Carp, Cyprinus carpio L.
Hiroki Yamanaka,Atsushi Sogabe,Itsuki C. Handoh,Zen`ichiro Kawabata
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2011.210.213
Abstract: Common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. is a commercial aquaculture species and also a pest fish that can destroy local aquatic communities. An effective anaesthetic method has been developed to meet both aquacultural and ecological studies of the fish. Clove oil is a cheap and safe anaesthetic for fish and humans. However, there are few reports on its efficiency on adult carps. In this study, using carp samples (average wet weight = 1.25 kg), effective concentrations of clove oil was determined by to be 50 mg L-1. The induction time taken to reach each of anaesthetic stages appeared to be inversely proportional to clove oil concentration.
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