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The Preventative Effect of Dietary Apostichopus japonicus on Intestinal Microflora Dysregulation in Immunosuppressive Mice Induced by Cyclophosphamide  [PDF]
Hongjie Shi, Rong Zheng, Juan Wu, Tao Zuo, Changhu Xue, Qingjuan Tang
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2016.411004
Abstract: Sea cucumbers are recognized as food and drug resources with many nutritional benefits, and Apostichopus japonicus is a kind of sea cucumber with good quality. Processing methods have some effect on its quality. This study aimed to explore the effects of Apostichopus japonicus with three different processing methods (dried, instant, and enzymatic sea cucummbers) on intestinal microflora dysregulation using a cyclophosphamide (cy) induced immunosuppressive mouse model. The expression of lysozyme, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) in the intestine and gut microbiota were investigated. The results showed that three types of A. japonicus could improve mucosal immunity and regulate gut microbiota. Dietary A. japonicus could reverse microbial imbalance, including increasing the bacterial diversity, enhancing the number of Bifidobacterium, and changing the bacterial composition. The most effect was observed with dried A. japonicus. Expression of lysozyme and IgA in the intestine was significantly increased. This study identified positive effects of dietary A. japonicus on mucosal immunity, particularly on gut microbiota, suggesting that dietary A. japonicus may aid in improving mucosal immunity and preventing exogenous infection. Additionally, the processing method has some effect on immunomodulatory function.
Trichothecene Mycotoxins Inhibit Mitochondrial Translation—Implication for the Mechanism of Toxicity  [PDF]
Mohamed Anwar Bin-Umer,John E. McLaughlin,Debaleena Basu,Susan McCormick,Nilgun E. Tumer
Toxins , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/toxins3121484
Abstract: Fusarium head blight (FHB) reduces crop yield and results in contamination of grains with trichothecene mycotoxins. We previously showed that mitochondria play a critical role in the toxicity of a type B trichothecene. Here, we investigated the direct effects of type A and type B trichothecenes on mitochondrial translation and membrane integrity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sensitivity to trichothecenes increased when functional mitochondria were required for growth, and trichothecenes inhibited mitochondrial translation at concentrations, which did not inhibit total translation. In organello translation in isolated mitochondria was inhibited by type A and B trichothecenes, demonstrating that these toxins have a direct effect on mitochondrial translation. In intact yeast cells trichothecenes showed dose-dependent inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species, but only at doses higher than those affecting mitochondrial translation. These results demonstrate that inhibition of mitochondrial translation is a primary target of trichothecenes and is not secondary to the disruption of mitochondrial membranes.
Effect of Honey on the Growth and Metabolism of Two Bacterial Species of Intestinal Origin  [PDF]
M.S.Y. Haddadin,I. Nazer, Sara` Jamal Abu Raddad,R.K. Robinson
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2007,
Abstract: The increase in viable cell numbers and the production of Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) by Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus acidophilus-both of human intestinal origin-were measured over 16 h at 37o in reconstituted skim-milk (100 g l-1) and skim-milk with one of three types of honey extracted from hives located in different regions of Jordan. All the honeys increased cell counts over the control with no honey and the final values for SCFA, especially acetic acid secreted by L. acidophilus (25.0 g l-1), were significantly higher than those observed in milk alone. Honey from a desert region was most stimulatory to L. acidophilus, while one produced from the flora of a mountainous area had most effect on Bif. infantis. It is proposed that specific oligosaccharides or other compounds in the honeys were responsible for the contrasted behaviour of the two species and that honey ingested in a human diet might have the same effect on desirable components of the intestinal microflora.
Mycotoxins in pathophysiology of cattle diet  [PDF]
Ma?i? Zoran,Adamovi? Milan,?ilas Sandra M.,Mihaljev ?eljko A.
Veterinarski Glasnik , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/vetgl0304191m
Abstract: Depending on the age and production category, cattle show different sensitivity towards certain mycotoxins. Microflora of the rumen degrades to a different degree and inactivates mycotoxins. In the work are presented the most important mycotoxicoses of cattle caused by fungal metabolites from the genera Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Poisoning of cattle in our area is most often caused by Zearalenone, Dioxinivalenol, T-2 toxin, Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxin, but in the work are also presented Fumonisin B1 and B2. The work also describes preventive possibilities and protection of animal health from the effects of mycotoxins.
Effects of feeding wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on blood biochemistry and the effectiveness of dietary lignin treatment to alleviate mycotoxin adverse effects in broiler chickens
Klapá?ová Katarína,Faixová Zita,Gre?áková L'uba,Faix ?.
Acta Veterinaria , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/avb1103227k
Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding wheat naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on some biochemical parameters and the efficacy of lignin to alleviate adverse effects of fusariotoxins in broiler chickens. Eighty, 1-d-old ROSS 308 broiler chicks of both sexes were used in the experiment. All birds received the control diet for two weeks and then they were fed experimental diets for two more weeks. The 4 diets included the following: 1.) negative control diet (0.1 mg DON/kg diet; 0.005 mg ZEA/kg diet), 2.) positive control diet (0.1 mg DON/kg diet, 0.005 mg ZEA/kg diet + 0.5% lignin), 3.) mycotoxin-contaminated diet (2.95 mg DON/kg diet, 1.59 mg ZEA/kg diet) and 4.) mycotoxincontaminated diet with the addition of lignin at 0.5% of the diet (2.95 mg DON/kg diet, 1.59 mg ZEA/kg diet + 0.5% lignin). The feeding of contaminated wheat did not significantly affect parameters of mineral metabolism, including calcium, chlorides and phosphorus. Decreased levels of total protein, albumin and potassium were observed. However, dietary supplementation with lignin prevented this effect. Plasma triglycerides and free glycerol levels were not affected by dietary treatments. There was a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and magnesium and cholesterol levels in plasma from birds fed contaminated wheat. Inclusion of lignin in the diet reversed elevated alkaline phosphatase activity in chicks induced by mycotoxin-contaminated diet. Results indicated that consumption of grain naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins can adversely affect chickens' metabolism. As a food additive, lignin was not effective in the prevention of Fusarium mycotoxins effects in chickens.
Estimated Dietary Exposure to Mycotoxins after Taking into Account the Cooking of Staple Foods in Japan  [PDF]
Hisako Sakuma,Yasushi Watanabe,Hiroko Furusawa,Tomoya Yoshinari,Hajime Akashi,Hiroshi Kawakami,Shiro Saito,Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi
Toxins , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/toxins5051032
Abstract: Mycotoxins are commonly present in cereal grains and are not completely destroyed during their cooking and processing. When mycotoxins contaminate staple foods, the risk for exposure becomes serious. In East Asia, including Japan, rice is consumed as a staple food, and with the increasingly Westernized lifestyle, the consumption of wheat has increased. The mycotoxins commonly associated with rice and wheat are total aflatoxin (AFL) and ochratoxin A (OTA), respectively. This study examined the retention of AFL and OTA during the cooking of rice and pasta. AFL was retained at 83%–89% the initial level after the cooking of steamed rice. In pasta noodles, more than 60% of the OTA was retained. These results show that AFL and OTA are relatively stable during the cooking process, suggesting that a major reduction in the exposure to these mycotoxins cannot be expected to occur by cooking rice and pasta. The estimated exposure assessment at the high consumer level (95th percentile) and the mycotoxin contamination level determined by taking into account these reductions in the present study should be useful for the establishment of practical regulations for mycotoxins in staple foods.
Potential Effects of Bee Honey and Propolis Against the Toxicity of Ochratoxin A in Rats
Zakaria El-Khayat, Ahmed R. Ezzat, Mahmoud S. Arbid, Wafaa I. Rasheed, Tahany R. Elias
Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2009, DOI: 10.3889/MJMS.1857-5773.2009.0073
Abstract: Background. In the recent years, extensive research work has been focused on the use of natural materials as antioxidants against the toxic oxidative materials to ameliorate their toxic and cell damaging effects. Aim. To evaluate the antioxidant effects of bee honey and propolis against OA-induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney in rats. Materials and Methods. 64 albino rats divided into 8 groups, group 1 as control, groups 2 - 4 received an oral dose of OA, honey and propolis respectively for four weeks, groups 5 and 6 were treated with a weekly dose of OA concomitant with a daily dose of bee honey in group 5 and propolis in group 6, groups 7and 8 were treated with a daily dose of bee honey in group 7 and propolis in group 8 and single weekly dose of OA then adminstrered starting the second week of treatment. After 4 weeks, blood samples, liver and kidney tissues were collected for the subsequent determinations. Results. The study showed that OA exerted toxic effects on both liver and kidney tissues manifested as elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT), creatinine and cholestrol. OA also caused perturbation in liver and kidney antioxidant system reflected as diminished reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) content and also decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) which is a lipid peroxidation product was elevated. Bee honey (BH) and propolis (PR) ameliorated the toxic effects of OA on liver and kidney tissues with significant reduction of mean serum levels of ALT, γGT, cholesterol and creatinine. Also BH and PR improved the reduction in the antioxidant parameters of the liver and kidney (GSH, GSSG content and GPX, SOD activity) caused by OA administration. The level of MDA was also significantly decreased. Conclusion. Bee honey and propolis ameliorated OA-induced oxidative stress in the liver and kidney through their role in scavenging free radicals and preventing lipid peroxidation.
Potential Effects of Bee Honey and Propolis Against the Toxicity of Ochratoxin A in Rats
Zakaria El-Khayat,Ahmed R. Ezzat,Mahmoud S. Arbid,Wafaa I. Rasheed
Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: Background. In the recent years, extensive research work has been focused on the use of natural materials as antioxidants against the toxic oxidative materials to ameliorate their toxic and cell damaging effects.Aim. To evaluate the antioxidant effects of bee honey and propolis against OA-induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney in rats.Materials and Methods. 64 albino rats divided into 8 groups, group 1 as control, groups 2 - 4 received an oral dose of OA, honey and propolis respectively for four weeks, groups 5 and 6 were treated with a weekly dose of OA concomitant with a daily dose of bee honey in group 5 and propolis in group 6, groups 7and 8 were treated with a daily dose of bee honey in group 7 and propolis in group 8 and single weekly dose of OA then adminstrered starting the second week of treatment. After 4 weeks, blood samples, liver and kidney tissues were collected for the subsequent determinations. Results. The study showed that OA exerted toxic effects on both liver and kidney tissues manifested as elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (gama GT), creatinine and cholestrol. OA also caused perturbation in liver and kidney antioxidant system reflected as diminished reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) content and also decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA) which is a lipid peroxidation product was elevated. Bee honey (BH) and propolis (PR) ameliorated the toxic effects of OA on liver and kidney tissues with significant reduction of mean serum levels of ALT, g GT, cholesterol and creatinine. Also BH and PR improved the reduction in the antioxidant parameters of the liver and kidney (GSH, GSSG content and GPX , SOD activity) caused by OA administration. The level of MDA was also significantly decreased. Conclusion. Bee honey and propolis ameliorated OA-induced oxidative stress in the liver and kidney through their role in scavenging free radicals and preventing lipid peroxidation.
Influence of Dietary Calcium on Subacute Lead Toxicity in the Rat  [PDF]
F.I. Moussa,K. G. Adham H. Abd-Ellatif,W. Abou-Samra,S.S. Mahmoud
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: An investigation of the influence of dietary calcium (0.3 % & 2.7) on the toxicity of dietary lead (50 mg L-1) in the young male rats in a six week period indicated that as dietary calcium increased, the severity of lead toxicity decreased. Evidence include decreased lead concentration in kidney, liver, blood, brain and femurs, accompanied by a distribunces in essential metal (Ca, Zn, Cu, Fe & Mg) levels in kidney, liver brain, femur muscles and blood.
The Effect of Hull-less Barley Dietary on the Activity of Gut Microflora and Morphology Small Intestinal of Layer Hens  [PDF]
A.Yaghobfar,Rezaian,M. Ashrafi-Helan,J. Barin
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to indicated (evaluate) the effect of hull-less barley dietary on the morphology of the small intestinal wall and ileal microbial activity layer hens fed hull-less barley in diet. The results of experiment shown that the inclusion of hull-less barley in the diet had no effect on the bacterial activity as total counts of bacteroidaea, Lactobacillus bifidobacterium and clostridium in small intestinal of layer hen. In the present study, has shown that the hull-less barley influence on the total number of aerobes and anaerobes intestinal bacterial. This can be undigested nutrients enter the lower part of the small intestine, where microbial growth will be increased. The hull-less barley had effect on the villus height, villus width and crypt depth in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of small intestinal of bird compared to control group. Across all groups, the villus height, villus width, crypt depth in the duodenum was greater than those in the jejunum and ileum and this is consistent with the significant role that the duodenum plays in nutrient absorption. The finding of result of present study as the inclusion of hull-less barley in the diet the number of density of goblet cells in the ileum greater than those in the jejunum and duodenum of small intestinal in birds. However, goblet cells are responsible for the secretion of mucin that is used for the mucinous lining of the intestinal epithelium. Based on the results of the present study, it can be stated that NSP as β-glucan content of hull-less barley concentration in diets of birds change microbial activity or population and the morphology of the small intestinal wall. The magnitude of these changes depends on the degree.
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