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Evaluation of Annual Legumes and Barley as Sole Crops and Intercrop in Spring Frost Conditions for Animal Feeding I. Yield and Quality
Halil Yolcu,Mahmut Dasci,Mustafa Tan
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: This study evaluated sole grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), sole common vetch (Vicia sativa L.), sole barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), common vetch + barley intercrop, common vetch (I) and barley (I) in terms of yields and quality properties in 2006-2007 at Kelkit Aydin Dogan Vocational Training School Research Station of Gumushane University, Turkey. Intercrop plants were separated as common vetch (called as common vetch I) and barley (called as barley I). Plants were seeded in April of both years in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. The study plots were 3.0 m long by 1.68 m wide, with 24 cm row spacing. Each plot was fertilized with 20 ton ha-1 organic farmyard manure. The year effects were significant in dry matter yield, crude protein, crude protein yield, acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber. The legumes especially were injured by frost in 2007. Significant differences were found in terms of Dry Matter Yield (DMY), Crude Protein (CP), Crude Protein Yield (CPY), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Dry Matter Intake (DMI), Dry Digestible Matter (DDM) and Relative Feed Value (RFV) amongst all the plants. Sole common vetch and sole barley had good properties in DMY, CP and CPY. Sole grass pea, common vetch (I), sole common vetch and intercrops showed good quality properties in ADF and NDF. Sole grass pea especially, sole common vetch and common vetch (I) had good quality properties in DMI, DDM and RFV. Farmers should prefer sole common vetch and sole grass pea cultivation in yield and quality and regulate their seeding times according to days with frost in similiar conditions.
Effect of Variable Sowing Ratios and Sowing Rates of Bitter Vetch on the Herbage Yield of Barley-bitter Vetch Mixed Cropping  [PDF]
Munir. A. Turk,Abdel-Rahman,M. Tawaha
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: Field trials were carried out at the Jordan University of Science and Technology in Northern Jordan to determine whether mixtures of bitter vetch with barley would change vetch and total yield in a competitive or facilitative way related to sowing proportions based on number of seeds. Ratios of the number of vetch to barley seed were 100:0; 85:15; 70:30; 65:45 and 40:60 within each mixture, sowing rates of bitter vetch were 80, 100, 120 and 140 kg ha -1. The barley was sown at 150 kg ha -1. Plants were harvested at the pod setting stage of vetch. Relative yield total of both crops was used as the parameter for mixed stand advantage. Mixed cropping produced 96% more dry matter than the sole cropping of vetch, but 63% less than the barley sole cropping. Mixed cropping yields were not simulated by sowing ratio or sowing rate of vetch but proportions of vetch dry matter decreased linearly as the percentage of barley seed in the mixture increased. The data suggested the possibility of greatest vetch yield with barley proportions below 15%. If high herbage yield is the objective, the barley sole crop will be selected. Crude protein content regardless of herbage yield should not be a criterion to define the best sowing rate of barley-vetch mixture. High forage quality of the mixed cropping would require a very low sowing proportion of barley to increase vetch contribution to forage yield.
The Effect of Increasing the Acreage of Corn on Cropping Pattern and Farmers Income in Fars Province  [cached]
Mansour Zibaei,Gholam Reza Soltani,Ahmad Ali Keykha
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 1999,
Abstract: The production and acreage of corn in Iran and in Fars Province, in particular, are expanding at an increasing rate. The impacts of this event was studied by a risk programming model (MOTAD). The results indicated that the optimal cropping patterns with corn had less variance than the optimal patterns without corn in all income levels. The results also showed that with the introduction of corn into cropping pattern, the use of land and water were increased, but the rate of increase in the use of land was more than the rate of increase in the use of water. By determining risk - aversion coefficient for the sample farmers, their sensitivity to corn price changes were studied. The results indicated that the relationship between corn and wheat is complementary but it is competing with barley, sugarbeet, cotton, cucurbits and legumes.
Factors affecting soil organic matter conservation in Mediterranean hillside winter cereals-legumes cropping systems
Elisa Marraccini,Marta Debolini,Claudia Di Bene,Hélène Rapey
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2012.e38
Abstract: Soil conservation is an important issue for farming and environmental protection in Mediterranean areas. Hillside farming systems, based on winter cereals and legumes, are common in these areas and are the target of several environmental policies. Soil organic matter (SOM) is widely used to assess the environmental performance of these cropping systems. Nevertheless, few studies have considered soil conservation practices in hillside systems in terms of implementing more effective agro-environmental policies for these areas. This paper compares the SOM conservation of different winter cereal based cropping systems within Mediterranean hillside crops/livestock farms. Seventeen cropping systems were characterised by on-farm surveys in the inland hilly area of Grosseto (Tuscany, Italy). For each cropping system, we performed a SOM balance, based on Hénin-Dupuis’ equation, using either local environmental databases or data from on-farm surveys. Differences between cropping systems were analysed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. On average, the cropping systems identified did not guarantee SOM conservation and varied considerably from farm to farm, however, some practices seemed to have a positive performance, e.g. cropping systems of cattle farms. According to the literature, annual SOM balance differs significantly depending on crop rotation length and longer crop rotations performed better than shorter ones. However, we found a local effect indicating that this better performance was influenced by local farmers' cooperatives, which to some extent counteracted the negative effect of crop rotation length. There were significant differences in the performance of dairy sheep and cattle farms (-1031 kg ha-1 yr-1 vs. +103 kg ha-1 yr-1, respectively). This suggests that the presence of livestock did not have the same favourable effect on soil conservation in Mediterranean systems and that this factor should be more investigated. Surprisingly, in our sample, for the same crop rotation length, livestock density did not affect the annual SOM balance. Due to the high variability in local cropping systems and soil characteristics, further surveys on a larger sample are needed to confirm these trends. However, our results shed light on the soil conservation effects of Mediterranean hillside cropping systems of winter cereals and legumes, and could support the local implementation of agro-environmental measures.
Evaluation of Some Herbaceous Legumes for Use as Green Manure Crops in the Rainfed Rice Based Cropping System in Northern Ghana  [PDF]
T.B. Bayorbor,I.K. Addai,I.Y.D. Lawson,W. Dogbe
Journal of Agronomy , 2006,
Abstract: Five herbaceous legumes, Mucuna pruriens var. nagaland, Mucuna pruriens var. cochichinensis, Crotalaria retusa, Crotalaria juncea and Canavalia ensiformis were evaluated as green manure crops for rain fed rice at Nyankpala, Ghana in the interior guinea savanna zone of Ghana during the 2003 and 004 cropping seasons. The Mucuna and Canavalia were planted at a spacing of 20 x 60 cm. Crotalaria was drilled at a seeding rate of 50 kg ha-1 with 20 cm in between the rows. At flowering, the legumes were incorporated into the soil and rice planted. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied at 0, 0 or 60 kg ha-1 three weeks after planting rice. The treatment combinations were laid out in a factorial experiment in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Results have shown that nodulation differed significantly among the legumes. Canavalia ensiformis (CE) gave the highest biomass followed by Mucuna pruriens var nagaland (MN). Mucuna pruriens var. nagaland (MN) gave the highest N accumulation. Incorporation of Mucuna pruriens var nagaland plus fertilizer application (30 kg N ha-1) enhanced yield of rice. It is recommended that for increased yield of rice, farmers in Northern Region of Ghana could integrate Mucuna pruriens var nagaland (MN) into their cropping system with fertilizer N application not exceeding 30 kg N ha-1.
Effect of Mixed Cropping Lentil with Wheat and Barley at Different Seeding Ratios  [PDF]
Vahdettin ?ift?i,Mehmet ?lker
Journal of Agronomy , 2005,
Abstract: This study was conducted in order to investigate yield, yield components and Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) in sole lentil and in wheat and barley mixtures (90% lentil + 10 barley or wheat, 80% lentil + 20% barley or wheat, 70% lentil + 30% barley or wheat) under dry conditions of Van and Ercis locations in 1998-1999. The highest grain yield was obtained from monoculture for lentil, barley and wheat in both locations. Pure stands of lentil, barley and wheat gave grain yields respectively of 380, 1850 and 1910 kg ha-1 in Ercis and 835, 2233 and 1087 kg ha-1 in Van. In both type of mixtures number of pods per plant, plan number per m2, Grain yield per plant, number of branches per plant and grain yield of per unit area significantly decreased whereas number of spikes and grain yield of barley and wheat increased depending on the increases in the percentage of cereals. In the mixture of 80% lentil + 20% wheat gave the highest LER value for straw and grain yield as 1.15 and 1.07 in Ercis, respectively. In Van conditions the highest LER value was obtained from 70% lentil + 30% wheat mixtures as 1.04 for straw yield and 1.03 for grain yield.
Soil Quality Indicators as Affected by a Long Term Barley-Maize and Maize Cropping Systems  [cached]
Barbara Manachini,Anna Corsini,Stefano Bocchi
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2009.1.15
Abstract: Most soil studies aim a better characterization of the system through indicators. In the present study nematofauna and soil structure were chosen as indicators to be assess soil health as related to agricultural practices. The field research was carried out on the two fodder cropping systems continuous maize (CM, Zea mays L.) and a 3-year rotation of silage-maize – silage-barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Italian ryegrass (R3) and grain-maize maintained in these conditions for 18 years. Each crop system was submitted to two management options: 1) the high input level (H), done as a conventional tillage, 2) the low input level (L), where the tillage was replaced by harrowing and the manure was reduced by 30%. The effects of the two different cropping systems was assessed on soil nematofauna and soil physic parameters (structure or aggregate stability). Comparison was made of general composition, trophic structure and biodiversity of the nematofauna collected in both systems. Differences in nematode genera composition and distribution between the two systems were also recorded. The monoculture, compared to the three year rotation, had a negative influence on the nematofauna composition and its ecological succession. The Structural Stability Index (SSI) values indicate that both the cropping systems had a negative effect on the aggregate stability. The results indicate that nematofauna can be used to assess the effects of cropping systems on soil ecosystem, and therefore be considered a good indicator of soil health to integrate information from different chemical or physical indicators.
Soil Quality Indicators as Affected by a Long Term Barley-Maize and Maize Cropping Systems  [cached]
Barbara Manachini,Anna Corsini,Stefano Bocchi
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2009, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2009.1.15
Abstract: Most soil studies aim a better characterization of the system through indicators. In the present study nematofauna and soil structure were chosen as indicators to be assess soil health as related to agricultural practices. The field research was carried out on the two fodder cropping systems continuous maize (CM, Zea mays L.) and a 3-year rotation of silage-maize – silage-barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with Italian ryegrass (R3) and grain-maize maintained in these conditions for 18 years. Each crop system was submitted to two management options: 1) the high input level (H), done as a conventional tillage, 2) the low input level (L), where the tillage was replaced by harrowing and the manure was reduced by 30%. The effects of the two different cropping systems was assessed on soil nematofauna and soil physic parameters (structure or aggregate stability). Comparison was made of general composition, trophic structure and biodiversity of the nematofauna collected in both systems. Differences in nematode genera composition and distribution between the two systems were also recorded. The monoculture, compared to the three year rotation, had a negative influence on the nematofauna composition and its ecological succession. The Structural Stability Index (SSI) values indicate that both the cropping systems had a negative effect on the aggregate stability. The results indicate that nematofauna can be used to assess the effects of cropping systems on soil ecosystem, and therefore be considered a good indicator of soil health to integrate information from different chemical or physical indicators.
QTL Analysis of Forage Quantity and Quality-Related Traits of Barley  [cached]
B Siahsar,A Taleei,A Peyghambari,M Naghavi
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2009,
Abstract: In order to map the genomic regions affecting barley forage quantity and quality, two experiments were conducted with 72 doubled haploid lines and their two parents (‘Steptoe’ and ‘Morex’), at the Research Farms of the Faculty of Crop and Animal Sciences, University College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran and Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Station of Sistan, in 2007. The experiments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with two replications. Each plot consisted of six rows that were 3m in length and spaced 25cm apart. QTL analysis was conducted by Composite interval mapping (CIM) method separately for each trait in each location. The main effect of genotype was high significant for all the studied traits. Transgressive segregation in both directions (positive and negative) was observed for all the studied traits. There was a negative relationship between forage qualityrelated with quantity-related traits. Thirty-three QTLs controlling different studied traits were identified. Phenotypic variance explained by these QTLs varies from 7.07 to 39.04%. Highest LOD scores were obtained for the leaf to stem ratio on chromosome 2H. QTLs of forage quality (total digestible nutrient, dry organic matter digestibility, leaf to stem ratio, seed to forage ratio and number of tiller per plant) and quantity (plant height, forage wet and dry matter) indexes were found on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 3H, 4H, 5H, 6H and 7H. Most of mapped QTLs appear to be fairly stable between locations and can become candidates for marker-assisted selection.
Evaluation of Annual Legumes and Barley as Sole Crops and Intercrop in Spring Frost Conditions for Animal Feeding II. Mineral Composition
Halil Yolcu,Adem Gunes,Metin Turan
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Sole grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), sole common vetch (Vicia sativa L.), sole barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), common vetch + barley intercrop, common vetch (I) and barley (I) in terms of mineral contents were assessed in the present study for animal feeding. Common vetch + barley intercrops were separated as common vetch (called as common vetch I) and barley (called as barley I). The experiment was designed in a factorial arrangement of a randomized complete block design with 3 replications and carried out at the research station at Kelkit Aydin Dogan Vocational Training School, Gumushane University, in 2006 and 2007. All the plants had important potential in terms macro and micro mineral contents in animal feeding. There were significant differences between years in Mg, Ca, P, Mn, Fe and Cu contents. According to the results, sole grass pea, sole common vetch and common vetch (I) in Mg, sole grass pea, common vetch (I) and sole common vetch in Ca, common vetch (I), sole grass pea and sole common vetch in Mn and sole barley and sole grass pea in Cu were rich for animal feeding. If farmers want rich forage in terms of Mg, Ca and Mn, they should select sole grass pea and sole common vetch cultivation. If farmers want rich forage in terms of Cu, they should choose sole grass pea and sole barley cultivation.
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