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African Immigrants in the United States: Implications for Affirmative Action  [PDF]
Abdi M. Kusow
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2014.41010

For more than half a century, an extensive literature has consistently reported that first-and second-generation black immigrants are more educated and economically successful than African Americans. This literature has also suggested that black immigrants are benefiting from affirmative action more so than African Americans without having been the direct objects of slavery and historical discrimination. An important shortcoming of this literature, however, is that it presumes an undifferentiated black immigrant success story and obscures important differences across black immigrants from different countries of origin. Using data from the three census years (1980, 1990, and 2000), I examine the extent to which the black immigrant success story is directly relevant to African immigrants from different countries of origin in the United States. The findings of the study reveal that African immigrants are represented in the entire continuum of the American class structure, and therefore, any representation of a uniform experience is not empirically defensible. Empirical and theoretical implications of affirmative action are also discussed.

A measurement perspective on affirmative action in U.S. medical education
Clarence D. Kreiter
Medical Education Online , 2013, DOI: 10.3402/meo.v18i0.20531
Abstract: Background: The U.S. Supreme Court has recently heard another affirmative action case, and similar programs to promote equitable representation in higher education are being debated and enacted around the world. Understanding the empirical and quantitative research conducted over the last 50 years is important in designing effective and fair initiatives related to affirmative action in medical education. Unfortunately, the quantitative measurement research relevant to affirmative action is poorly documented in the scholarly journals that serve medical education. Methods: This research organizes and documents the measurement literature relevant to enacting affirmative action within the medical school environment, and should be valuable for informing future actions. It provides summaries of those areas where the research evidence is strong and highlights areas where more research evidence is needed. To structure the presentation, 10 topic areas are identified in the form of research questions. Results: Measurement evidence related to these questions is reviewed and summarized to provide evidence-based answers. Conclusions: These answers should provide a useful foundation for making important decisions regarding the use of racial diversity initiatives in medical education.
L’évolution de l’affirmative action aux états-Unis sous la présidence de George W. Bush Evolution of Affirmative Action in the United States during the Presidency of George W. Bush  [cached]
Marie-Christine Pauwels
Revue LISA / LISA e-journal , 2010, DOI: 10.4000/lisa.3385
Abstract: L’offensive contre l’affirmative action engagée depuis les années 1980 s’est accrue pendant les deux mandats de la présidence Bush, et l’opinion publique s’est radicalisée, percevant désormais de plus en plus fréquemment ces programmes comme une série d’avantages ind ment octroyés à un certain nombre de privilégiés . Tout programme d’affirmative action doit désormais être étayé par des disparity studies démontrant la réalité de la discrimination, et seules des mesures très ciblées (narrowly tailored) sont autorisées pour y remédier. La charge de la preuve a été en quelque sorte inversée. Mais contrairement aux idées re ues, l’affirmative action n’est pas sur le point de dispara tre aux états-Unis et malgré son hostilité de principe, le gouvernement Bush n’a pris aucune mesure concrète pour démanteler ces programmes. L’affirmative action conna t aujourd’hui plusieurs transformations majeures, l’évolution la plus marquante étant l’effacement du critère ethno-racial au profit de critères plus neutres et moins idéologiquement polarisants, essentiellement d’ordre géographique et territorial. Dans l’enseignement supérieur par exemple, des procédures d’admission codées ont vu le jour pour favoriser l’accès des minorités ethniques sous-représentées aux campus d’élite, et diverses stratégies de contournement ont été mises en place dans l’adjudication des marchés publics. Ces transformations sont également intéressantes à analyser d’un point de vue transnational, puisque l’on observe une convergence croissante avec le modèle fran ais de discrimination positive, lui aussi fondé sur le camouflage et l’euphémisation de l’identité ethno-raciale et sur une logique de territoire. This article examines the fate of affirmative action in the United States during the eight years of the Bush administration. After a brief reminder of the major landmarks which have curbed and narrowed affirmative action over the past twenty years and seen its legitimacy questioned, a new perspective will be given on the backlash many of these programs are currently experiencing. While many affirmative action measures have indeed been scaled back since the Reagan years, new, innovative strategies are emerging today to protect equal opportunity in public contracting, education and employment. These strategies are based on playing down race and ethnicity, enhancing instead more neutral criteria such as geography and residence. In education, for example, several states have adopted “percentage plans”, which call for colleges and universities to admit the top students of each high school class,
Affirmative Action in Higher Education  [cached]
Alfred R. Cade
Education Policy Analysis Archives , 2002,
Abstract: This study analyzed the variations of policies and practices of university personnel in their use of affirmative action programs for African American students. In this study, the policy topic is affirmative action and the practices used in admissions, financial aid, and special support services for African-American students. Surveys were mailed to 231 subjects representing thirty-two Missouri colleges and universities. Most of the survey respondents were male, white, and nearly two-thirds were above the age of forty. Ethnic minorities were underepresented among the professionals. Seventy-two percent of respondents were white, 23% were African American, and 5% were Hispanic. The results of this study suggest a positive picture of student affirmative action practices and policies used by Missouri personnel. Differences among professionals were at a minimum. The overall mean score for support in diversifying Missouri institutions was fairly high, and this may reflect diversity initiatives taken by the Missouri Coordinating Board for Higher Education in the late 1980s, and early 1990s. Data suggested that Missouri personnel are aware of the judicial scrutiny by the courts in administering student affirmative action. Most Missouri institutions use a single process for assessing all applicants for admission, without reliance on a quota system. The recent Hopwood decision showed little impact on the decisions regarding professionals' use of student affirmative action at Missouri institutions. Although public attitudes toward student affirmative action may play a role in establishing policies and practices, Missouri personnel are very similar in their perceptions regardless of race/ethnicity, gender, and institutional office or position.
Affirmative Action at Work
Jack McKillip
Education Policy Analysis Archives , 2001,
Abstract: IMGIP and ICEOP are minority graduate fellowship programs sponsored by the State of Illinois in order to increase the number of minority faculty and professional staff at Illinois institutions of higher education through graduate fellowships, networking and mentoring support. Nearly 850 fellowships have been awarded since 1986. A performance audit examined immediate (areas of graduate study, ethnicity of awards), intermediate (graduation areas and rates), and long-range results (academic job placement). The primary source for the audit was the database maintained by the programs' administrative office. These data were compared with data sets maintained by the Illinois Board of Higher Education and with national benchmarks (NSF and Ford Foundation Minority Graduate Fellowships). Findings revealed: (a) the IMGIP and ICEOP programs led to major diversification of minority doctoral study in Illinois; (b) a high percentage of all fellows graduated, both absolutely and in relation to national benchmarks, and fellows made up a large percentage of doctoral degrees awarded to minorities by Illinois institutions (e.g., 46% of doctorates in the hard sciences awarded to African Americans from 1988-1998); and (c) fellows made up an important proportion of all minority faculty in Illinois (9%). Most ICEOP doctoral fellows and many other fellows have taken academic positions. The audit revealed outcomes-based evidence of a successful affirmative action program in higher education evidence that is not otherwise available.
Las acciones afirmativas en educación superior: el caso de los Estados Unidos A es afirmativas na educa o superior: o caso dos Estados Unidos Affirmative Action in Higher Education: The Case of the United States
Jorge Enrique Celis-Giraldo
Educación y Educadores , 2009,
Abstract: Se analiza la importancia y la evolución políticas de las acciones afirmativas en la educación superior en Estados Unidos. Se acoge esta experiencia porque ha influido en algunos países interesados en proporcionar, a los ciudadanos históricamente excluidos, igualdad social de oportunidades en el acceso a la educación superior, con miras a que tengan movilidad social. En primer lugar, se hace una reconstrucción de los principales hitos que influyeron en la concepción de las acciones afirmativas en el contexto laboral y después en el de la educación superior. Ulteriormente se muestran las controversias y decisiones legales que se han adoptado en algunos estados con las acciones afirmativas en educación superior. Por último, los resultados hallados en estudios sobre los desempe os académicos y profesionales de la población que ha sido beneficiada con las acciones afirmativas. Neste artigo se analisam a importancia e a evolu o políticas das a es afirmativas na educa o superior nos Estados Unidos. Recolhe-se esta experiência pela sua influencia em muitos países interessados em dar igualdade social de oportunidades aos cidad os excluídos tradicionalmente do acesso à educa o superior, a fim de que tenham mobilidade social. Primeiro se reconstroem os principais marcos que influenciaram na concei o das a es afirmativas no contexto de trabalho; depois, mostram-se as controvérsias e decis es legais, adotadas em vários estados, respeito da educa o superior. Por último, revelam-se os resultados de estudos sobre desempenhos acadêmicos e profissionais da popula o beneficiada pelas a es afirmativas. The importance and development of policies for affirmative action in higher education in the United States are analyzed in this article. The U.S. experience is selected because it has influenced a number of countries that seek to provide historically excluded citizens with equal opportunities for access to higher education, in the interest of their social mobility. The article begins with a look back at the milestones that affected the concept of affirmative action, first in the context of jobs and later in higher education. The controversies and legal decisions adopted in some states with affirmative action in education are considered, along with the results of studies on the academic and professional development of those who have benefitted from affirmative action.
Swart perspektiewe op affirmative action
Kobus Smit
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 1992, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v57i1.773
Abstract: Affirmative action embodies a model of compensatory justice which aims al counteracting Discrimination on account of race, colour, sex or creed. This article focuses on race because it has had a devastating effect on blacks in South Africa. The author tries to evaluate the moral merits of affirmative action. An analysis of the ideas of black American conservatives and a South African academic of a perhaps more liberal mind, is used as a means of questioning the widely prevalent liberal legacy. By highlighting its pretensions and inconsistencies a picture of the implications of affirmative action for South Africa emerges that is both a threat and a challenge. Equal opportunities d o not necessarily entail equal results. Other factors such as culture, world view and labour ethos should also be taken into account. The "legacy of dignity" (King) is incompatible with the victim-status some blacks exploit. Much was done in South Africa before Julv 1991 that could be labelled affirmative action. The scrapping of the Population Registration A ct as the last pillar of apartheid has tremendous implications for the dignity of blacks. But history promises yet a number of traumatic decades of democratization of the South African community. Positively, affirmative action in South Africa will have tofocus on quality education, bridging courses to enable black students to compete on equal footing for admission, on training employees to qualify for special jobs, community upliftment, housing programmes and the improvement of health services. The most urgent need is the cultivation of a common value system.
Affirmative action in a democratic South Africa
Andries Louw
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology , 1993, DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v19i3.558
Abstract: The affirmative action bandwagon has finally hit South Africa.
Reactions Toward Affirmative Action Measures for Women
Moscoso,Silvia; García-Izquierdo,Antonio L.; Bastida,María;
Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones , 2010,
Abstract: this paper examines whether there are differences between women and men in their reactions towards different types of specific affirmative action measures (aams) for women. 192 women and 128 men from a variety of jobs responded to a survey. we conclude that women react more positively than men towards aams, although the reactions of both men and women vary depending on the type of aam. thus, reactions become increasingly positive when personnel decisions were made on the basis of merit and increasingly negative when decisions were made on the basis of gender. we also found that reactions towards aams are related to the variables "unfairness perception" and "threat perceived to men", and especially to the former. also, reactions towards the generic concept of affirmative action are more positive than towards specific aa measures. implications of these results for research and practice are discussed.
Preliminary studies on affirmative action in a brazilian university
S?o Paulo, Eduardo de;
RAM. Revista de Administra??o Mackenzie , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-69712010000300004
Abstract: as a signatory to durban iii world conference against racism, discrimination, xenophobia and other forms of intolerance, brazil has committed itself to the enforcement of mechanisms to promote social equity. as a consequence, governmental programs have been implemented, aiming at the inclusion of afro-descendents in higher education. actually, the quantity of such students in the academy is minimal and does not relate to what can be observed in the general population. as an example of such endeavor, universidade de brasília (unb) has started an affirmative action program in order to include a contingent of 20% of its freshman students as representatives of racial underprivileged groups. this policy started in august 2004. the present study aimed to investigate the perceptions of students and general public to this policy. an instrument, based partially on mcconahay's (1986) modern racism scale, was administered to a sample of 316 students. a factor analysis (af) extracted five factors, corresponding to 48% of the total variance explained. an analysis of variance (anova) was performed to better understand the results, concerning both age and gender of the subjects. results show that, although students demonstrated interest in the implementing of affirmative action programs, and are aware of the relevance of such procedures to the cultural and social structure of the community, they do not agree with their reasons or measures taken, or to the existence of the problem itself.
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