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SGO1 Maintains Bovine Meiotic and Mitotic Centromeric Cohesions of Sister Chromatids and Directly Affects Embryo Development  [PDF]
Feng-Xia Yin, Guang-Peng Li, Chun-Ling Bai, Yang Liu, Zhu-Ying Wei, Cheng-Guang Liang, Thomas D. Bunch, Lin-Sen Zan
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073636
Abstract: Shugoshin (SGO) is a critical factor that enforces cohesion from segregation of paired sister chromatids during mitosis and meiosis. It has been studied mainly in invertebrates. Knowledge of SGO(s) in a mammalian system has only been reported in the mouse and Hela cells. In this study, the functions of SGO1 in bovine oocytes during meiotic maturation, early embryonic development and somatic cell mitosis were investigated. The results showed that SGO1 was expressed from germinal vesicle (GV) to the metaphase II stage. SGO1 accumulated on condensed and scattered chromosomes from pre-metaphase I to metaphase II. The over-expression of SGO1 did not interfere with the process of homologous chromosome separation, although once separated they were unable to move to the opposing spindle poles. This often resulted in the formation of oocytes with 60 replicated chromosomes. Depletion of SGO1 in GV oocytes affected chromosomal separation resulting in abnormal chromosome alignment at a significantly higher proportion than in control oocytes. Knockdown of SGO1 expression significantly decreased the embryonic developmental rate and quality. To further confirm the function(s) of SGO1 during mitosis, bovine embryonic fibroblast cells were transfected with SGO1 siRNAs. SGO1 depletion induced the premature dissociation of chromosomal cohesion at the centromere and along the chromosome arm giving rise to abnormal appearing mitotic patterns. The results of this study infer that SGO1 is involved in the centromeric cohesion of sister chromatids and chromosomal movement towards the spindle poles. Depletion of SGO1 causes arrestment of cell division in meiosis and mitosis.
Mechanics of Sister Chromatids studied with a Polymer Model  [PDF]
Yang Zhang,Sebastian Isbaner,Dieter W. Heermann
Frontiers in Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fphy.2013.00016
Abstract: Sister chromatid cohesion denotes the phenomenon that sister chromatids are initially attached to each other in mitosis to guarantee the error-free distribution into the daughter cells. Cohesion is mediated by binding proteins and only resolved after mitotic chromosome condensation is completed. However, the amount of attachment points required to maintain sister chromatid cohesion while still allowing proper chromosome condensation is not known yet. Additionally the impact of cohesion on the mechanical properties of chromosomes also poses an interesting problem. In this work we study the conformational and mechanical properties of sister chromatids by means of computer simulations. We model both protein-mediated cohesion between sister chromatids and chromosome condensation with dynamic binding mechanism. We show in a phase diagram that only specific link concentrations lead to connected and fully condensed chromatids that do not intermingle with each other nor separate due to entropic forces. Furthermore we show that dynamic bonding between chromatids decrease the Young's modulus compared to non-bonded chromatids.
Shugoshin1 May Play Important Roles in Separation of Homologous Chromosomes and Sister Chromatids during Mouse Oocyte Meiosis  [PDF]
Shen Yin, Jun-Shu Ai, Li-Hong Shi, Liang Wei, Ju Yuan, Ying-Chun Ouyang, Yi Hou, Da-Yuan Chen, Heide Schatten, Qing-Yuan Sun
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003516
Abstract: Background Homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis I and sister chromatids separate in meiosis II, generating haploid gametes. To address the question why sister chromatids do not separate in meiosis I, we explored the roles of Shogoshin1 (Sgo1) in chromosome separation during oocyte meiosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Sgo1 function was evaluated by exogenous overexpression to enhance its roles and RNAi to suppress its roles during two meioses of mouse oocytes. Immunocytochemistry and chromosome spread were used to evaluate phenotypes. The exogenous Sgo1 overexpression kept homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids not to separate in meiosis I and meiosis II, respectively, while the Sgo1 RNAi promoted premature separation of sister chromatids. Conclusions Our results reveal that prevention of premature separation of sister chromatids in meiosis I requires the retention of centromeric Sgo1, while normal separation of sister chromatids in meiosis II requires loss of centromeric Sgo1.
The Cohesion Protein SOLO Associates with SMC1 and Is Required for Synapsis, Recombination, Homolog Bias and Cohesion and Pairing of Centromeres in Drosophila Meiosis  [PDF]
Rihui Yan,Bruce D. McKee
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003637
Abstract: Cohesion between sister chromatids is mediated by cohesin and is essential for proper meiotic segregation of both sister chromatids and homologs. solo encodes a Drosophila meiosis-specific cohesion protein with no apparent sequence homology to cohesins that is required in male meiosis for centromere cohesion, proper orientation of sister centromeres and centromere enrichment of the cohesin subunit SMC1. In this study, we show that solo is involved in multiple aspects of meiosis in female Drosophila. Null mutations in solo caused the following phenotypes: 1) high frequencies of homolog and sister chromatid nondisjunction (NDJ) and sharply reduced frequencies of homolog exchange; 2) reduced transmission of a ring-X chromosome, an indicator of elevated frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (SCE); 3) premature loss of centromere pairing and cohesion during prophase I, as indicated by elevated foci counts of the centromere protein CID; 4) instability of the lateral elements (LE)s and central regions of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), as indicated by fragmented and spotty staining of the chromosome core/LE component SMC1 and the transverse filament protein C(3)G, respectively, at all stages of pachytene. SOLO and SMC1 are both enriched on centromeres throughout prophase I, co-align along the lateral elements of SCs and reciprocally co-immunoprecipitate from ovarian protein extracts. Our studies demonstrate that SOLO is closely associated with meiotic cohesin and required both for enrichment of cohesin on centromeres and stable assembly of cohesin into chromosome cores. These events underlie and are required for stable cohesion of centromeres, synapsis of homologous chromosomes, and a recombination mechanism that suppresses SCE to preferentially generate homolog crossovers (homolog bias). We propose that SOLO is a subunit of a specialized meiotic cohesin complex that mediates both centromeric and axial arm cohesion and promotes homolog bias as a component of chromosome cores.
Targeted Sister Chromatid Cohesion by Sir2  [PDF]
Ching-Shyi Wu,Yu-Fan Chen,Marc R. Gartenberg
PLOS Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002000
Abstract: The protein complex known as cohesin binds pericentric regions and other sites of eukaryotic genomes to mediate cohesion of sister chromatids. In budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cohesin also binds silent chromatin, a repressive chromatin structure that functionally resembles heterochromatin of higher eukaryotes. We developed a protein-targeting assay to investigate the mechanistic basis for cohesion of silent chromatin domains. Individual silencing factors were tethered to sites where pairing of sister chromatids could be evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. We report that the evolutionarily conserved Sir2 histone deacetylase, an essential silent chromatin component, was both necessary and sufficient for cohesion. The cohesin genes were required, but the Sir2 deacetylase activity and other silencing factors were not. Binding of cohesin to silent chromatin was achieved with a small carboxyl terminal fragment of Sir2. Taken together, these data define a unique role for Sir2 in cohesion of silent chromatin that is distinct from the enzyme's role as a histone deacetylase.
A Multi-Step Pathway for the Establishment of Sister Chromatid Cohesion  [PDF]
Mark Milutinovich,El?in ünal,Chris Ward,Robert V Skibbens,Douglas Koshland
PLOS Genetics , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0030012
Abstract: The cohesion of sister chromatids is mediated by cohesin, a protein complex containing members of the structural maintenance of chromosome (Smc) family. How cohesins tether sister chromatids is not yet understood. Here, we mutate SMC1, the gene encoding a cohesin subunit of budding yeast, by random insertion dominant negative mutagenesis to generate alleles that are highly informative for cohesin assembly and function. Cohesins mutated in the Hinge or Loop1 regions of Smc1 bind chromatin by a mechanism similar to wild-type cohesin, but fail to enrich at cohesin-associated regions (CARs) and pericentric regions. Hence, the Hinge and Loop1 regions of Smc1 are essential for the specific chromatin binding of cohesin. This specific binding and a subsequent Ctf7/Eco1-dependent step are both required for the establishment of cohesion. We propose that a cohesin or cohesin oligomer tethers the sister chromatids through two chromatin-binding events that are regulated spatially by CAR binding and temporally by Ctf7 activation, to ensure cohesins crosslink only sister chromatids.
The Cohesin Subunit Rad21 Is Required for Synaptonemal Complex Maintenance, but Not Sister Chromatid Cohesion, during Drosophila Female Meiosis  [PDF]
Evelin Urban equal contributor,Sonal Nagarkar-Jaiswal equal contributor,Christian F. Lehner,Stefan K. Heidmann
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004540
Abstract: Replicated sister chromatids are held in close association from the time of their synthesis until their separation during the next mitosis. This association is mediated by the ring-shaped cohesin complex that appears to embrace the sister chromatids. Upon proteolytic cleavage of the α-kleisin cohesin subunit at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition by separase, sister chromatids are separated and segregated onto the daughter nuclei. The more complex segregation of chromosomes during meiosis is thought to depend on the replacement of the mitotic α-kleisin cohesin subunit Rad21/Scc1/Mcd1 by the meiotic paralog Rec8. In Drosophila, however, no clear Rec8 homolog has been identified so far. Therefore, we have analyzed the role of the mitotic Drosophila α-kleisin Rad21 during female meiosis. Inactivation of an engineered Rad21 variant by premature, ectopic cleavage during oogenesis results not only in loss of cohesin from meiotic chromatin, but also in precocious disassembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC). We demonstrate that the lateral SC component C(2)M can interact directly with Rad21, potentially explaining why Rad21 is required for SC maintenance. Intriguingly, the experimentally induced premature Rad21 elimination, as well as the expression of a Rad21 variant with destroyed separase consensus cleavage sites, do not interfere with chromosome segregation during meiosis, while successful mitotic divisions are completely prevented. Thus, chromatid cohesion during female meiosis does not depend on Rad21-containing cohesin.
Meiotic Cohesin SMC1β Provides Prophase I Centromeric Cohesion and Is Required for Multiple Synapsis-Associated Functions  [PDF]
Uddipta Biswas,Cornelia Wetzker,Julian Lange,Eleni G. Christodoulou,Michael Seifert,Andreas Beyer,Rolf Jessberger
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003985
Abstract: Cohesin subunit SMC1β is specific and essential for meiosis. Previous studies showed functions of SMC1β in determining the axis-loop structure of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), in providing sister chromatid cohesion (SCC) in metaphase I and thereafter, in protecting telomere structure, and in synapsis. However, several central questions remained unanswered and concern roles of SMC1β in SCC and synapsis and processes related to these two processes. Here we show that SMC1β substantially supports prophase I SCC at centromeres but not along chromosome arms. Arm cohesion and some of centromeric cohesion in prophase I are provided by non-phosphorylated SMC1α. Besides supporting synapsis of autosomes, SMC1β is also required for synapsis and silencing of sex chromosomes. In absence of SMC1β, the silencing factor γH2AX remains associated with asynapsed autosomes and fails to localize to sex chromosomes. Microarray expression studies revealed up-regulated sex chromosome genes and many down-regulated autosomal genes. SMC1β is further required for non-homologous chromosome associations observed in absence of SPO11 and thus of programmed double-strand breaks. These breaks are properly generated in Smc1β?/? spermatocytes, but their repair is delayed on asynapsed chromosomes. SMC1α alone cannot support non-homologous associations. Together with previous knowledge, three main functions of SMC1β have emerged, which have multiple consequences for spermatocyte biology: generation of the loop-axis architecture of SCs, homologous and non-homologous synapsis, and SCC starting in early prophase I.
Chiasmata Promote Monopolar Attachment of Sister Chromatids and Their Co-Segregation toward the Proper Pole during Meiosis I  [PDF]
Yukinobu Hirose equal contributor,Ren Suzuki equal contributor,Tatsunori Ohba,Yumi Hinohara,Hirotada Matsuhara,Masashi Yoshida,Yuta Itabashi,Hiroshi Murakami,Ayumu Yamamoto
PLOS Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001329
Abstract: The chiasma is a structure that forms between a pair of homologous chromosomes by crossover recombination and physically links the homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Chiasmata are essential for the attachment of the homologous chromosomes to opposite spindle poles (bipolar attachment) and their subsequent segregation to the opposite poles during meiosis I. However, the overall function of chiasmata during meiosis is not fully understood. Here, we show that chiasmata also play a crucial role in the attachment of sister chromatids to the same spindle pole and in their co-segregation during meiosis I in fission yeast. Analysis of cells lacking chiasmata and the cohesin protector Sgo1 showed that loss of chiasmata causes frequent bipolar attachment of sister chromatids during anaphase. Furthermore, high time-resolution analysis of centromere dynamics in various types of chiasmate and achiasmate cells, including those lacking the DNA replication checkpoint factor Mrc1 or the meiotic centromere protein Moa1, showed the following three outcomes: (i) during the pre-anaphase stage, the bipolar attachment of sister chromatids occurs irrespective of chiasma formation; (ii) the chiasma contributes to the elimination of the pre-anaphase bipolar attachment; and (iii) when the bipolar attachment remains during anaphase, the chiasmata generate a bias toward the proper pole during poleward chromosome pulling that results in appropriate chromosome segregation. Based on these results, we propose that chiasmata play a pivotal role in the selection of proper attachments and provide a backup mechanism that promotes correct chromosome segregation when improper attachments remain during anaphase I.
Regulation of Sister Chromosome Cohesion by the Replication Fork Tracking Protein SeqA  [PDF]
Mohan C. Joshi,David Magnan,Timothy P. Montminy,Mark Lies,Nicholas Stepankiw,David Bates
PLOS Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003673
Abstract: Analogously to chromosome cohesion in eukaryotes, newly replicated DNA in E. coli is held together by inter-sister linkages before partitioning into daughter nucleoids. In both cases, initial joining is apparently mediated by DNA catenation, in which replication-induced positive supercoils diffuse behind the fork, causing newly replicated duplexes to twist around each other. Type-II topoisomerase-catalyzed sister separation is delayed by the well-characterized cohesin complex in eukaryotes, but cohesion control in E. coli is not currently understood. We report that the abundant fork tracking protein SeqA is a strong positive regulator of cohesion, and is responsible for markedly prolonged cohesion observed at “snap” loci. Epistasis analysis suggests that SeqA stabilizes cohesion by antagonizing Topo IV-mediated sister resolution, and possibly also by a direct bridging mechanism. We show that variable cohesion observed along the E. coli chromosome is caused by differential SeqA binding, with oriC and snap loci binding disproportionally more SeqA. We propose that SeqA binding results in loose inter-duplex junctions that are resistant to Topo IV cleavage. Lastly, reducing cohesion by genetic manipulation of Topo IV or SeqA resulted in dramatically slowed sister locus separation and poor nucleoid partitioning, indicating that cohesion has a prominent role in chromosome segregation.
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