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Estado nutricional de bailarinas de ballet clásico, area metropolitana de Costa Rica
Madrigal Rojas,Elena; González Urrutia,Ana Rocío;
Revista Costarricense de Salud Pública , 2008,
Abstract: the main objective of the present study was to examine the nutritional status of classic ballet dancers from three of the most important ballet academies located in metropolitan area of costa rica. study participants included twenty-four adult females (18 to 30 years old) of advanced ballet level. threeday food records were collected from each dancer. height, body weight and skin fold measurements were completed. blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. bone density was measured by dual x-ray energy (hip and lumbar l1, l2, l3, l4). the attitudes, beliefs and risk factors for eating disorders were evaluated by interview and using the eating attitudes test (eat-26) and eating disorder inventory (edi). total energy intake (1880 kcal/d ± 448.3) was considerably lower than the dietary recommendations and only niacin and vitamin b6 were consumed at optimal levels. bone density, hemoglobin and hematocrit were within normal ranges. the results of the present study suggest that dancers with body mass index (bmi) ≥ 20 kg/m2 have more hypocaloric diets and major risk of eating disorders. future studies are needed to develop strategies to improve the nutritional status of ballet dancers.
Composición de masas corporales de bailarinas de ballet y atletas de elite de deportes estéticos de Cuba
Betancourt León, Hamlet;Salinas Flores, Oscar;Aréchiga Viramontes, Julieta;
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano , 2011, DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n5p335
Abstract: the level of scenic beauty of the ballet dancer figurine is determined by a set of morphofunctional characteristics that are exclusively valid for this modality. female ballet dancers and aesthetic sport athletes share the characteristic of being slim and of efficiently executing the complex movements of their technical activities. the objective of this study was to compare the body composition of female ballet dancers and elite female athletes participating in artistic gymnastics (ag), rhythmic gymnastics (rg), and synchronized swimming (ss). thirty-two female ballet dancers of the national ballet school and 63 elite aesthetic sport athletes from cuba were studied. an anthropometric protocol consisting of 16 measures was applied to calculate the body composition indexes. overall body fat percentage (bf) was significantly higher in dancers when compared to the ag and rg groups, but was similar to that of the ss group. overall muscle mass percentage (mm) was significantly higher in the ag and rg groups than in dancers. the ballet group showed the minor differential pm-bf and muscular percentage of the transverse areas of the segments of extremities than the elite athlete groups. differences in the body composition indexes were observed between the ballet group and the aesthetic sport groups. the results obtained indicate a lower efficiency of technical transitive movement in female ballet dancers.
Percepción de imagen corporal y conductas alimentarias de riesgo en bailarinas de danza clásica del Liceo Municipal de la ciudad de Santa Fe Body image perception and dangerous eating habits among female ballet dancers from the municipal art academy in Santa Fe city  [cached]
F Paredes,C Nessier,M Gonzalez
Diaeta , 2011,
Abstract: En los últimos a os se produjo un incremento progresivo de la incidencia y prevalencia de Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria. Esta incidencia es superior en grupos poblacionales que llevan a cabo actividades relacionadas con el cuerpo y que pueden requerir una imagen delgada como es el caso de las bailarinas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la percepción de la imagen corporal y las conductas alimentarias de riesgo para anorexia nerviosa en un grupo de 24 bailarinas de 13-23 a os de edad que asistían a los cursos de capacitación de danza clásica del Liceo Municipal de la Ciudad de Santa Fe. Las participantes respondieron un cuestionario autoadministrado, y se les realizaron mediciones antropométricas para determinar el IMC. Para valorar la percepción se utilizaron imágenes corporales. Un 50% de las bailarinas sobreestimaron su imagen corporal, seleccionando imágenes que no se correspondían con sus parámetros antropométricos. A los fines de identificar las conductas alimentarias de riesgo para anorexia nerviosa se aplicó el cuestionario EAT-40. Se encontró que un 58,3% de las bailarinas clasificaron con riesgo, es decir que llevan a cabo conductas alimentarias anómalas, como por ejemplo se controlan en las comidas y les da mucho miedo pesar demasiado. Los resultados hallados dan cuenta de que las asistentes a los cursos de capacitación de danza clásica son un grupo vulnerable para el desarrollo de anorexia nerviosa, ya que más de la mitad clasificó con riesgo y la mitad presentó el factor de precipitación "distorsión de la imagen corporal". During the past years there has been a dramatic increase in the incidence and prevalence of Eating Disorders. This incidence is higher among demographic groups that perform activities in which the body is used and that demand having a slim body, as in the case of dancers. The objective of the present study was to analyze the body image perception and the abnormal eating habits with risk of anorexia nervosa among a group of 24 female dancers, aged between 13 and 23, attending ballet training courses at the Municipal Art Academy in Santa Fe City. The participants answered a self-administered questionnaire and anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate their BMI. Body images were used to assess the perception the participants had of themselves. 50% of the dancers overestimated their body image by selecting images that did not correspond to their anthropometric parameters. An EAT-40 questionnaire was used to identify eating disorders with risk of anorexia nervosa. The results showed that 58.3% of
Anthropometric evaluation of body composition in ballet dancers. A longitudinal study
Hamlet Betancourt León,Julieta Aréchiga Viramontes,Maria Elena Díaz Sánchez
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano , 2008,
Abstract: The body of the adolescent dancer is the result of morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations due to specific physical training. For the ballet master, body weight is irrelevant to evaluating the technical and artistic performance and beauty of a figure. All ballet dancers must have bodies that conform to the canon of international ballet in order to be able to perform in public. The purpose of this study is to describe the changes in the body composition of dancers at the Cuban National School of Ballet between two points in their training process. This was a longitudinal study of 54 girls and 40 boys, aged between 15 and 20 years old. An anthropometric protocol of 6 measurements was employed in order to determine body composition using the Durnin and Rahaman method for females and the Parizková and Buzková method for males. The main results demonstrate signifi cant increases in both weight and height for age in both sexes, and it was observed that height growth velocity decreased with age. The female dancers exhibited stable body fat percentages for all ages while male dancers signifi cantly reduced this percentage from one year to the next. The female students exhibited higher mean percentage body fat values than the normal range established in Cuba for elite athletes from competitive artistic sports and professional dancers, while the male students exhibited body fat percentages that were similar to these specialized groups. Resumo El cuerpo humano del bailarín adolescente es resultado de las adaptaciones orfológicas-fi siológicas y conductuales de un entrenamiento físico particular. Para los maestros de ballet el peso corporal no es relevante en la evaluación técnica-artística y de belleza de la fi gura del danzante. Cada bailarín tiene que cumplir con los cánones internacionales de fi gura del ballet para presentarse en el escenario artístico. El objetivo de esta investigación es describir las variaciones de la composición corporal de los bailarines de la Escuela Nacional de Ballet de Cuba en dos momentos del proceso de entrenamiento. Se analizaron a través de un estudio longitudinal 54 bailarinas y 40 bailarines con edades entre 15 y 20 a os. Se aplicó un protocolo antropométrico de 6 mediciones para estimar la composición corporal, empleándose las ecuaciones de Durnin y Rahaman, sexo femenino y Parizková y Buzková, sexo masculino. Los bailarines manifestaron incrementos signifi cativos de peso y estatura; la velocidad de crecimiento de la estatura disminuyó con la edad para los dos sexos. En las bailarinas de todos los grupos etario
A survey on Triatoma dimidiata in an urban area of the province of Heredia, Costa Rica
Zeledón, Rodrigo;Calvo, Nidia;Montenegro, Víctor M;Lorosa, Elias Seixas;Arévalo, Carolina;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762005000600002
Abstract: triatoma dimidiata has been found in several cities and towns of those countries where the insect is a domestic or peridomestic pest. in central america, urban infestations occur in the capitals of at least five countries. during 2001 and 2002 a survey was carried out in the county of san rafael, heredia province, located 15 km northwest of san josé, capital of costa rica, in order to determine the degree of infestation by t. dimidiata in an entire city block. six peridomestic colonies of the insect were detected in the backyards of eight households. the ecotopes occupied by the insects consisted of store rooms with old objects, wood piles or firewood, and chicken coops. a total of 1917 insects were found in the six foci, during two sampling periods, and a mean infection rate by trypanosoma cruzi of 28.4% was found in 1718 insects examined. the largest colony found in one of the households yielded 872 insects that were thriving mainly at the expenses of two dogs. opossums and adult insects were common visitors of the houses and it became evident that this marsupial is closely related to the peridomestic cycle of the chagas disease agent. lack of colonization of the insect inside the human dwellings is explained by the type of construction and good sanitary conditions of the houses, in contrast to the situation in most peridomiciliary areas. stomach blood samples from the insects showed that the main hosts were, in order of decreasing frequency: rodents, dogs, fowl, humans, opossums, and cats. the fact that no indication of infection with chagas disease could be detected in the human occupants of the infested houses, vis a vis the high infection rate in dogs, is discussed.
Determinación del peso corporal para la estatura de bailarines de ballet y danza moderna y folclórica de Cuba
Betancourt León,Hamlet; Aréchiga Viramontes,Julieta; Ramírez García,Carlos Manuel; Díaz Sánchez,Maria Elena;
Anales Venezolanos de Nutrición , 2009,
Abstract: in order to assess qualitatively the fatness-slenderness of ballet dancers in an holistic volumetric classification of their figures and define the morphological linearity, a value of body weight for stature is quantitatively related to the empirical classification of morphological linearity of dancers. the purpose of this research is to compare the relations of body weight for stature between dancer groups of ballet and modern & folkloric dance (mfd). dancers of the best professional companies and medium level schools of ballet and mfd from cuba were studied anthropometrically. the body weight and stature were measured. the body mass index (bmi) was calculated in order to determine the relation of body weight for stature. the student t- test for independent sample was applied to measure the differences between the types of dancers. there were significant differences in bmi values between ballet professional dancers in both sexes, and mfd. the female student of ballet showed lower values of imc than mfd students; while the comparison between male students registered statistical similarities. the bmi average of female ballet dancers was in a range classified as low body weight (< 18.5 kg/m2) by the word health organization. the bmi values made it possible to distinguish the morphological linearity for both females and males of the professional level between ballet dancers and folkloric dancers and female dancers of the student level.
Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao, Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) Nest Characteristics in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA), Costa Rica
Guittar,John L; Dear,Fiona; Vaughan,Christopher;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2009,
Abstract: the scarlet macaw (ara macao) is an endangered species. in costa rica, the scarlet macaw population of the central pacific conservation area (acopac, n =432 individuals) has undergone considerable study and has been used effectively as a flagship species for regional conservation. costa rica?s only other viable scarlet macaw population, located in the osa peninsula conservation area (acosa, n=800-1200 individuals), remains virtually unstudied. we studied acosa scarlet macaw nest cavities from february 19th to march 22nd 2006. through informal interviews with park guards and residents, we found a total of 57 potential nests in 52 trees. eleven nests were reported as frequently poached. scarlet macaws used 14 identified tree species, ten of which are unrecorded in costa rica. the most common nesting trees were caryocar costaricense (n=12, 24%), schizolobium parahyba (n=9, 18.0%), ceiba pentandra (n=7, 14.0%) and ficus sp. (n=5, 10.0%). we compare nesting characteristics to those recorded in acopac. a combination of bottom-up and top-down strategies are necessary to ensure the scarlet macaw?s long-term success, including environmental education in local schools, community stewardship of active nests, and the advertisement of stricter penalties for poaching. rev. biol. trop. 57 (1-2): 387-393. epub 2009 june 30.
Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao, Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) Nest Characteristics in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA), Costa Rica  [cached]
John L Guittar,Fiona Dear,Christopher Vaughan
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2009,
Abstract: The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) is an endangered species. In Costa Rica, the Scarlet Macaw population of the Central Pacific Conservation Area (ACOPAC, n =432 individuals) has undergone considerable study and has been used effectively as a flagship species for regional conservation. Costa Rica’s only other viable Scarlet Macaw population, located in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, n=800-1200 individuals), remains virtually unstudied. We studied ACOSA Scarlet Macaw nest cavities from February 19th to March 22nd 2006. Through informal interviews with park guards and residents, we found a total of 57 potential nests in 52 trees. Eleven nests were reported as frequently poached. Scarlet Macaws used 14 identified tree species, ten of which are unrecorded in Costa Rica. The most common nesting trees were Caryocar costaricense (n=12, 24%), Schizolobium parahyba (n=9, 18.0%), Ceiba pentandra (n=7, 14.0%) and Ficus sp. (n=5, 10.0%). We compare nesting characteristics to those recorded in ACOPAC. A combination of bottom-up and top-down strategies are necessary to ensure the Scarlet Macaw’s long-term success, including environmental education in local schools, community stewardship of active nests, and the advertisement of stricter penalties for poaching. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2): 387-393. Epub 2009 June 30.
Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica  [cached]
Olger Calderón-Arguedas,Adriana Troyo,Mayra E Solano,Adrián Avenda?o
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2009,
Abstract: Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100x100m) was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii). Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi) and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.). A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C. nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4): 1223-1234. Epub 2009 December 01. La riqueza de especies de mosquitos urbanos de la Gran Puntarenas (Puntarenas, Costa Rica) fue evaluada por medio de análisis larvales. Dos encuestas entomológicas fueron realizadas en siete localidades de la Gran Puntarenas durante un a o. Una de las encuestas fue realizada en la estación seca y la otra se llevó a cabo en la estación lluviosa. Las áreas evaluadas fueron determinadas aplicando un muestreo por conglomerados usando imágenes satelitales. Veintiséis celdas (100x100m) fueron seleccionadas en las comunidades elegidas y en éstas fueron realizadas las evaluaciones entomológicas. El número de celdas por localidad fue proporcional al área de cada localidad. La presencia de larvas o pupas fue determinada en contenedores con agua (naturales y artificiales). La infestación se expresó por medio índices de diversidad por tipo de contenedor (Ii). La asociación entre contenedores positivos por especies particulares y local
Source Apportionment of PM2.5 in the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica Using Receptor Models  [PDF]
Jorge Herrera Murillo, Susana Rodríguez Roman, José Félix Rojas Marín, Beatriz Cardenas
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2013.34059
Abstract:

In this work, receptor models were used to identify the PM2.5 sources and its contribution to the air quality in residential, comercial and industrial sampling sites in the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica. Principal component analysis with absolute principal component scores (PCA-APCS), UNIMX and positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to analyze the data collected during 1 year of sampling campaign (2010-2011). The PM2.5 samples were characterized through its composition looking for trace elements, inorganic ions and organic and elemental carbon. These three models identified some common sources of PM2.5: marine aerosol, crustal material, traffic, secondary aerosols (secondary sulfate and secondary nitrate resolved by PMF), a mixed source of heavy fuels combustion and biomass burning, and industrial emissions. The three models predicted that the major sources of PM2.5 in the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica were related to anthropogenic sources (73%, 65% and 69%, respectively, for PCA-APCS, Unmix and PMF) although natural sources also contributed to PM2.5 (21%, 24% and 26%). On average, PCA and PMF methods resolved 94% and 95% of the PM2.5 mass concentrations, respectively. The results were comparable to the estimate using

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