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Lead uptake and tolerance of Ricinus communis L.
Romeiro, Solange;Lag?a, Ana M.M.A.;Furlani, Pedro R.;Abreu, Cleide A. de;Abreu, M?nica F. de;Erismann, Norma M.;
Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-04202006000400006
Abstract: phytoextraction is an important technique used for the decontamination of areas polluted by lead. consequently, an understanding of the physiological responses to tolerance of tropical species subjected to increasing levels of contamination is fundamental before considering their use as phytoextractors in contaminated areas. the objective of this study was to assess the lead (pb) uptake and the tolerance of ricinus communis l. the plants were cultivated in nutrient solution in a greenhouse under controlled conditions. lead was tested at concentrations of 0, 100, 200 and 400 μmol l-1. the experimental set-up was a block design, using a 4 x 1 factorial scheme, with three replicates. biometric analyses, photosynthesis rates, and pb content in the nutritive solution as well as in roots and shoots were performed. in conclusion, r. communis l is a hyperaccumulator species for pb and presents tolerance properties in lead light concentration.
CastorDB: a comprehensive knowledge base for Ricinus communis
Shalabh Thakur, Sanjay Jha, Bharat B Chattoo
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-356
Abstract: CastorDB is a specialized and comprehensive database for the oil seed plant R. communis, integrating information from several diverse resources. CastorDB contains information on gene and protein sequences, gene expression and gene ontology annotation of protein sequences obtained from a variety of repositories, as primary data. In addition, computational analysis was used to predict cellular localization, domains, pathways, protein-protein interactions, sumoylation sites and biochemical properties and has been included as derived data. This database has an intuitive user interface that prompts the user to explore various possible information resources available on a given gene or a protein.CastorDB provides a user friendly comprehensive resource on castor with particular emphasis on its genome, transcriptome, and proteome and on protein domains, pathways, protein localization, presence of sumoylation sites, expression data and protein interacting partners.Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae family) is an industrially important non-edible oil seed crop with several well established applications in industry. Castor bean genome is around 350 Mb and was sequenced and assembled in 4X draft by Chan et al. [1] using whole genome shortgun strategy and is predicted to contain 31,221 proteins, although the function of most of these proteins remains unknown. Thus, a comprehensive database has been developed to provide a useful resource by integrating information on genome, transcriptome, and proteome of R. communis. Sequence data of Castor bean plant was obtained from various resources like National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) [2] and JCVI Castor Bean Genome Database [3]. Appropriate programs were developed to establish a connection with various databases for accessing the information using API. Important information extracted from the analyzed data was compiled in a back-end database using MySQL database server [4] for the construction of CastorDB. The information
Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: In vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties
Zarai Zied,Chobba Ines,Mansour Riadh,Békir Ahmed
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-11-102
Abstract: Background The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. Results The essential oil from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. was analyzed by GC–MS and bioassays were carried out. Five constituents of the oil were identified by GC–MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against twelve bacteria and four fungi species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested with higher sensitivity for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on HeLa cell lines were examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC50 values less than 2.63 mg/ml for both cell lines. Conclusion The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections.
In vitro Regeneration of Ricinus communis L. and Jatropha curcas L. for Biofuel Production  [PDF]
K.E. Danso,N.T. Afful,C. Annor,H.M. Amoatey
Biotechnology , 2011,
Abstract: The growing of oil producing tree crops for biodiesel on large scale to supplement fossil fuel has become lucrative agribusiness for farmers due to high cost of crude oil. In spite of their high economic value and comparative advantage over food crops as energy sources, oil producing tree crops have low seed viability making large scale commercial propagation difficult. Thus alternative mode of propagation via in vitro culture is highly recommended. In this study, attempts were made to regenerate Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas, oil producing tree crops belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The addition of cytokinin (BAP, kinetin or 2iP) in the culture medium significantly increased the viability of zygotic embryos of Ricinus over the controls depending on the stage at which the fruits were collected but conversely in Jatropha the increase was not significantly different. Of the three cytokinins used 2iP enhanced the highest shoot regeneration with the optimal concentration ranging from 0.5 mg L-1 in Ricinus and 1.5 or 2.0 mg L-1 in Jatropha, indicating genotypic difference between the species. However, excessive callus formation and browning in Ricinus led to the loss of regenerants. Plant growth regulators also influenced regeneration from meristem explant with 2iP again being the best. The successful regeneration of plantlets from shoot tip explants of Ricinus and Jatropha augurs well for future genetic transformation of the crop for biofuel production.
Ricinus communis biocompatibility histological study in the nose of Cebus apella monkeys
Dias, Paulo Cesar de Jesus;Granato, Lidio;Ramalho, Lizeti de Toledo de Oliveira;Oliveira, José Américo de;Pretel, Hermes;
Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1808-86942009000300007
Abstract: bone tissue lesions can be caused by congenital and acquired factors, and result in nasal deformities with cosmetic and functional repercussion. surgical treatment in these cases frequently requires complex reconstructions and the use of biomaterials. the polyurethane derived from castor beans (ricinus communis) has a favorable formulation in terms of ease of processing, flexibility, no emission of toxic vapors and low cost. nonetheless, despite favorable results, studies about the use of castor beam polymer (ricinus communis) assessing tissue reaction on the nasal dorsum are still missing in the literature. aim: the goal of the present investigation is to histologically assess the ricinus communis polymer implant biocompatibility with the nasal dorsum. study desing: experimental. materials and methods: we used four cebus appela monkeys, in which we created a nasal dorsal defect in all the animals and there we placed the aforementioned implant. the animals were sacrificed 270 days after surgery and the samples were submitted to histological study. results: in the histology analysis we did not observe the presence of foreign body granulomas or phagocytic cells. we also observed a progressive bone formation and maturation. conclusion: macroscopic and microscopic results showed that the castor oil polymer implant was biocompatible.
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF RICINUS COMMUNIS AGAINST SOME HUMAN PATHOGENS  [PDF]
Kushwah Poonam,Singh Krishan Pratap
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: The present paper deals with the antimicrobial activities of seed extracts of Ricinus communis against some human pathogenic bacteria namely Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and two fungal strains namely Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. The aqueous and methanol extracts of seeds were screened for their antibacterial activity using agar disc diffusion method. The aqueous seed extracts were less active but methanol extracts showed high degree zone of inhibition against the tested pathogens.
Ricinus communis Intoxications in Human and Veterinary Medicine—A Summary of Real Cases  [PDF]
Sylvia Worbs,Kernt K?hler,Diana Pauly,Marc-André Avondet,Martin Schaer,Martin B. Dorner,Brigitte G. Dorner
Toxins , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/toxins3101332
Abstract: Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.
Ricinus communis Intoxications in Human and Veterinary Medicine—A Summary of Real Cases  [PDF]
Sylvia Worbs,Kernt K?hler,Diana Pauly,Marc-André Avondet
Toxins , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/toxins3101332
Abstract: Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.
The Effect of Experimental Denture Cleanser Solution Ricinus communis on Acrylic Resin Properties
Pisani, Marina Xavier;Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato da;Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira;Souza, Raphael Freitas;Macedo, Ana Paula;
Materials Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-14392010000300015
Abstract: this study evaluated heat-polymerized (hpr) and microwave-polymerized acrylic resins (mpr), after immersion in water, 1% hypochlorite and ricinus communis solution (rc). knoop hardness, color alteration, roughness and flexural strength tests were performed after obtaining the specimens and after time intervals of 15 (t15) and 183 (t183) days. variations in data (δ) were submitted to anova and tukey tests (p = 0.05). for δt15 hpr there was greater variation in hardness when immersed in water (p = 0.00) and for mpr, after immersion in rc (p = 0.00). rc caused the greatest variation in roughness (p = 0.015). color alteration was not significant (p = 24.46). hypochlorite caused a decrease in flexural strength (p = 0.37). after δt183, hypochlorite and rc caused a decrease in hpr hardness value (p = 0.00). mpr showed the greatest variation in roughness (p = 0.01). hpr presented the most color alteration after immersion in rc (p = 0.214). hypochlorite and rc caused the lowest flexural strength values for mpr (p = 0.89). rc caused alterations in resin properties, and was not shown to be superior to hypochlorite.
Energy flow in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) production systems
Silva, Adilson Nunes da;Romanelli, Thiago Libório;Reichardt, Klaus;
Scientia Agricola , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162010000600018
Abstract: although energy analysis is a way to evaluate the sustainability of production systems, this practice is not often used in the agribusiness. in this context, the castor bean (ricinus communis l) is an agricultural crop not yet well studied despite its great potential in the brazilian energetic scenario. this article aimed to evaluate the productive potential of the castor bean oil, using an energetic view applied to two management systems: low (system 1) and medium (system 2) technologies. the quantification of the used material fluxes was made converting these factors in energy units. the input energy fluxes were 3,170.6 mj ha1 and 10,366.0 mj ha1 for systems 1 and 2, respectively. the energy balance of system 1 was 11,938.2 mj ha1 and that of system 2 16,296.5 mj ha1. the net energetic gain or the energy gain over the invested energy (eroi) of system 1 was 3.8 and of system 2, 2.6. although presenting a greater energy demand and a lower eroi, system 2 had a greater energy balance, demonstrating a better viability of this cultivation system for the production of castor bean oil.
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