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Kshitij Agarwal*,Gopal Bisht,Shweta Verma,Prem Saini
Pharmacie Globale : International Journal of Comprehensive Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: India is a landmark for traditional system of medicine from past few centuries. Most of the medicines are effective but only one major drawback is lack of standardization. So, there is a need to develop a standardization technique to mingle this system of medicine in the main stream of health science. Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha (CCRAS) has given preliminary guidelines for standardization these conventional formulations. Standardization of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs. The present paper reports preparation and standardization of a polyherbal formulation which contains Syzgium cumini (seed), Anthrocefhalus cadamba (leaf), Gymnema stylvestre (whole plant), Foenum graceum (seed), Azadirachata indica (leaves), Momordica charantia (seed) This “GLUNORM” churna formulation is used to treat diabetes mellitus. Here we calculate and discussed about Extractive value, Moisture content, Ash value, Carr’s index etc. These parameters are required for authentication of any herbal drug and its formulation.
Cosmic Rulers  [PDF]
Fabian Schmidt,Donghui Jeong
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.86.083527
Abstract: We derive general covariant expressions for the six independent observable modes of distortion of ideal standard rulers in a perturbed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime. Our expressions are gauge-invariant and valid on the full sky. These six modes are most naturally classified in terms of their rotational properties on the sphere, yielding two scalars, two vector (spin-1), and two tensor (spin-2) components. One scalar corresponds to the magnification, while the spin-2 components correspond to the shear. The vector components allow for a polar/axial decomposition analogous to the E/B-decomposition for the shear. Scalar modes do not contribute to the axial (B-)vector, opening a new avenue to probing tensor modes. Our results apply, but are not limited to, the distortion of correlation functions (of the CMB, 21cm emission, or galaxies) as well as to weak lensing shear and magnification, all of which can be seen as methods relying on "standard rulers".
Relativity theory of clocks and rulers  [PDF]
Marek Pawlowski
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: Special Relativity (SR) kinematics is derived from very intuitive assumptions. Contrary to standard Einstein's derivation, no light signal is used in the construction nor it is assumed to exist. Instead we postulate the existence of two equivalence classes of physical objects: proportional clocks and proportional rulers. Simple considerations lead to Lorentz kinematics as one of three generic cases. The Lorentz case is characterized by the maximal relative speed of physical objects. The two others are the Galilean and the Euclidean cases.
A comparative investigation of the cleaning efficacy of different manual and mechanical endodontic instruments (SEM study)  [PDF]
Da?i? Dragoslav,?ivkovi? Slavoljub
Stomatolo?ki Glasnik Srbije , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/sgs0303137d
Abstract: The purpose of this SEM study was to evaluate the cleaning effects of different manual and mechanical endodontic instruments. Sixty single canal human teeth were selected for this study. The root canals were instrumented by seven types of manual endodontic instruments (K-enlargers, K files Rattail files, K-Flexofiles, K Flex files, Hedstrom and NiTi Flex files) and five different mechanical endodontic instruments (Rispi, Rat tail Hedstrom, NiTi Flex files and K-enlargers). During and after the instrumentation, the canals were irrigated by 2.5% sodium hypochlorit. After splitting the roots longitudinally, the amount of debris and smear layer was quantified on the basis of a numerical evaluation scale, using scanning electron microscope. Results were statistically analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and t-test. There were no statistically significant differences between hand instrumentation and machine instrumentation with different endodontic instruments for any of the variables tested. Best instrumentation results in removing the smear layer and dentinal debris from the root canal were obtained with Kerr, NiTi and Hedstrom hand files and with K-enlargers, NiTi and Rat-tail mechanical files. In the apical thirds of root canals prepared using hand and mechanical endodontic instruments the smear layer and dentinal debris were always more abundant when compared with the middle and coronal thirds. In conslusion, cleaning efficacy differed slightly among the techniques and instruments, none of them completely removed smear layer and all left some debris.
Comparative study of the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine gel, chlorhexidine solution and sodium hypochlorite as endodontic irrigants
Ferraz, Caio C. R.;Gomes, Brenda P. F. A.;Zaia, Alexandre A.;Teixeira, Fabrício B.;Souza-Filho, Francisco J.;
Brazilian Dental Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-64402007000400004
Abstract: the purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate gel as an endodontic auxiliary chemical substance compared to sodium hypochlorite (naocl) and chlorhexidine gluconate solution. the antimicrobial efficacy of the tested substances was evaluated using the agar diffusion test. the growth inhibition zones produced by 0.2%, 1% and 2% chlorhexidine gel were evaluated against 5 facultative anaerobic bacteria and 4 pigmented gram-negative anaerobes, and compared to the results obtained by naocl and chlorhexidine solution. the largest growth inhibition zones were produced when the test bacteria were in contact with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate gel (11.79 mm), being significantly different (p<0.05) from the growth inhibition zones produced by all naoclconcentrations, including 5.25% (9.54 mm). however, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the growth inhibition zones obtained with equal concentrations of chlorhexidine solution and gel. the results of this study indicate that, as far as its antimicrobial properties are concerned, chlorhexidine gel has a great potential to be used as an endodontic auxiliary chemical substance.
On Disjoint Golomb Rulers  [PDF]
Xiu Baoxin,Changjun Fan,Meilian Liang
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: A set $\{a_i\:|\: 1\leq i \leq k\}$ of non-negative integers is a Golomb ruler if differences $a_i-a_j$, for any $i \neq j$, are all distinct. A set of $I$ disjoint Golomb rulers (DGR) each being a $J$-subset of $\{1,2,\cdots, n\}$ is called an $(I,J,n)-DGR$. Let $H(I, J)$ be the least positive $n$ such that there is an $(I,J,n)-DGR$. In this paper, we propose a series of conjectures on the constructions and structures of DGR. The main conjecture states that if $A$ is any set of positive integers such that $|A| = H(I, J)$, then there are $I$ disjoint Golomb rulers, each being a $J$-subset of $A$, which generalizes the conjecture proposed by Koml{\'o}s, Sulyok and Szemer{\'e}di in 1975 on the special case $I = 1$. These conjectures are computationally verified for some values of $I$ and $J$ through modest computation. Eighteen exact values of $H(I,J)$ and ten upper bounds on $H(I,J)$ are obtained by computer search for $7 \leq I \leq 13$ and $10 \leq J \leq 13$. Moveover for $I > 13$ and $10 \leq J \leq 13$, $H(I,J)=IJ$ are determined without difficulty.
Comparative Evaluation of Osseointegration of Dental Endodontic Implants with and without Plasma- Sprayed Hydroxy apatite Coating
Moosavi SB,?Fathi MH. BS,MSC,Feizi Gh
Journal of Dental Medicine , 2001,
Abstract: Bone osseointegration around dental implant can cause earlier stabilization and fixation of implant and reduce healing time. Hydroxyapatite coating can affect bone osseointegration and enhance its rates. The aim of this study was comparison of osseointegration between plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coated and uncoated dental implants in cats. Four endodontic implants including, vitallium and two stainless steel with and without hydroxyapatite coating were prepared and placed in mandibular canines of 20 cats after completion of root canal treatment and osseous preparation. After a healing period of 4 months, investigation by scanning electron microscopy showed significant difference in ossointegration between coated and uncoated dental implants and average bone osseointegration of coated implants was more than uncoated implants.
Comparative analysis of two electronic apex locators in working length determination at endodontic therapy: an in vitro study  [PDF]
Kenner Bruno Miguita,Rodrigo Sanches Cunha,Felipe Davini,Carlos Eduardo Fontana
RSBO , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: Endodontic treatment comprises individual steps that should be effectively performed in order to achieve therapeutic success. Among these steps is the determination of the real tooth length, which prevents damage to the periapical tissues during instrumentation and obturation, due to restrict the operator action, favoring tissue repair. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro the reliability of two electronic apical locators (Root ZX II and Propex II ) in working length determination, compared to direct visual measurement. Material and methods: Forty single-rooted human teeth were selected; the pulp chamber was accessed and a size 10 Kerr file was inserted into the canal until its tip was visible at the apical foramen with x8 magnification. At this point, a rubber stop was placed on the file, at the incisal edge, and this length was measured with an endodontic ruler, therefore, recording the real tooth length (RTL). Then, the teeth were embedded in a vegetable sponge (loofah) base, soaked in saline solution. Electronic measurements were carried out using Root ZX II and Propex II locators, until an “Apex” reading was observed. The measurements obtained by the different methods were compared. Results: Root ZX II apical locator showed 93% of correct readings, while Propex II locator was correct in 90% of the measurements. No statistically significant difference was observed between the two apex locators tested (p = 0.05). Conclusion: Both apex locators showed an acceptable percentage of correct readings and, therefore, may be recommended for clinical use.
Comparative sem evaluation of three solvents used in endodontic retreatment: an ex vivo study
Scelza, Miriam F. Zaccaro;Coil, Jeffrey M.;Maciel, Ana Carolina de Carvalho;Oliveira, Lílian Rachel L.;Scelza, Pantaleo;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572008000100006
Abstract: this study compared, by scanning electron microscopy (sem), the efficacy of three solvents on the removal of filling materials from dentinal tubules during endodontic retreatment. forty human maxillary canines with straight canals were prepared according to a crown-down technique and enlarged to a#30 apical file size, before obturation with gutta-percha and a zinc-oxide-eugenol based sealer. the samples were stored for 3 months before being randomly assigned to four groups: chloroform (n=10), orange oil (n=10), eucalyptol (n=10) and control (n=10). solvents were applied to a reservoir created on the coronal root third using gates glidden drills. the total time for retreatment using the solvents was 5 minutes per tooth. following retreatment the roots were split longitudinally for sem evaluation. sem images were digitized, analyzed using image proplus 4.5 software, and the number of dentinal tubules free of filling material from the middle and apical thirds was recorded. no significant difference was found among the solvent groups regarding the number of dentinal tubules free of root filling remnants in the middle and apical root thirds (p>0.05). however, the control group had fewer dentinal tubules free of filling material (p<0.05). under the tested conditions, it may be concluded that there was no significant difference among the solvents used to obtain dentinal tubules free of filling material remnants.
Portraits of Serbian rulers in the Duljevo monastery  [PDF]
Vojvodi? Dragan I.
Zograf , 2002, DOI: 10.2298/zog0329143v
Abstract: In the Church of Saint Stephen in Duljevo, not far from Budva (Pa trovi i) an interesting composition of the founders (ktetores) has been preserved. In accordance with an early Serbian tradition, it was painted on the southern wall in the western bay of the naos (drawing 1), and it is possible that it extended over the southern part of the western wall that was demolished very long ago. The Duljevo composition of the founders now depicts the images of the patron saint of the church, Saint Stephen, the First Martyr, painted on the southern side of the south-west pilaster, and the presentations of the two rulers to the west of him (drawing 2). The patron saint of the church who was the protector of the Serbian medieval state and its rulers, is represented in a deacon's sticharion, with a censer in his hands, blessing the founders. The ruler in his prime approaches the First Martyr, presenting him with a model of the church (drawing 2, figs. 1, 2)...
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