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Infinitesimals, Imaginaries, Ideals, and Fictions  [PDF]
David Sherry,Mikhail G. Katz
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: Leibniz entertained various conceptions of infinitesimals, considering them sometimes as ideal things and other times as fictions. But in both cases, he compares infinitesimals favorably to imaginary roots. We agree with the majority of commentators that Leibniz's infinitesimals are fictions rather than ideal things. However, we dispute their opinion that Leibniz's infinitesimals are best understood as logical fictions, eliminable by paraphrase. This so-called syncategorematic conception of infinitesimals is present in Leibniz's texts, but there is an alternative, formalist account of infinitesimals there too. We argue that the formalist account makes better sense of the analogy with imaginary roots and fits better with Leibniz's deepest philosophical convictions. The formalist conception supports the claim of Robinson and others that the philosophical foundations of nonstandard analysis and Leibniz's calculus are cut from the same cloth.
Bilan du programme autrichien de recherche sur les paysages  [cached]
Karolina Begusch-Pfefferkorn
Revue de Géographie Alpine , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/rga.493
Abstract: Austrian Landscape Research, a programme of the Austrian Ministry of Science, has created scientific foundations for the sustainable development of Austrian landscapes and regions (plus bordering regions). Landscapes and regions were to be explored from different angles; implementing the research findings was to be part of the research work. The programme was designed to make room for science open to society, for unconventional ideas, methods, and courses of action. Programmatic targets and research principles supported this intent. The results of the programme met with national and international approval. The ALR knowledge balance is an attempt at presenting and assessing the achievements of this comprehensive contract research programme. Le programme du Ministère autrichien des Sciences, intitulé Recherche sur le paysage autrichien , visait à construire les fondements scientifiques d’un développement durable des paysages et des régions de l’Autriche et des territoires limitrophes. Les paysages et les régions ont été étudiés selon différentes approches disciplinaires et la mise en pratique des résultats de cette étude était partie prenante du programme de recherche. La vocation de ce programme était de faire la place à une science ouverte sur la société, à des idées, méthodes et pratiques non conventionnelles. Les objectifs du programme et les principes de recherche vont dans le sens de ces exigences. Les résultats du programme ont été reconnus sur le plan national et international. Le bilan des connaissances du programme de recherche sur le paysage autrichien (KLF) a pour but de présenter et d’évaluer les performances de ce vaste programme de recherche.
Creative Chain in the Process of Becoming a Totality / A cadeia criativa no processo de tornar-se totalidade  [cached]
Fernanda Coelho Liberali
Bakhtiniana: Revista de Estudos do Discurso , 2009,
Abstract: ABSTRACT: This paper aims at discussing the Creative Chain and its potentialities for understanding the concept of totality, from a Spinozian monistic perspective. The discussion focuses on the creative struggle to produce shared meanings as a way of becoming a totality. The results of the analysis of an Extra Mural Program for teacher education in deprived communities indicate that the effort to argumentatively produce shared meanings makes it possible for new cultural outcomes. RESUMO: Este trabalho objetiva discutir a Cadeia Criativa e seu potencial para a compreens o da ideia de totalidade, a partir de leituras da filosofia monista de Spinoza. A discuss o focaliza luta criativa para a produ o de significados como modos de tornar-se totalidade. Os resultados da análise de um Programa de Extens o para forma o de professores em comunidades carentes apontam que o esfor o para argumentativamente produzir significados compartilhados possibilita o surgimento de novos resultados culturais.
European Urban Fictions in China.
Dieter Hassenpflug
EspacesTemps.net , 2008,
Abstract: Les fictions des cités européennes en Chine. à propos des travesties urbaines, des parodies et des transpositions mimétiques. En Chine règne une forme de Gründerzeit (années de fondation lors de l’ère wilhelminienne correspondant à une période d’expansion économique). Une des manifestations est le mouvement migratoire très important de la province vers les villes. Plus de 200 millions de travailleurs se précipitent ainsi actuellement vers les métropoles. Pour soulager ces grandes villes désormais pleines à craquer, s’est engagé un processus de construction de villes-satellites et de villes-dortoirs partout dans le pays. Dans ce contexte, on explore de nouvelles voies post-modernes qui se distinguent manifestement des planifications pour décharger les villes, en cours aux XIXe et XXe siècles. à souligner en particulier dans ce processus de construction sont notamment les villes à thème à travers lesquelles on essaie d’amener l’esprit de construction urbaine, l’art de vivre ou tout simplement l’image de cultures étrangères en Chine. Ces physionomies de villes importées des cultures occidentales se confrontent ainsi à un code urbain qui est caractérisé par un accroissement dense, une centralité linéaire-hiérarchique, des fa ades d’écrans et surtout par un dualisme prononcé entre un espace urbain fermé et un espace urbain ouvert. Cette dernière est représentée par des espaces de mobilité et de commerce. à l’inverse, l’espace fermé s’exprime en dehors des institutions de production, d’administration, d’éducation et de justice notamment par les lotissements. En Chine, les citadins habitent presque intégralement dans des voisinages clos (‘compounds’). Au final, toute orchestration de la ville chinoise se soumet à ce dualisme de l’espace ouvert et l’espace fermé. L’article décrit et analyse les implications spatiales d’une transposition d’idées européennes sur la physionomie d’une ville et sur la texture urbaine en Chine. Ceci se fait à l’exemple de trois villes à thème du plan Une ville, neuf villages de Shanghai : la ville allemande Anting, la ville anglaise Taiwushi et la ville suédoise Luodian. Un élément complémentaire à cette étude est la perspective sur une copie de ville néerlandaise dans la région de Shenyang, située dans le nord de la Chine, puis une rapide visite australe dans le parc à thème Window of the World . L’importance de la ma trise du code d’une ville chinoise est illustrée par le cas de la ville allemande Anting. Aveuglé par la conviction na ve selon laquelle il serait possible de transporter subs
Dis-solu es textuais na casa dos espelhos modernista Textual Dis-solutions in the Modernist House of Mirrors Dis-solutions textuelles dans la maison des miroirs du modernisme
Catarina Martins
Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais , 2012, DOI: 10.4000/rccs.924
Abstract: Um dos aspectos mais relevantes do modernismo, enquanto autocrítica da modernidade, é a tentativa de salvar o sujeito das prefigura es normativas da raz o moderna. Trata-se de uma busca identitária que implica a derrocada das constru es estabelecidas da realidade e a produ o de novas narrativas do todo que preservem o individual. O modernismo representa uma racionalidade estética subversiva e auto-consciente que tende para um modo do discurso e do pensamento que desenha o sujeito na sua rela o com o mundo: o ensaio. Na fic o narrativa de express o alem do início do século XX, a confluência de modernismo e ensaísmo conduziu a híbridos textuais que desafiam uma no o de texto fundamentada na compreensibilidade. Diversos efeitos de espelho articulam a dissolu o dos paradigmas epistemológicos e estéticos tradicionais com novas solu es para a escrita ficcional da realidade e do sujeito. A reflexividade ensaística surge no centro da reac o do modernismo à modernidade e da reden o sincera e encenada de um Eu irremediavelmente perdido. According to the notion of Modernism as a critical reaction to post-Enlightenment modernity, the totalitarian epistemological model of modern reason annihilated the individual through crystallized schemata that mediate the relation between the subject and the world. Modernism would be an attempt to save the individual, or an identity seeking process which dismantles established constructions of reality and produces alternative narratives of the whole that preserve the individual. Modernism becomes a self-conscious aesthetic rationality that tends to a mode of discourse that aims at contouring the subject in its relation with the world: the Essay. In German-speaking narrative fiction of the early 20th century the confluence of Modernism and essayism led to interesting textual hybrids. Here, multiple kinds of mirror effects equate the dissolution of traded epistemological and aesthetic paradigms with new solutions for a fictional re-writing of reality and the self. L’un des aspects les plus remarquables du modernisme, en tant qu’autocritique de la modernité, consiste dans la tentative de sauver le sujet des préfigurations normatives de la raison moderne. Il s’agit d’une quête d’identité qui implique l’écroulement des constructions établies de la réalité et la production de nouvelles narrations du tout mais qui préservent l’individuel. Le modernisme représente une rationalité esthétique subversive et consciente d’elle-même, tendant vers un mode de discours et de pensée qui puisse dessiner le sujet dans son rapport au monde
Dimens es geopolíticas do modernismo. Contraculturas mexicanas na Califórnia The Geopolitical Dimension of Modernism. Mexican Immigrants and Alternative Modernities Dimensions géopolitiques du modernisme. Contre-culutres mexicaines du modernisme en Californie
Maria José Canelo
Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais , 2012, DOI: 10.4000/rccs.937
Abstract: Proponho-me repensar o modernismo tendo em conta a afirma o de Homi K. Bhabha de que “cada repeti o do signo da modernidade é diferente, específica das suas condi es de enuncia o históricas e culturais”. Centrando-me na obra de Carey McWilliams, procuro dar a conhecer e discutir um trabalho crítico que salienta a dimens o geopolítica do modernismo e demonstra que a modernidade n o deu, de facto, origem a um tipo único de experiência nos Estados Unidos. Neste caso, o contexto da Grande Depress o, enquanto configura o histórica e cultural específica, exige uma reformula o da express o e das formas modernistas, na medida em que torna evidente que, quando a moderniza o fracassa, emergem na sociedade americana fenómenos de desenvolvimento desigual que desafiam a defini o de modernidade. A reflex o crítica de McWilliams antecipa configura es críticas actuais, das “contraculturas da modernidade” às “modernidades alternativas”. The Great Depression constitutes a specific historical and cultural configuration that substantially reshapes modernist forms. The focus of my paper is American Popular Front intellectual Carey McWilliams’s writings on U.S. cultures. His critical work highlights the geopolitical dimension of modernism, suggesting that modernity did not foster the same kind of experience all around the United States: the crisis brought about by the Depression created an opportunity to show that when modernization failed, instances of unequal development emerged within U.S. society itself, which conventional modernist forms were unable to represent. McWilliams worked with ethnic communities in California and the way he perceived difference in their cultures is similar to what many critics now term “countercultures of modernity.” My analysis will also draw on Michael Denning’s notion of “social modernism,” which helps us to perceive in how far modernism should be reconceived as a discursive and historical field, a cultural phenomenon in broad terms. Je me propose de repenser le modernisme en tenant compte de l’affirmation de Homi K. Bhabha, selon laquelle “chaque répétition du signe de la modernité est différente, particulière à ses conditions d’énonciation historiques et culturelles”. M’appuyant sur l’ uvre de Carey McWilliams, je cherche à exposer et discuter un travail critique mettant en avant la dimension géopolitique du modernisme et démontrer que la modernité n’a en fait pas donné naissance seulement à un type d’expérience aux Etats-Unis. A la rigueur, le contexte de la période de la grande dépression en tant qu’une configuration historique
EQUIVOCATION IN THE FOUNDATIONS OF LEIBNIZ’S INFINITESIMAL FICTIONS
Tzuchien THO
Societate ?i Politic? , 2012,
Abstract: In this article, I address two different kinds of equivocations in reading Leibniz’s fictional infinite and infinitesimal. These equivocations form the background of a reductive reading of infinite and infinitesimal fictions either as ultimately finite or as something whose status can be taken together with any other mathematical object as such. The first equivocation is the association of a foundation of infinitesimals with their ontological status. I analyze this equivocation by criticizing the logicist influence on 20th century Anglophone reception of the syncategorematical infinite and infinitesimal. The second equivocation is the association of the rigor of mathematical demonstration with the problem of the admissibility of infinite or infinitesimal terms. I analyze this by looking at Leibniz’s constructive method and apagogic argument style in his quadrature method. In treating these equivocations, I critique some assumptions that underlie the reductive reading of Leibniz’s fictionalism concerning infinite and infinitesimals. In turn, I suggest that these infinitesimal “fictions” pointed to a problematic within Leibniz’s work that was conceived and reconsidered in Leibniz’s work from a range of different contexts and methods.Keywords: Leibniz, differential calculu
FICTIONS IN ARTS, MYTHS AND DREAMS: A SEMANTIC APPROACH
Samuel Cabanchik
Ideas y Valores , 2006,
Abstract: The world, or worlds, in which we live, contain symbols as well as real objects. We use symbols both to refer to real objects and to speak of fictions (as in works of art, games, rituals, or dreams). In this paper, I will introduce some elements for a semantic approach to fiction. I will depart from an inscriptional theory of fiction, and will apply this theory to different fields, covering myths, dreams and works of art. Many of the ideas I advance here are inspired by the philosophy of Nelson Goodman. However, in this paper I will extend to myths and dreams some ideas he applies only to the arts. Scheffler's idea of mention - selection which he introduced for the treatment of fictions and applied also to ritual practices will be a resource in the development of my approach. I use some conceptual tools to gain a better understanding of Freud's treatment of dreams, taking into account Wittgenstein's criticism of psychoanalysis. In the final section of this paper, I will evaluate some alternatives to the proposal developed here, so we can best appreciate the advantages of the semantic approach, or at least how it can complement the pragmatic approach.
Complex System Analysis of Social Networks Extracted from Literary Fictions
Gyeong-Mi Park,Sung-Hwan Kim,Hye-Ryeon Hwang,Hwan-Gue Cho
International Journal of Machine Learning and Computing , 2013, DOI: 10.7763/ijmlc.2013.v3.282
Abstract: Recently we witnessed that the social network analysis focusing on social entities is applied in the social science and web-science, behavioral sciences, as well as in economics, marketing. In this paper we present one method to construct the social network from literary fictions by a simple lexical analysis, not using the complex natural language processing tools. And we will show that those social graphs, saying literary social graph, shows the power law distribution of some features, which is the typical characteristics of complex systems. We showed that the social network extracted from literary data reflects the similar network structure which was semantically designed by authors of fictions. And we newly proposed the concept of the kernel of literary social network by which we can classify the abstract level of protagonists appeared in fictions. Our study shows that the metric distance among characters written in linear text is very similar to the intrinsic and semantic relationship described by fiction writers, which implies the proposed social network from fictions could be another representation of literary fiction. So we can apply other scientific and quantitative approach by analyzing the concrete social graph model extracted from textual data.
Para que tenha significado e para que tenha importancia: Um modernismo para o século XXI Making It Mean and Making It Matter. Modernism for the 21st Century Pour que cela fasse sens et pour que cela ait de l’importance : un modernisme pour le XXIème siècle
Vivian Liska
Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais , 2012, DOI: 10.4000/rccs.921
Abstract: Partindo da misteriosa e ambígua figura kafkiana de Odradek, o texto desenvolve uma reflex o sobre o que poderá ser um modernismo para o século XXI. Argumenta se que, longe da certid o de óbito lan ada pela vaga pós modernista, estamos a assistir presentemente a um processo de expans o, através da inclus o de outros actores, culturas e espa os no pante o modernista, por um lado, e, por outro, através do desfazer de fronteiras com diferentes registos, poéticas e períodos e movimentos literários. Taking as its starting-point the mysterious and ambiguous Kafka figure of Odradek, the essay reflects upon what might be a modernism for the 21st century. It argues that, contrary to the death certificate issued by the postmodernist tide, we are currently witnessing a process of expansion through the inclusion of other players, cultures and locations into the modernist pantheon on the one hand, and the undoing of borders with different registers, poetics and literary periods and movements on the other. Partant de la figure kafka enne d’Odradek, mystérieuse et ambigu , ce texte réfléchit sur ce qui pourra être un modernisme pour le XXIème siècle. En voici l’argument principal: loin du certificat de décès lancé par la vague post-moderniste, nous assistons actuellement à un processus d’expansion; d’une part à travers l’inclusion d’autres acteurs, d’autres cultures et d’autres espaces dans le Panthéon du modernisme; d’autre part, à travers l’effondrement des frontières, ont surgi différents registres poétiques et de nouveaux périodes et mouvements littéraires.
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