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Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) from Three Marine Algae  [PDF]
Michio Namikoshi,Takeshi Fujiwara,Teruaki Nishikawa,Kazuyo Ukai
Marine Drugs , 2006, DOI: 10.3390/md404290
Abstract: Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) obtained from the same algae was about 50-80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial) products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.
Combined Effects of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) and Benzo(a)Pyrene on Fertility in Male Rats  [PDF]
Yujing Huang, Ji’an Chen, Weiqun Shu
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2014.22023

Our previous studies revealed the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and phthalic acid esters were the major organic pollutants in the Jialing River and Yangtze River in the Three Gorges area, and they might cause the toxicity in male fertility when combined. Thus we used di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and Benzo(a)pyrene (Bap) as their representatives respectively to explore their effects on the spermatogenesis in male rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups and respectively exposed to corn oil, Bap (5 mg/kg/d), DBP (250 mg/kg/d), and combined doses of Bap (5 mg/kg/d) and DBP (250 mg/kg/d) for 90 days. We observed a significant increase in the stillbirth rate after Bap and combined treatments, while the mean area of seminiferous tubules was reduced after Bap, DBP and combined treatments. Bap and combined treatment had a sup- pressing effect on meiosis in germ cells, which reduced the haploid contents and the ratio between haploid and diploid but increased the tetraploid and diploid contents and the ratio between hap- loid and tetraploid. These effects were more obvious in the combined group. Furthermore, the ex- pression of a number of proteins was changed, of which was associated with the oxidative stress and cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Our results suggest that Bap has significant toxic effects on male fertility, while the combined treatment of Bap and DBP has more toxic effects.

Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Dibutyl Phthalate in Liquor  [PDF]
Hua Kuang,Liqiang Liu,Liguang Xu,Wei Ma,Lingling Guo,Libing Wang,Chuanlai Xu
Sensors , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/s130708331
Abstract: A monoclonal antibody specifically recognizing dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was prepared based on a hapten (di- n-butyl-4-aminophthalate). After optimizing various parameters such as concentrations of antibody, coating antigen and composition of the assay buffer, an inhibition curve was plotted with the 50% inhibition concentration value (IC 50) 33.6 ± 2.5 ng/mL. A low level of cross-reactivity (<5%) was found for other phthalate esters. Recovery tests were conducted using liquor simulant (a mixture of water and ethanol) at two fortification levels (100 ng/mL and 300 ng/mL). The recovery rates ranged from 84.7% to 94.5% with a coefficient of variation between 7.1% and 12.8%. Nine liquor samples of different alcoholic strengths were detected using the proposed measure and confirmatory analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). The detection results showed good consistency between the two measures and all the data above indicated that the proposed ELISA could be applied in DBP screening.
Toxic Effects of Dibutyl Phthalate(DBP)on Scenedesmus obliquus

HU Qin-qin,XIONG Li,TIANPEI Xiu-zi,LI Wen-ying,

生态毒理学报 , 2008,
Abstract: 为了评估邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(DBP)对水生生物的毒性效应,采用室内培养的方法,研究了DBP对斜生栅藻(Scenedesmus obliquus)的急性毒性效应.实验设置5个暴露组(5、10、20、50、100mg·L-1)和1个对照组(Omg·L-1),暴露96h后分别测定DBP对斜生栅藻生长量、光合色素含量、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、丙二醛(MDA)含量等生理生化指标的影响.结果表明,各暴露组DBP对斜生栅藻的生长均有抑制作用,随DBP暴露浓度的增大,藻细胞密度逐渐降低,显示出明显的剂量-效应关系.DBP对斜生栅藻的24、48、72、96h的EC50值分别为3.31、15.49、1.95、2.21mg·L-1.叶绿素a、b及类胡萝卜素含量随着DBP暴露浓度的增大呈现相同的变化趋势,均为低浓度(5~10mg·L-1)上升,高浓度(10~100mg·L-1)下降.随DBP暴露浓度的增大,斜生栅藻SOD活性表现为先激活后抑制,在20mg·L-1时SOD活性达到最大值(与对照比较,p<0.05);当DBP暴露浓度≥10mg·L-1时,MDA含量随DBP浓度的增大显著增加(与对照比较,p<0.05,p<0.01).
Application of single drop microextraction in the determination of phthalate esters and parabens in drugs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

QI Aiming,LI Meigui,MAO Liqiu,

色谱 , 2008,
Abstract: Single drop microextraction (SDME) was used for the determination of phthalate esters and parabens in drugs by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-IT/MS). The effects of the nature of extraction solvents, microdrop volume, the depth of microdrop in sample solution, extraction time and stirring rate on the extraction efficiency were investigated separately. The optimal SDME conditions, 1.5 microL of toluene, 0.8 cm of the depth of microdrop, 1 000 r/min of stirring rate and 20 mm of extraction time, were obtained and used for the analysis of methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), iso-propylparaben (IPP), butylparaben (BP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) in drugs. The results showed that the working curves for 8 phthalate esters and parabens were linear in the range of 0.032 - 80 mg/L by GC-MS on selective ion storage mode. The limits of detection (LOD) were between 0.6 microg/L and 1.28 mg/L, the overall recoveries were 95.85% - 148.85% with the relative standard deviations of 3.9% - 14.9%.
An Immunoassay for Dibutyl Phthalate Based on Direct Hapten Linkage to the Polystyrene Surface of Microtiter Plates  [PDF]
Chenxi Wei, Shumao Ding, Huihui You, Yaran Zhang, Yao Wang, Xu Yang, Junlin Yuan
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029196
Abstract: Background Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is predominantly used as a plasticizer inplastics to make them flexible. Extensive use of phthalates in both industrial processes and other consumer products has resulted in the ubiquitous presence of phthalates in the environment. In order to better determine the level of pollution in the environment and evaluate the potential adverse effects of exposure to DBP, immunoassay for DBP was developed. Methodology/Principal Findings A monoclonal antibody specific to DBP was produced from a stable hybridoma cell line generated by lymphocyte hybridoma technique. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) employing direct coating of hapten on polystyrene microtiter plates was established for the detection of DBP. Polystyrene surface was first oxidized by permanganate in dilute sulfuric acid to generate carboxyl groups. Then dibutyl 4-aminophthalate, which is an analogue of DBP, was covalently linked to the carboxyl groups of polystyrene surface with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC). Compared with conjugate coated format (IC50 = 106 ng/mL), the direct hapten coated format (IC50 = 14.6 ng/mL) improved assay sensitivity after careful optimization of assay conditions. The average recovery of DBP from spiked water sample was 104.4% and the average coefficient of variation was 9.95%. Good agreement of the results obtained by the hapten coated icELISA and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry further confirmed the reliability and accuracy of the icELISA for the detection of DBP in certain plastic and cosmetic samples. Conclusions/Significance The stable and efficient hybridoma cell line obtained is an unlimited source of sensitive and specific antibody to DBP. The hapten coated format is proposed as generally applicable because the carboxyl groups on modified microtiter plate surface enables stable immobilization of aminated or hydroxylated hapten with EDC. The developed hapten coated icELISA can be used as a convenient quantitative tool for the sensitive and accurate monitoring DBP in water, plastic and cosmetic samples.
A Dibutyl Phthalate Sensor Based on a Nanofiber Polyaniline Coated Quartz Crystal Monitor  [PDF]
You Wang,Pengfei Ding,Ruifen Hu,Jianming Zhang,Xingfa Ma,Zhiyuan Luo,Guang Li
Sensors , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/s130303765
Abstract: Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a commonly used plasticizer and additive to adhesives, printing inks and nail polishes. Because it has been found to be a powerful reproductive and developmental toxicant, a sensor to monitor DBP in some working spaces and the environment is required. In this work polyaniline nanofibers were deposited on the electrode of a quartz crystal oscillator to form a Quartz Crystal Microbalance gas sensor. The coated quartz crystal and a non-coated quartz crystal were mounted in a sealed chamber, and their frequency difference was monitored. When DBP vapor was injected into the chamber, gas adsorption decreased the frequency of the coated quartz crystal oscillator and thereby caused an increase in the frequency difference between the two crystals. The change of the frequency difference was recorded as the sensor response. The sensor was extremely sensitive to DBP and could be easily recovered by N 2 purging. A low measurement limit of 20 ppb was achieved. The morphologies of the polyaniline films prepared by different approaches have been studied by SEM and BET. How the nanofiber-structure can improve the sensitivity and stability is discussed, while its selectivity and long-term stability were investigated.

Wang Hong,Ye Changming,

环境科学学报 , 1995,
Abstract: Biodegradation and suspended sediments interfacial effects of dibutyl phthalate(DBP)in natural waters were studied.According to the results of simulation experiments of DBPbiodegradation with different concentrations of suspended sediment,the relation betweenbiodegradation of trace DBP and suspended sediments was found to be experessed by linearequations. An interfacial effect factor was introduced to present the effect of suspended sedi-ments on biodegradation rates.
Transformation of dibutyl phthalate in bioreactor landfill

Fang Cheng-Ran,Long Yu-Yang,Shen Dong-Sheng,
Fang CR
,Long YY,Shen DS

环境科学 , 2012,
Abstract: Considering the refuse and leachate as one whole system, a conventional landfill (CL) was set as a control, transformation of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) in recirculated landfill (RL) and bioreactor landfill (BL) was studied. Results showed that DBP was detected in both leachate and refuse from CL, RL and BL. The initial DBP amount was 18.5 microg x g(-1) in the landfill refuse. In addition, the stabilization process of landfill, with sequences of BL > RL > CL, played an important role on the biodegradation of DBP in refuse. Compared to the acidic environment, the methanogenic environment was beneficial for DBP degradation. At the day of 310, refuse sedimentation rates were 7.0%, 11.9% and 24.3% in CL, RL and BL, respectively. DBP residual amounts were 2.1, 1.3 and 0.8 microg x g(-1), and its removal rates were 89.5%, 93.9% and 96.6% in the refuse from CL, RL and BL, respectively. The residual amounts of DBP with significant differences well fitted exponential decay models in CL, RL and BL. Finally, DBP biodegradation was obviously accelerated with the operation of leachate recirculation compared to the conventional operation, and it was further promoted with the introduction of methanogenic reactor.
T-Helper Type-2 Contact Hypersensitivity of Balb/c Mice Aggravated by Dibutyl Phthalate via Long-Term Dermal Exposure  [PDF]
Jinquan Li, Li Li, Haoxiao Zuo, Chenjuan Ke, Biao Yan, Huaxiao Wen, Yinping Zhang, Xu Yang
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087887
Abstract: Objective During the last few decades, the prevalence of allergic skin diseases, asthma and rhinitis, has increased worldwide. Introduction of environmental chemicals with aggravation effects may play a part in this increase. The artificial chemical product dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is used in many products used in daily life. Dermal exposure to DBP is a common (but easily neglected) exposure pattern. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we examined the aggravation effect of long-term dermal exposure to DBP in a T-helper type 2 (Th2) model of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in mice, and sought the potential molecular mechanisms. Experimental tests were conducted after 40-day dermal exposure to saline or three concentrations of DBP and subsequent three times of sensitization with 0.5% fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) or vehicle. The results of immunological and inflammatory biomarkers (total-immunoglobulin (Ig)E and Th cytokines) as well as histopathological examination and measurement of ear swelling supported the notion that high doses of DBP may promote and aggravate atopic dermatitis. Increased expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in this mouse model suggested that TSLP might be one of the molecular mechanisms of the aggravation effect induced by DBP. Conclusions/Significance Together, these results indicated that long-term dermal exposure to types of environmental toxins such as phthalates may endow an atopic predisposition in animals or humans. In addition, the high expression of TSLP in the mouse model demonstrated that TSLP might have an important role in the aggravation effect. This result could help to provide effective prevention strategies against atopic diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD).
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