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Differential regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 and -2 by insulin in the baboon (Papio anubis) endometrium
Steven D Fleming, Asgerally T Fazleabas, Stephen C Bell
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-6-6
Abstract: Baboon endometrial explants collected from cycling, ovariectomized, steroid-treated, simulated-pregnant and pregnant animals were cultured for 48 h in the presence or absence of insulin, with or without estradiol, progesterone and hCG.Insulin clearly inhibited IGFBP-1 production and mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas IGFBP-2 synthesis was not significantly affected. The inhibitory effects of insulin on IGFBP-1 were more evident in explants of non-pregnant tissue or tissue away from the implantation site. In the absence of insulin, synthesis of IGFBP-1 was induced in explants with low levels of de novo synthesis whereas IGFBP-2 synthesis was inhibited. This effect was potentiated by steroids and hCG in the explant cultures.Insulin differentially regulates endometrial IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 secretion in the baboon.The insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) include IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 that are non-glycosylated, low molecular weight IGFBPs that have a homologous amino acid sequence. They are important modulators of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) bioactivity. In this respect, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 may potentiate the binding of IGFs to target cells via integrin receptors by virtue of the fact that both IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 have Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequences at their C-terminus. The IGFs, IGF-1 and IGF-2, are mitogens that are involved in the regulation of endometrial cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Indeed, during the menstrual cycle the mitogenic effects of estrogen, balanced by the differentiating properties of progesterone, are mediated by the IGF system. In the primate, the major sites of synthesis of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 are the liver and decidualized gestational endometrium, and the central nervous system, respectively.During the menstrual cycle IGFBP-1 is a minor secretory product of the endometrial epithelium and stroma, however its production is markedly induced by progesterone during the late luteal phase [1-6]
Making Space for Permanent Molars in Growing Baboon (Papio anubis) and Great Ape (Pan paniscus and P. troglodytes) Mandibles: Possible Ontogenetic Strategies and Solutions  [PDF]
Julia C. Boughner
Anatomy Research International , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/484607
Abstract: While mandible proportions do not appear to constrain permanent molar initiation times, how adequate space is created in the corpus for these teeth in a timely way is not well understood. This question is important for explaining how primate tooth and jaw development and evolution are coordinated. Landmark and linear measurement data were used to characterize mandible shape, growth trajectory, and growth rate between two genera, Papio and Pan, with contrasting permanent molar initiation schedules and mandible proportions. 3D geometric morphometric and 2D bivariate analyses showed genus-level differences in mandible morphology from birth that were amplified by different postnatal growth trajectories. Different corpus proportions and regional variation in corpus growth rates helped create space in a timely way for the molars. Regional corpus growth rates may evolve alongside permanent molar morphology and developmental timing to modify space available in the corpus for these teeth. 1. Introduction Primate mandible morphologies and times of permanent molar initiation, used here to define the start of odontogenesis, vary widely across taxa. How sufficient space is created for the developing permanent molars in a growing mandible of a particular morphology at appropriate times is not well understood. Once emerged, the deciduous dentition maintains a large proportion of the space in the mandible corpus required for the permanent antemolar teeth. But for the permanent molars, space must be created anew via the growth of the jawbone. The timing of permanent molar initiation as well as molar mineralization rates and periods varies, often markedly, among primates [1–8]. Times of permanent molar initiation are not likely to be constrained by a lack of space for these teeth in the growing jaw [9]. Other work also suggests ontogenetic if not evolutionary autonomy between the teeth and the mandible [10–17], where teeth experience stronger selection pressures than do the jaws and face [17–19]. At least in African apes, the growth of tooth-bearing regions of the mandible is less plastic than that of edentulous regions of the jaw, notably areas of muscle attachment [20]. There is also evidence based on African ape data of developmental decoupling among various regions of the mandible corpus, ramus, condyle, and alveolar versus cortical bone that appears to be a response to the different functions of these skeletal tissues [20]. Specifically, the presence and development of the dentition may influence mandible corpus form and growth [21–24]. For example, the timing of
Characterisation of placental malaria in olive baboons (Papio anubis) infected with Plasmodium knowlesi H strain  [PDF]
Barasa Mustafa,Gicheru Muita MichaeL,Kagasi Ambogo Esther,Ozwara Suba Hastings
Quantitative Biology , 2012,
Abstract: Pregnant women have increased susceptibility to malaria infection. In these women, malaria parasites are frequently found sequestered in the placental intervillous spaces, a condition referred to as placental malaria (PM). Placental malaria threatens the health of the mother and the child's life by causing still births and reduction in gestational age. An estimated 24 million pregnant women in Sub-Saharan Africa are at risk. Mechanisms responsible for increased susceptibility in pregnant women are not fully understood. Pregnancy malaria studies have been limited by the lack of a suitable animal model. This research aimed to develop a baboon (Papio anubis) model for studying PM. The pregnancies of three adult female baboons were synchronized and their gestational levels confirmed by ultrasonography. On the 150th day of gestation the pregnant baboons were infected with Plasmodium knowlesi H strain parasites together with four nulligravid control baboons. Parasitaemia was monitored from two days post inoculation until the 159th day of gestation when caesarean section was done on one baboon in order to obtain the placenta. Two baboons aborted their conceptus. Smears prepared from placental blood demonstrated the presence of Plasmodium knowlesi parasites in all the three sampled placentas. These new findings show that P. knowlesi sequesters in the baboon placenta. In addition, this study has characterized haemoglobin, eosinophil, Immunoglobulin G and Immunoglobulin M profiles in this model. Thus a non human primate (baboon) model for studying PM has been established. The established baboon - P. knowlesi model for studying human placental/pregnancy malaria now offers an opportunity for circumventing the obstacles experienced during human studies like having inadequate tissue for analysis, inaccurate estimation of gestational age, moral, ethical and financial limitations.
ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Safety Studies of a Recently Developed Microbicidal Contraceptive Gel (UniPron) in Female Baboons (Papio anubis)
N Mburu
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2009,
Abstract: To identify any toxicity on the vaginal epithelium, liver and kidney following UniPron administration, ten healthy female olive baboons (Papio anubis) of reproductive age and of proven fertility were used. Five baboons were each treated with 15g of UniPron intravaginally twice a week for 20-weeks and venous blood collected before and after each treatment. Venous blood was collected from five control animals as in the experimental females, but these control animals were not given any treatment. The endpoints that were evaluated included clinical chemistry profiles on kidney and liver functions and vaginal histopathology. Female baboons treated with 15g of UniPron intravaginally showed no detectable adverse effects on clinical chemistry profiles investigated and vaginal histopathology. Repeated intravaginal exposure of female baboons to UniPron did not induce detectable vaginal irritation and there were no detectable histological changes. We conclude that administration of UniPron into baboon vagina did not cause any detectable toxicity (Afr J Reprod Health 2009; 13[4]:95-104).
Acute Plasmodium knowlesi Infection in Olive Baboons (Papio anubis) Is Accompanied by High-Level of Gamma Interferon  [cached]
Teresia Nyawira,Michael Gicheru,Esther Kagasi,Zipporah Ng’ang’a
International Journal of Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/ijb.v4n2p92
Abstract: Malaria is a major and growing threat to economic development and public health in developing countries. There are about 2.7 million malaria deaths annually. Plasmodium knowlesi, the fifth human malaria parasite, is an attractive model for malaria research and is also phylogenetically close to human malaria parasite P. vivax. It shares many vaccine candidate molecules with P. vivax. This study was carried out to determine immunological profiles mounted by Olive baboons during experimental infection with P. knowlesi H strain. Six Olive baboons (Papio Anubis) were infected with 1×106 P. knowlesi blood stage parasites. The infected baboons developed either severe (acute) or mild (chronic) infection. High IgM titres were observed during primary infection in the baboons. Anti-IgG antibodies were raised after two weeks of chronic infection. Circulating IFNg from serum rose fifty fold in acutely infected animals during the first two weeks post infection compared to a tenfold increase in chronically infected baboons. Recall proliferative responses were two fold higher in chronically infected animals by day 14 post infection. The highest stimulation index (10.06 + 2.74) was observed in chronic animals at day 42 post infection. These results demonstrated that baboons infected with P. knowlesi mount an immune response that is characterized by antibody and cytokine responses involving IgG, IgM and IFNr. These studies are important in validation of the P. knowlesi- baboon model for malaria drug and vaccine development.
Behavioural Patterns of a Troop of Olive Baboons (Papio Anubis) Foraging on Maize Crops at the Borders of Gashaka Gumti National Park Nigeria
TF Ikpa, JI Amonum, SIN Agera
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment , 2011,
Abstract: Olive baboons forage viciously on agricultural crops causing huge losses of farm produce to farmers. In this study, behavioural pattern of a troop of crop raiding olive baboons, Papio anubis which dwell at the periphery of Gashaka Gumti National Park and forage on crops were studied as they raided maize farms. Successful raids were significantly higher than unsuccessful raids (t = 4.54, df = 3, P = 0.02), and increased from early morning hours to peak between 1200-1500hours. The same behavioural activities of the troop differed significantly while raiding maize crops from when not raiding the crops (χ2 = 17.66, df = 5, P = 0.003). The adult male olive baboon was the most successful member of the troop that raided maize crops, while the infant baboon was the least successful member of the raiding party. Farmers guarded their farms, and yelled at the baboons, threw stones and chased the baboons as they attempted to raid maize crops, but 73.74 ± 7.43 % of attempted raids were successful indicating that farmers could not prevent the olive baboons from raiding their crops. It was suggested that in order to prevent these raids, farmers should coordinate their activities while guarding farms by constantly moving in groups and communicating with nearby groups, informing them in advance of the direction in which the raiding party is heading; also farms should not be cultivated close to wildlife refuge in the park. KEYWORDS: Olive Baboons, Troop, Raids, Maize Crops
DSCR9 gene simultaneous expression in placental, testicular and renal tissues from baboon (papio hamadryas)
Irám Rodriguez-Sanchez, María Garza-Rodríguez, María Tejero, Shelley A Cole, Anthony G Comuzzie, Hugo Barrera-Salda?a
BMC Research Notes , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-5-298
Abstract: We report evidence of DSCR9 expression in placenta, testis and kidney of baboon (Papio hamadryas). We used primers specific for DSCR9 to amplify transcripts through reverse transcription (RT) coupled to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Furthermore, PCR was used to amplify the complete DSCR9 gene from genomic DNA from three baboons. We amplified and sequenced five overlapping segments that were assembled into the 3284?bp baboon DSCR9 gene, including the putative promoter and the entire transcriptional unit (5'-UTR, CDS and 3'-UTR).The baboon DSCR9 gene is highly similar to the human counterpart. The isolated transcripts from baboon tissues (placenta, testis and kidney) of three different baboons correspond to the human orthologous gene.Down syndrome (DS) or trisomy 21 is the most common chromosome disorder affecting newborns and the most frequent and recognized cause of mental retardation in Homo sapiens (Hosa)[1]. The incidence of this syndrome is about 1 in 700 newborns [2]. Chromosome 21 is the smallest of human autosomal chromosomes, and an extra copy or additional segment of this chromosome causes DS [3]. The chromosomal region responsible for this pathology has been described [4] and named Down Syndrome Critical Region (DSCR)[5,6]. By comparing the genomic DSCR sequence in humans with that of other species, it was shown that it is highly conserved in great apes[6] and similar trisomies have been described in these non human primates [7,8]. In humans, ten potential genes have been identified in the DSCR, two of which (DSCR9 and DSCR10) are exclusive of primates [9]. In man, DSCR9 gene transcription, but not proteins, were evidenced in testicle; this was also demonstrated in chimpanzee [9]. The aim of this study was to identify the chromosome segment from which the DSCR9 gene′s transcripts originated.We amplified five segments from the baboon genome using primers designed to render overlapping amplicons. Using this strategy we were able to assemble the complete D
The Baboon (Papio spp.) as a Model of Human Ebola Virus Infection  [PDF]
Donna L. Perry,Laura Bollinger,Gary L.White
Viruses , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/v4102400
Abstract: Baboons are susceptible to natural Ebola virus (EBOV) infection and share 96% genetic homology with humans. Despite these characteristics, baboons have rarely been utilized as experimental models of human EBOV infection to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactics and therapeutics in the United States. This review will summarize what is known about the pathogenesis of EBOV infection in baboons compared to EBOV infection in humans and other Old World nonhuman primates. In addition, we will discuss how closely the baboon model recapitulates human EBOV infection. We will also review some of the housing requirements and behavioral attributes of baboons compared to other Old World nonhuman primates. Due to the lack of data available on the pathogenesis of Marburg virus (MARV) infection in baboons, discussion of the pathogenesis of MARV infection in baboons will be limited.
Crop-raiding Baboons (Papio anubis) and Defensive Farmers: A West African perspective
Y Warren
West African Journal of Applied Ecology , 2009,
Abstract: Baboons are often reported as the worst crop-raiders in Africa, but there has been little observation of the actual behavioural-ecology of their crop-raiding, especially in West Africa. The paper examines the crop-raiding behaviour of a group of habituated baboons (Gamgam group) near the village of Gashaka on the south-western border of Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria. Data were collected during the wet and dry crop seasons via scan sampling and ad libitum techniques. For scan sampling the activity of each observed individual was noted every 2.5 min. For ad libitum data any activity relevant to crop-raiding was noted when it occurred, including the reactions of farmers who were guarding their fields. Descriptive statistics were generated and trends in baboon and human behaviour examined. Sixty-nine percent of Gamgam group’s raids were successful. Farmers only prevented or reduced the time baboons spent in fields on 28.9% of all raids. Crops eaten varied from ripe maize to scavenging for scraps of sweet potato in harvested fields. Maize (ripe and dried) was the most frequently eaten crop. All members of Gamgam group, including weaned infants, ate all crops, but only adult males ate bananas. Observations suggested that baboons used cheek pouches to store food before moving to a safer locality to eat, to avoid farmers’ attacks and intragroup competition. Deterrent methods included guarding, fences of fish net, poisoned baits, olfactory, visual and auditory scaring devices. Guarding presence in fields was not regular. In the wet season guards reacted to baboon crop-raiding on 54% of raids and in the dry season on 44%. On average it took farmers 23 min to react to baboons in their fields. The two most common reactions of guards were shouting and chasing baboons. Observations do not suggest that any one particular defence method can prevent baboon crop-raiding.
Assessment of Feeding Behaviour of Baboons (Papio Anubis) in Hong Hills Adamawa State, Nigeria
C Akosim, J Joseph, PO Egwumah
Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife and Environment , 2010,
Abstract: This study was designed to assess the feeding behaviour of baboons of Hong hills. Direct observation method was used for the study. Data was collected for a period of eight months. The results indicate high diversity and abundance of food items for baboons in the study area. A total of 16 food plants, 4 invertebrates (millipedes, earthworms, grasshopper and crabs); 2 vertebrates (goats and sheep) and 4 crop plants (groundnuts, guinea corn, maize and beans) were observed to be eaten by baboons in the study area. Wet season food plant species include Annona senegalensis Parkia biglobosa, Ficus capensis, Syzigium guineense, Vitex doniana, Vitellaria paradoxa, Haemastostaphis barteri, Grewia molis and Nauclea latifolia while dry season food plant include Adansonia digitata, Magnifera Indica, Oxytenanthera species, Ficus platyphylla, Cactus species and Borassus aethiopum. A total of 8 food plants viz Adansonia digitata, Parkia biglobosa, Magnifera indica, Cactus species, Oxytenanthera species, Nauclea latifolia, Annona senegalensis, and Vitellaria paradoxa were observed to be preferred by baboons in the study area. The result of nutritive value of the preferred food plant indicated that the highest percentages of dry matter content (83.0%), crude protein (22.6%), crude fibre (29.0%), ether extract (4.5%) and ash (27.0%) were found Adansonia digitata, Magnifera Indica, Annona senegalensis, Vitellaria paradoxa, and Adansonia digitata respectively. In this study area, baboon food resources appeared to be adequate representing a potential for good carrying capacity.
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