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M. Gutierrez
Motricidad : European Journal of Human Movement , 2010,
Abstract: Con el presente trabajo se pretende dar una visión general sobre el ciclismo deportivo desde una perspectiva biomecánica, aunque es necesario decir que la extraordinaria dimensión de la vasta producción científica relacionada con el tema, hace que sea realmente difícil abordar, en un solo trabajo, los diferentes aspectos que abarca la biomecánica del ciclismo. Debido a la diversidad de contenidos que incluye la biomecánica del ciclismo, en este trabajo los contenidos se han restringido en tres unidades: la primera, orientada hacia el estudio de las fuerzas que se oponen al desplazamiento y especialmente al análisis de las resistencias aerodinámicas, la segunda, al estudio de las fuerzas propulsivas y especialmente las aplicadas contra el pedal y, por último, orientaremos nuestra atención hacia los aspectos más relevantes que determinan la eficacia mecánica del desplazamiento en ciclismo.
La cooperación social voluntaria
Roberto García Jurado
Política y cultura , 1999,
Abstract: Sin el trabajo coordinado y compartido de un grupo más o menos amplio de seres humanos, es decir, de una sociedad, es imposible imaginar no sólo el nivel de civilización que ha alcanzado el hombre, sino incluso resulta difícil imaginar cualquier producto de elemental significación cultural. Sin embargo, a pesar de que para la existencia humana es imprescindible el trabajo cooperativo, se accede a otro nivel de desarrollo social cuando ese esfuerzo se convierte en una cooperación social voluntaria: en la disposición del individuo para prestar su apoyo espontáneo a un orden social y político.
Palatability of two artificial feeds for reindeer
Arne Rognmo,Karstein Bye
Rangifer , 1990,
Abstract: Two groups of 15 reindeer were used to test the palatability of two artificial diets. None of the animals had experienced the diets before. Trials were carried out from April to mid May. Each group of animals was kept in a separate corral (600 sq. meters). Both groups were fed lichens for three days befort trials began. Then they were offered a concentrate feed (RF-80) or Mill Waste Product (MWP) ad libitum. Both groups ate little or nothing for the first three days of the trial and so lichens were mixed with the two experimental feeds. The mean voluntary food intake of the RF-80-group increased from 0.8 Kg/day/animal to 1.8 Kg/day/animal after three weeks. A mixed feed, RF-80/lichen, was only used the first day for animals in the RF-80 group. Reindeer refused to eat MWP for twelve days despite mixing it with lichens. They were then offered RF-80 ad lib. without a mixture of lichens. The mean voluntary intake of these animals increased from 1.3 Kg RF-80/day/animal on day 13 to 2.3 Kg/day/animal by day 26. Two calves in the MWP-group got diarrhoea after refeeding with RF-80.
Periodismo y ciclismo. Perspectivas del papel organizador de la prensa
Juan Francisco de la Cruz Moreno
Revista Latina de Comunicación Social , 2002,
Abstract: El presente artículo versa sobre el papel que la prensa ha ejercido en la creación y organización de competiciones deportivas, especialmente dentro del ciclismo. Las principales carreras del calendario cuentan con un origen periodístico motivado fundamentalmente por intereses económicos y, en algunos casos, también políticos.
Palatability Testing of Oral Chewables in Veterinary Medicine for Dogs  [PDF]
Michelle Aleo, Stacy Ross, Csilla Becskei, Eileen Coscarelli, Vickie King, Mary Darling, Julie Lorenz
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2018.88011
Abstract: For veterinary medications administered per os, animal health companies strive to develop highly palatable dosage forms that are voluntarily accepted by animals to improve compliance and convenience. Achieving high palatability is often complex and difficult even without the presence of an active ingredient. This work compared acceptance and preference studies, as standardized methods are not established for informing formulation development or for more routine testing. Formulation development was followed by an acceptance study completed with laboratory Beagle dogs. One acceptance study and one preference study were completed in mixed breed dogs, also laboratory-housed, to gain wider representation of dog breed and age. Through these studies, we have evaluated both formulation parameters and palatability study conduct. In general, more complex palatants that have appealing taste, smell, and mouth feel enhance voluntary uptake. However, dosage forms that are too chewy may not be freely consumed even with complex palatants. The addition of aroma can entice dogs to prehend the tablet, as observed in one preference study. Preference studies in the veterinary pharmaceutical field identify the preferred first choice or first prehend, but not which product will be routinely voluntarily and fully consumed. Acceptance studies with cross-over treatment groups are used to quantify the full consumption of a dosage form when a dog is not given two choices at once. Since all dogs in acceptance studies are offered all treatment groups throughout the study, a comparison between degrees of consumption could suggest that one formulation might be preferred over another.
Palatability Evaluation Study Of Oral Disintegrating Tablets by Human Volunteers  [PDF]
Venkata Ramana Reddy S,Sathyanarayana Dondeti,,Manavalan R,Sreekanth J
International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research , 2010,
Abstract: The aim of the present investigation was to develop a suitable palatability evaluation study by human volunteers for oral disintegrating tablets (ODT). For this study insoluble and bitter drug like risperidone was selected to evaluate the palatability study efficiency. Palatability study design and procedure developed in healthy male human volunteers and same study design applied for risperidone ODT tablets. Total ten healthy male human volunteers (Age of volunteers in between 25 – 30 years) selected for this palatabilityevaluation study. For evaluation of the patient’s observation, both positive and negative controls also added in palatability evaluation study. Always positive control should get first rank and negative control should get last rank, then only palatability evaluation by the volunteers should be correct. Taste masking agents, taste enhancers and flavors ware used to develop the ODT formulation of risperidone. ODT of risperidone were prepared using different process like lyophilzation and compressed tablets technique. Amberlite wasused a taste masking agent. All the formulation showed low weight variation, less disintegration time (less than 30 seconds) and rapid in vitro dissolution. The results revealed that the tablets ontaining for both the methods had a good palatability for the atients. The optimized formulations showed good palatability byhuman volunteers, less disintegration time (<30seconds) and release profile with maximum drug being released at all time intervals. It was concluded that risperidone ODT’s with improved taste masking anddissolution could be prepared by both lyophilization and compressed tablet technique with suitable taste masking agent like amberlite. The present study demonstrated to suitability of palatability study design by human volunteers and potentials for rapid disintegration in oral cavity with out water, improved taste masking and patient ompliance.
Development of the Gusto Facial Reflex in Perinatally Undernourished Rats  [PDF]
Manuel Salas, Carmen Torrero, Mirelta Regalado, Lorena Rubio
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2012.23035
Abstract: In the rat, the taste system plays a critical role in motivating the animal to consume nutrients and avoid toxic substances. In neonatal rat the orofacial movements can be modified by the application of sucrose and quinine in the mouth, producing ingestion or rejection responses, respectively, but there is no information available on the gusto facial reflexes (GFR) under perinatal fasting. The aim of the present study was to determine how undernutrition can affect the development of orofacial responses to sucrose, quinine, and NaCl during early development. Pregnant dams were undernourished by being given 50% of a balanced diet from G6 to G12, 60% from G13-G18, and 100% from G19-G21. On postpartum days 0 - 9, prenatally underfed (UG) pups continued the undernourishment by remaining for 12 h with a foster dam and 12 h with a nipple-ligated mother. Stimuli were presented as a single droplet of sucrose (S), sodium chloride (NaCl), quinine hydrochloride (Q), and water (W) onto the lips at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 days of age, and mouth-opening frequency (MO) and lip-licking frequency (LL) were analyzed. The results show consistent effects associated with age, but not with diet, except in the cases of 0.01 M Q, which provoked in the UG subjects increased MO and the reduction of LL, and 0.1 M Q, which consistently reduced both responses. Moreover, S provoked increases in both MO and LL at 0.1 M while NaCl and water elicited minimal effects on GFR. These data suggest that perinatal undernutrition affects the basic components of the gustatory system necessary to produce GFR in the first postnatal days by possibly interfering with the integration of taste input for food learning and the hedonic aspects of gustatory cues.
Aspectos determinantes do posicionamento corporal no ciclismo: uma revis?o sistemática
Kleinpaul, Julio Francisco;Mann, Luana;Diefenthaeler, Fernando;Moro, Ant?nio Renato Pereira;Carpes, Felipe Pivetta;
Motriz: Revista de Educa??o Física , 2010, DOI: 10.5016/1980-6574.2010v16n4p1013
Abstract: by means of systematic review a surveying of english and portuguese language studies concerning the expected body positioning for improvement of cycling. search engines used were lilacs, sciencedirect, scielo and medline. the keywords used to find relevant papers were: posicionamento corporal + ciclismo; ajuste + bicicleta; postura + ciclismo; body positioning + cycling; bicycle fitting; cycling posture. original papers, short review papers, master thesis and books published from 1993 to 2009 (october) were considered when the main subject of discussion was the topic of interest. a total of 20 studies were considered. in general, the studies suggest that is will be useful to know about the bicycle fitting. even so protocols for body positioning evaluation are available, most of studies concluded that cyclists are not able to use this protocol correctly. it suggests the difficult to access studies.
Physical Characteristic and Palatability of Market Vegetable Waste Wafer for Sheep  [cached]
Y Retnani,FP Syananta,L Herawati,W Widiarti
Journal of Animal Production , 2010,
Abstract: Vegetable waste is a part of vegetables or vegetables that are discarded. This vegetable market wastes are perishable, voluminous (bulky) and the availability was fluctuated so the processing technology is needed to make this vegetable waste become durable, easy to be stored and could be given to the animal. To solve this problem, vegetable waste could be formed into a wafer. The objective of this experiment was to determine the physical characteristic and palatability of vegetable market waste after formed into a wafer. The experimental design used in this research was Completely Randomized Design with 5 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments were the composition of raw materials used: 100% corn husk (R1); 75% corn husk +25% mungbean waste (R2); 50% corn husk + 25% mungbean waste + 25% cauliflower leaf (R3); 25% corn husk +50% mungbean waste + 25% cauliflower leaf (R4); 25% corn husk + 25% mungbean waste +50% cauliflower leaf (R5). Variables measured were water activity, water absorption, density and palatability. The results of this research indicated that treatments significantly affected water activity (P<0.08) and wafer palatability (P<0.05). The highly significant difference in water absorption and wafer density (P<0.01) were found among treatments. Based on physical characteristic, R1 had the highest water absorption. R5 had the lowest water activity, whereas R3 had the highest wafer density. Wafer of R4 was the most palatable for the experimental sheep compare to other treatments. (Animal Production 12(1): 29-33 (2010)Key Words : physical characteristic, palatability, wafer and vegetable waste
A High Throughput In Vivo Assay for Taste Quality and Palatability  [PDF]
R. Kyle Palmer, Daniel Long, Francis Brennan, Tulu Buber, Robert Bryant, F. Raymond Salemme
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072391
Abstract: Taste quality and palatability are two of the most important properties measured in the evaluation of taste stimuli. Human panels can report both aspects, but are of limited experimental flexibility and throughput capacity. Relatively efficient animal models for taste evaluation have been developed, but each of them is designed to measure either taste quality or palatability as independent experimental endpoints. We present here a new apparatus and method for high throughput quantification of both taste quality and palatability using rats in an operant taste discrimination paradigm. Cohorts of four rats were trained in a modified operant chamber to sample taste stimuli by licking solutions from a 96-well plate that moved in a randomized pattern beneath the chamber floor. As a rat’s tongue entered the well it disrupted a laser beam projecting across the top of the 96-well plate, consequently producing two retractable levers that operated a pellet dispenser. The taste of sucrose was associated with food reinforcement by presses on a sucrose-designated lever, whereas the taste of water and other basic tastes were associated with the alternative lever. Each disruption of the laser was counted as a lick. Using this procedure, rats were trained to discriminate 100 mM sucrose from water, quinine, citric acid, and NaCl with 90-100% accuracy. Palatability was determined by the number of licks per trial and, due to intermediate rates of licking for water, was quantifiable along the entire spectrum of appetitiveness to aversiveness. All 96 samples were evaluated within 90 minute test sessions with no evidence of desensitization or fatigue. The technology is capable of generating multiple concentration–response functions within a single session, is suitable for in vivo primary screening of tastant libraries, and potentially can be used to evaluate stimuli for any taste system.
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