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External and internal radiation therapy: Past and future directions  [cached]
Sadeghi Mahdi,Enferadi Milad,Shirazi Alireza
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics , 2010,
Abstract: Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. Treatment modalities comprise radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. Radiation therapy can be performed by using external or internal radiation therapy. However, each method has its unique properties which undertakes special role in cancer treatment, this question is brought up that: For cancer treatment, whether external radiation therapy is more efficient or internal radiation therapy one? To answer this question, we need to consider principles and structure of individual methods. In this review, principles and application of each method are considered and finally these two methods are compared with each other.
Advances in radiation therapy dosimetry  [cached]
Paliwal Bhudatt,Tewatia Dinesh
Journal of Medical Physics , 2009,
Abstract: During the last decade, there has been an explosion of new radiation therapy planning and delivery tools. We went through a rapid transition from conventional three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiation therapy to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments, and additional new techniques for motion-adaptive radiation therapy are being introduced. These advances push the frontiers in our effort to provide better patient care; and with the addition of IMRT, temporal dimensions are major challenges for the radiotherapy patient dosimetry and delivery verification. Advanced techniques are less tolerant to poor implementation than are standard techniques. Mis-administrations are more difficult to detect and can possibly lead to poor outcomes for some patients. Instead of presenting a manual on quality assurance for radiation therapy, this manuscript provides an overview of dosimetry verification tools and a focused discussion on breath holding, respiratory gating and the applications of four-dimensional computed tomography in motion management. Some of the major challenges in the above areas are discussed.
MET targeted therapy for lung cancer: clinical development and future directions
Feng Y, Ma PC
Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/LCTT.S23423
Abstract: argeted therapy for lung cancer: clinical development and future directions Review (2143) Total Article Views Authors: Feng Y, Ma PC Published Date August 2012 Volume 2012:3 Pages 53 - 67 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/LCTT.S23423 Received: 19 March 2012 Accepted: 08 May 2012 Published: 10 August 2012 Yan Feng,1,2 Patrick C Ma1–3 1Translational Hematology and Oncology Research, 2Solid Tumor Oncology, 3Aerodigestive Oncology Translational Research, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: MET, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor, has been identified as a novel promising target in various human malignancies, including lung cancer. Research studies have demonstrated that MET signaling plays important physiologic roles in embryogenesis and early development, whereas its deregulation from an otherwise quiescent signaling state in mature adult tissues can lead to upregulated cell proliferation, survival, scattering, motility and migration, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. The MET pathway can be activated through ligand (hepatocyte growth factor, HGF) or MET receptor overexpression, genomic amplification, MET mutations, and alternative splicing. A number of novel therapeutic agents that target the MET/hepatocyte growth factor pathway have been tested in early-phase clinical studies with promising results. Phase III studies of MET targeting agents have recently been initiated. This paper will review the MET signaling pathway and biology in lung cancer, and the recent clinical development and advances of MET/hepatocyte growth factor targeting agents. Emphasis will be placed on discussing various unanswered issues and key strategies needed to optimize further clinical development of MET targeting personalized lung cancer therapy.
Psychiatric epidemiology: selected recent advances and future directions
Kessler,Ronald C.;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862000000400008
Abstract: reviewed in this article are selected recent advances and future challenges for psychiatric epidemiology. major advances in descriptive psychiatric epidemiology in recent years include the development of reliable and valid fully structured diagnostic interviews, the implementation of parallel cross-national surveys of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders, and the initiation of research in clinical epidemiology. remaining challenges include the refinement of diagnostic categories and criteria, recognition and evaluation of systematic underreporting bias in surveys of mental disorders, creation and use of accurate assessment tools for studying disorders of children, adolescents, the elderly, and people in less developed countries, and setting up systems to carry out small area estimations for needs assessment and programme planning. advances in analytical and experimental epidemiology have been more modest. a major challenge is for psychiatric epidemiologists to increase the relevance of their analytical research to their colleagues in preventative psychiatry as well as to social policy analysts. another challenge is to develop interventions aimed at increasing the proportion of people with mental disorders who receive treatment. despite encouraging advances, much work still needs to be conducted before psychiatric epidemiology can realize its potential to improve the mental health of populations.
Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions  [cached]
Hedrick Valisa E,Dietrich Andrea M,Estabrooks Paul A,Savla Jyoti
Nutrition Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-109
Abstract: The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a knowledge gap requiring future research. The purpose of this article is to review existing literature on currently available dietary biomarkers, including novel biomarkers of specific foods and dietary components, and assess the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the markers. This review revealed several biomarkers in need of additional validation research; research is also needed to produce sensitive, specific, cost-effective and noninvasive dietary biomarkers. The emerging field of metabolomics may help to advance the development of food/nutrient biomarkers, yet advances in food metabolome databases are needed. The availability of biomarkers that estimate intake of specific foods and dietary components could greatly enhance nutritional research targeting compliance to national recommendations as well as direct associations with disease outcomes. More research is necessary to refine existing biomarkers by accounting for confounding factors, to establish new indicators of specific food intake, and to develop techniques that are cost-effective, noninvasive, rapid and accurate measures of nutritional status.
Gastrointestinal radiation injury: Prevention and treatment  [cached]
Abobakr K Shadad,Frank J Sullivan,Joseph D Martin,Laurence J Egan
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2013, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i2.199
Abstract: With the recent advances in detection and treatment of cancer, there is an increasing emphasis on the efficacy and safety aspects of cancer therapy. Radiation therapy is a common treatment for a wide variety of cancers, either alone or in combination with other treatments. Ionising radiation injury to the gastrointestinal tract is a frequent side effect of radiation therapy and a considerable proportion of patients suffer acute or chronic gastrointestinal symptoms as a result. These side effects often cause morbidity and may in some cases lower the efficacy of radiotherapy treatment. Radiation injury to the gastrointestinal tract can be minimised by either of two strategies: technical strategies which aim to physically shift radiation dose away from the normal intestinal tissues, and biological strategies which aim to modulate the normal tissue response to ionising radiation or to increase its resistance to it. Although considerable improvement in the safety of radiotherapy treatment has been achieved through the use of modern optimised planning and delivery techniques, biological techniques may offer additional further promise. Different agents have been used to prevent or minimize the severity of gastrointestinal injury induced by ionising radiation exposure, including biological, chemical and pharmacological agents. In this review we aim to discuss various technical strategies to prevent gastrointestinal injury during cancer radiotherapy, examine the different therapeutic options for acute and chronic gastrointestinal radiation injury and outline some examples of research directions and considerations for prevention at a pre-clinical level.
Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: recent advances and future directions  [PDF]
Melanie Boly,Anil K. Seth,Melanie Wilke,Paul Ingmundson,Bernard Baars,Steven Laureys,David B. Edelman,Naotsugu Tsuchiya
Frontiers in Psychology , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00625
Abstract: This joint article reflects the authors' personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last 10 years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. It is based on a small conference at the Samoset Resort in Rockport, Maine, USA, in July of 2012, organized by the Mind Science Foundation of San Antonio, Texas. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical, and conceptual insights. These include the evidence for the importance of fronto-parietal connectivity and of “top-down” processes, both of which enable information to travel across distant cortical areas effectively, as well as numerous dissociations between consciousness and cognitive functions, such as attention, in humans. In addition, we describe the development of mental imagery paradigms, which made it possible to identify covert awareness in non-responsive subjects. Non-human animal consciousness research has also witnessed substantial advances on the specific role of cortical areas and higher order thalamus for consciousness, thanks to important technological enhancements. In addition, much progress has been made in the understanding of non-vertebrate cognition relevant to possible conscious states. Finally, major advances have been made in theories of consciousness, and also in their comparison with the available evidence. Along with reviewing these findings, each author suggests future avenues for research in their field of investigation.
PET/CT-guided radiation therapy planning: From present to the future  [cached]
Gupta T,Beriwal S
Indian Journal of Cancer , 2010,
Abstract: Molecular imaging using 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) has been successfully used in the diagnosis, initial staging, and response assessment of various malignant tumors. Advances in radiation therapy planning and delivery have ushered in the era of high-precision conformal radiotherapy allowing generation of dose distributions that conform closely to the shape of the target volume while minimizing high-dose regions in the surrounding normal tissues. Traditionally, radiation therapy planning has relied heavily on CT imaging, but recent times have witnessed tremendous enthusiasm for the use of PET/CT-guidance in radiotherapy planning. This has been largely stimulated by widespread availability and integration with treatment planning systems. However, several issues need to be addressed and challenges overcome to realize the full potential of this exciting technology. Integrating PET/CT fusion imaging into routine clinical practice can be challenging due to technical, administrative, financial, geographic, and personnel issues. Concerted efforts are urgently needed for the development of guidelines for appropriate application of this technology using standardized methodology. There is accumulating evidence that incorporating PET/CT imaging in radiotherapy planning for lung cancer, head and neck cancer and cervical cancer has a significant impact. This review highlights the promises and pitfalls of PET/CT imaging in radiotherapy treatment planning with a critical appraisal of the current best evidence for its application in the modern radiotherapy clinic, and provides a sneak preview into the future of such technology.
MET targeted therapy for lung cancer: clinical development and future directions  [cached]
Feng Y,Ma PC
Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy , 2012,
Abstract: Yan Feng,1,2 Patrick C Ma1–31Translational Hematology and Oncology Research, 2Solid Tumor Oncology, 3Aerodigestive Oncology Translational Research, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: MET, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor, has been identified as a novel promising target in various human malignancies, including lung cancer. Research studies have demonstrated that MET signaling plays important physiologic roles in embryogenesis and early development, whereas its deregulation from an otherwise quiescent signaling state in mature adult tissues can lead to upregulated cell proliferation, survival, scattering, motility and migration, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. The MET pathway can be activated through ligand (hepatocyte growth factor, HGF) or MET receptor overexpression, genomic amplification, MET mutations, and alternative splicing. A number of novel therapeutic agents that target the MET/hepatocyte growth factor pathway have been tested in early-phase clinical studies with promising results. Phase III studies of MET targeting agents have recently been initiated. This paper will review the MET signaling pathway and biology in lung cancer, and the recent clinical development and advances of MET/hepatocyte growth factor targeting agents. Emphasis will be placed on discussing various unanswered issues and key strategies needed to optimize further clinical development of MET targeting personalized lung cancer therapy.Keywords: MET, HGF, lung cancer, targeted therapy
Human Identity Verification based on Heart Sounds: Recent Advances and Future Directions  [PDF]
Francesco Beritelli,Andrea Spadaccini
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: Identity verification is an increasingly important process in our daily lives, and biometric recognition is a natural solution to the authentication problem. One of the most important research directions in the field of biometrics is the characterization of novel biometric traits that can be used in conjunction with other traits, to limit their shortcomings or to enhance their performance. The aim of this work is to introduce the reader to the usage of heart sounds for biometric recognition, describing the strengths and the weaknesses of this novel trait and analyzing in detail the methods developed so far by different research groups and their performance.
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