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Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1) is present in hyaline membranes and modulates surface tension of surfactant
Hanna Müller, Caroline End, Marcus Renner, Burkhard M Helmke, Nikolaus Gassler, Christel Weiss, Dominik Hartl, Matthias Griese, Mathias Hafner, Annemarie Poustka, Jan Mollenhauer, Johannes Poeschl
Respiratory Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-8-69
Abstract: DMBT1 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry and mRNA in situ hybridization in post-mortem lungs of preterm and full-term neonates with pulmonary hyaline membranes. The effect of human recombinant DMBT1 on the function of bovine and porcine surfactant was measured by a capillary surfactometer. DMBT1-levels in tracheal aspirates of ventilated preterm and term infants were determined by ELISA.Pulmonary DMBT1 was localized in hyaline membranes during respiratory distress syndrome. In vitro addition of human recombinant DMBT1 to the surfactants increased surface tension in a dose-dependent manner. The DMBT1-mediated effect was reverted by the addition of calcium depending on the surfactant preparation.Our data showed pulmonary DMBT1 expression in hyaline membranes during respiratory distress syndrome and demonstrated that DMBT1 increases lung surface tension in vitro. This raises the possibility that DMBT1 could antagonize surfactant supplementation in respiratory distress syndrome and could represent a candidate target molecule for therapeutic intervention in neonatal lung disease.Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in neonates due to surfactant deficiency has been shown to be associated with a strong immune response such as activation of complement [1] and neutrophils [2]. Further, ventilation of preterm infants with RDS results in an increase in macrophages and an influx of granulocytes into airspaces [3]. These immune responses may accelerate the damage of surfactant by increased endothelial permeability and contribute to the formation of hyaline membranes and the development of chronic lung disease [1,3].The response of premature infants with primary surfactant deficiency to intratracheally administered exogenous surfactant preparations varies widely. Proposed reasons for a poor response include deficiencies and genetic variants of surfactant protein-coding genes [4], extreme lung immaturity, delayed surfactant administration [5], mechanical ventilation [6]
EXAMINING ASGHAR ALI ENGINEER'S QUR'ANIC INTERPRETATION OF WOMEN IN ISLAM  [cached]
M. Agus Nuryatno
Al-Jami'ah : Journal of Islamic Studies , 2007,
Abstract: This article discusses Asghar Ali Engineer’s interpretation of women in Islam. Two topics discussed in this article are the status of women in Islam and the veil. Engineer offers an approach in understanding the Qur’an to deal with these topics and his method is based on three principles: firstly, the Qur’an has two ingredients: normative and contextual. Normative ingredient refers to the fundamental values and principles of Qur’an such as equality and justice, and these principles are eternal and can be applied in various social contexts. Contextual revelations, on the other hand, deal with verses that were tailored to socio-historical problems of the time. In line with the changes in context and time these verses can be abrogated. Secondly, the interpretation of the Qur’anic verses is very dependent on one’s own perceptions, world-view, experiences and the sociocultural background in which he/she lives. Thus, a ‘pure’ interpretation of the Scripture is not possible; it is always influenced by sociological circumstances, no one can be free of such influences. Thirdly, the meaning of the Qur’anic verses unfolds with time, therefore, the interpretations of classical scholars can be radically different from the interpretation of modern scholars. This is because Qur’anic verses often use symbolic or metaphorical language that is ambiguous in meaning. This ambiguity serves, of course, to promote flexibility and creative change. These three principles can be employed to understand the status of women in Islam and the veil.
Clinical characteristics and outcomes of pediatric germ cell tumors in Ali-Asghar Children’s Hospital; 1990-2004
Ansari Sh,Vossogh P,Tabarok A
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Germ cell tumor (GCT) account for approximately 2-3% of all malignancies in childhood. About 20% of patients with GCT are still resistant to therapy. Methods: This study was undertaken on 57 patients with Germ cell tumor who were admitted to Ali Asghar Children’s Hospital during 1990-2004. Through this study, information about sex, age type of pathology, clinical sign, treatment and survival (5-year period) was gathered in order to have better treatment and follow up. This study was carried out as across-sectional survey and the obtained data was analyzed via Spss 10 soft ware. Results: The findings showed that the mean age of patients was 4/9 ± 0/1 (1mo -14y), male 54%, female 46%, male/female, ratio=1/1. Site of tumor: saccrococcygeal 57/8 %( 33), gonadal 42% (24). Pathological type is yolk sac 61/4% (35), dysgerminoma 12/2% (7), malignant teratoma 14% (8), embryonal carcinoma 10/5% (6). The most common clinical sign were buttock mass 31/5% (18), abdominal pain 10/5% (6), abdominal mass 17/5%(10), testicular mass 28% (16). All of the patients were treated with chemotherapy (bleomycine, vinblastin, cisplatinum) mean of duration follow up were 48/4 months. In all of patients 31/5% (18) of the cases were alive and 70% (40) of patients were relapse and 15/7% (9) no information, 52/6% (30) of cases were expired. Five years survival of patients was 62%. Conclusion: The analysis of the patients treated shows that extragonadal location of primary tumor (specially sacrococcygeal), level of AFP above 10 ng/ml in patients ,6 or more months of age and metastatic disease were the most unfavorable factors for overall survival.
Determination of DMFT Index in Patients with End Stage Renal Disease Being Treated by Hemodialysis in Ali Asghar Medical Center
H - Khademi,A Mohamadi
Journal of Isfahan Dental School , 2005,
Abstract: Introduction. End stage renal disease (ESRD) is the last stage of the decending process of structural and functional distruction of kidneys. This process is often combined with acute diseases like glumerulonephritis and pyelonephritis. Uremic smell of mouth, enamel hypoplasia and defects, increase in dental debries, periodontal diseases, considerable delay in bone and dental age and fair decrease in oral hygiene are of this general oral symptoms. Despite these unfavorable factors, the recent researches indicated relatively lower DMFT index in these patients. Regarding these results, this study is trying to identify the DMFT index in the above mentioned patients.Methods. In this descriptive- analytic research, 22 patients with end-stage renal disease being treated with hemodialysis were examined. This was the total number of the patients ranging from 17 to 33 years old who were referred to Ali Asghar Medical center in Isfahan. After examining and indicating the DMFT index in these patients, they were compared with a healthy control group which were identical to the study group regarding their sex, age.Results. Comparison between the patients with ESRD being treated by hemodialysis and healthy control group showed that DMFT was lower in ESRD than in control group. In this study however, no statistically meaningful relation was seen between sex, the age of the patients at the beginning of hemodialysis treatment, duration of hemodialysis treatment and the DMFT index of patients with ESRD being treated by hemodialysis.Discussion. Patients with End-stage renal disease being treated by hemodialysis had noticeably, lower DMFT index compared to the normal people and this difference is more distinct in posterior teeth. Further, more despite the fact that no statistically meaningful relation was found between the age at the beginning of hemodialysis treatment, the duration of hemodialysis treatment and the DMFT index of patients with ESRD, it is probable that meaningful statistical relation will be found in larger sample size.Key words. DMFT, ESRD, Dialysis.
Evaluation of Myocardial Performance Index(Mpi) in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients at the Ali Asghar Hospital , Zahedan , Iran
NM Noori,R Sohrevardi
Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Introduction : Patients with major thalassemia need recurrent transfusions and if not treated are at risk of heart dysfunction. Heart tissue could be abnormal in patients who use desferral continously due to iron deposits , fibrosis , hypertrophy and side effects of chronic anemia. Cardiac involvement is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in major thalassemics, so we decided to improve early diagnosis of cardiac involvement by measuring myocardial performance index( MPI ). Method & Materials : This case-control study was performed from April 2003 to December 2003 at the Ali-Asghar pediatrics hospital, Zahedan, Iran. MPI of both ventricles was measured by Doppler echocardiography in 48 patients with major thalassemia aged between 10-18 years and compared with 48 age , sex-matched controls. Patients had no abnormality in physical examination , chest x-ray and ECG and echocardiography did not show heart failure. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels was measured in all patients before echocardiography. Results: Mean age of patients was 12.3±2.4 years and that in the control group was 12.7±2years . Right ventricle isovolumetric relaxation time (RVIRT) (107 ± 14 vs 94 ±14 , p<0.001) and right ventricle isovolumetric contraction time (RVICT) (44 ± 20 vs 31 ± 23 , p0.05). LVIRT (96 ±15 vs 89 ±16 , p>0.05) and LVICT (31 ± 13 vs 21 ± 15 , p0.05) in the two groups. Finally, RVMPI (0.59 ± 0.12 Vs 0.46 ± 0.12 , p<0.001) was increased in 87% of patients and LVMPI (0.49 ± 0.12 Vs 0.41± 0.09 , p0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that RVMPI and LVMPI increase in major thalassemia patients that indicates systolic and diastolic dysfunction and RVMPI increases more than LVMPI. On the other hand, MPI has a direct correlation with serum ferritin . On the basis of this study ,we suggest MPI measurement in serial echocardiography in asymptomatic major thalassemia patients.
Neonatal Late-Onset Sepsis in a NICU: Analysis of Causative Organisms and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Ali Asghar Children Hospital from (2004/5-2007/5), Tehran, Iran
Marzban Asghart,Hadi Samaee,Pourmemari Mohamad Hossein,Vahedian Azimi Amir
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjbsci.2010.376.379
Abstract: Bacterial sepsis is one of the most common causes of significant mortality and morbidity in neonates. The researchers analyzed bacterial isolates and their antibiotic susceptibilities for cases of septicemia in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of a teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran. During a 36 months period, the incidence of bacteremia and the causing organisms and mortality of sepsis as well as antibiotic susceptibility were investigated. Neonatal Late-Onset Sepsis (LOS) was defined as clinical signs suggestive of infection with a positive Blood Culture (B/C) after 72 h of birth. About 909 neonates were admitted to the NICU. A total of 9.13% of neonates (83/909) had at least one positive B/C after 72 h of birth. The vast majority (56.6%) of sepsis were caused by Gram-negative organism. Gram-positive pathogens accounted for 41% infections. The most common cause of late-onset sepsis was Klebsiela p. (31%) and followed by Staph aureus (18.1%). In this study, the researchers have observed that the old empiric therapy with cephalothine plus Amikacin for suspected late-onset sepsis seems ineffective. Now, however may be the best choice regimen is the combination vancomycin plus amikacin and the vancomycin plus imipenem for the severe ill patients.
Aerosolised surfactant generated by a novel noninvasive apparatus reduced acute lung injury in rats
Yu Sun, Rui Yang, Ji-gen Zhong, Feng Fang, Jin-jin Jiang, Ming-yao Liu, Jian Lu
Critical Care , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/cc7737
Abstract: Rats were intravenously injected with oleic acid (OA) to induce ALI and 30 minutes later they were divided into five groups: model (injury only), PPS aerosol (PPS-aer), saline aerosol (saline-aer), PPS instillation (PPS-inst), and saline instillation (Saline-Inst). Blood gases, lung histology, and protein and TNF-α concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were examined.The PPS aerosol particles were less than 2.0 μm in size as determined by a laser aerosol particle counter. Treatment of animals with a PPS aerosol significantly increased the phospholipid content in the BALF, improved lung function, reduced pulmonary oedema, decreased total protein and TNF-α concentrations in BALF, ameliorated lung injury and improved animal survival. These therapeutic effects are similar to those seen in the PPS-inst group.This new method of PPS aerosolisation combines the therapeutic effects of a surfactant with partial oxygen inhalation under spontaneous breathing. It is an effective, simple and safe method of administering an exogenous surfactant.Exogenous surfactants have been routinely used to treat preterm infants with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS), reduce alveolar atelectasis, improve oxygenation and stabilise the status of the lung fluid system [1]. Surfactant administration has also been attempted for the treatment of adults with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) [2,3]. Instillation of bolus exogenous surfactant into the airway through endotracheal intubation or bronchoscopy is the conventional way of administering surfactant; however, this method can be associated with complications, such as bradycardias, changes in blood pressure, drug reflux and the need to re-intubate [4-10].Inhaling an aerosolised surfactant is another method of exogenous surfactant administration [11,12]. Ultrasonic or jet nebulisers have been used to generate aerosolised surfactant. Although these approaches have proven to be efficie
Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis in siblings  [cached]
Gupta L,Singhi M,Bansal Mohit,Khullar Rajeev
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2005,
Abstract: Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare, autosomal recessively inherited disorder. We report two siblings with multiple large tumors on the scalp, translucent papules on the nape of the neck, hypertrophic gingiva, and severe flexural contractures of large joints. The histopathology from the skin lesions showed features characteristic of juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. The cases are being reported on account of the extreme rarity of the condition.
Outcome of Patients in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
F Nayyeri
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 2001,
Abstract: In a period of 12 months, 232 patients were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit in Ali-Asghar children’s hospital in Tehran. 78% survived, 76% of the being of very low birth-weight (1500 gr). 84% of the surviving neonates showed morbidities at discharge
An update on clinical surfactant preparations and respiratory disease
Blanco,Odalys; Lugones,Yuliannis; Fernández,Octavio; Faure,Roberto;
Biotecnolog?-a Aplicada , 2012,
Abstract: the pulmonary surfactant and respiratory disease are tightly linked. adequate surfactant activity remains critical for optimal lung function throughout life, and secondary surfactant dysfunction may contribute to the process of many lung diseases, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, asthma, cystic fibrosis and pneumonia among others. attempts to treat these lung diseases with exogenous surfactants have been only partially successful. the objective of this article is to carry out an update on clinical surfactant preparations and immunomodulatory properties, as well as all related to clinical trials of clinical surfactant preparations and respiratory diseases in the pharmaceutical market today. the results show the potential to extent the use of the exogenous surfactant preparations to other respiratory disease different than neonatal respiratory disease syndrome. the importance of immunomodulatory functions of lung surfactant and the aim to evaluate the effectiveness of including different drugs as ingredient of a surfactant preparation represent the research's active field on surfactant topic.
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