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Children and Parents’ Perceptions of Family Functioning Relating to Childhood Obesity  [PDF]
Cecilia Colunga Rodríguez, Laura Elizabeth Oliveros Chávez, María de Lourdes Preciado Serrano, Teresita de Jesús Villase?or Cabrera, Mercedes Gabriela Orozco Solis, Mario ángel González, Julio César Vázquez Colunga, Claudia Liliana Vázquez Juárez, Juan Carlos Barrera de León
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2016.610025
Abstract: The aim of this study was to describe the perception that children and their parents have about the family functioning relating to childhood obesity. A qualitative study, based on the family systemic theory, was developed. The participants were four children between 10 and 13 years old, with diagnosed obesity, overweight and normal weight, and five of their parents (four females and one male). The techniques used were semi structure interviews, which were audio-taped and transcribed to an electronic format. A thematic content analysis was applied, obtaining six categories: communication, beliefs about weight and body image, beliefs about food, family patterns, controlling eating and attempted solutions. The findings suggest the existence of paradox communication in the families, with contradictory and ambiguous instructions about the eating behavior of the child; beliefs about an ideal weight and type of body for children and adults; ideas about the nutritional qualities of the food that classify them as healthy or prejudicial; family norms that differ according to the role of who buys, cooks or allows the ingest of specific foods; children referring difficulties to control the food intake, while the parents point out that someone else is responsible for that lack of control; also, some strategies that the family has tried unsuccessfully to control the children weight were mentioned, such as diet or nutritional treatments. In summary, we conclude that the perception of childhood obesity is shared by parents and children, where the family interactions emerge as an element that maintains the children obesity having a lack of understatement about the necessary actions for the children’s healthy development.
Family Functioning and Illness Perception of Parents of Children with Atopic Dermatitis, Living Without Skin Symptoms, but with Psychosomatic Symptoms
Alain. R. Rodríguez-Orozco,E. G. Kanán-Cedeno,E. Guillén Martinez,M. J. Campos Garibay
Iranian Journal Of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology , 2011,
Abstract: Emotional factors and a recurrent psychosomatic environment, have been implicated in the evolution of atopic dermatitis. These, in turn, affect the disease. This study was under taken to evaluate the functioning of families with a child that has atopic dermatitis without skin symptoms and the parents' perceptions of their child's disease.Semi-quantitative and cross-sectional study in which questionnaires were applied: one to study family functioning (Espejel et al. scale) and the second to determine aspects of parental perception of their child's atopic dermatitis. Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the correlation between the categories of the Family Function Scale.The most affected categories of family functioning were authority, handling of disruptive conduct, communication, and negative affect. The most significant positive correlations between the categories of family functioning were: authority and support, r=0.867, p<.001; disruptive conduct and communication, r=0.798, p<.001; and support and communication, r=0.731, p<.001. Of the parents, 66.4% thought that the pharmacotherapy used for their child's atopic dermatitis was not effective, and 33.3% of parents stated that the disease had affected their child's daily activities.In families of children with atopic dermatitis, various family environment factors facilitate the recurrence of symptoms even when no cutaneous lesions have been found on the child. The identification and use of family resources to face this disease are aspects that should be taken into consideration during the psychotherapeutic management of these families, putting emphasis on the most affected functional categories of these families in a strategy that should be implanted in a multi-disciplinary context.
Family Functioning in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with or without Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder Comorbidity  [cached]
Sebla Gokce Imren,Ayse Rodopman Arman,Funda Gumustas,Yasemin Yulaf
Cukurova Medical Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine family functioning in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and ADHD comorbid with oppositional defiant disorder ( ODD) or conduct disorder ( CD). Method: Forty nine children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and forty eight controls (aged 8-16 years) were assesed with Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Present and Lifetime Version; Parents completed the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD) for family functioning which asseses 6 dimensions of family functioning ( problem solving, communication, behavior control, affective involvement, affective responsiveness, and roles and also includes a general functioning subscale. Results: 34.7 % of the ADHD children had comorbid psychiatric disorders, and the major comorbidity was ODD (24.5 %). ADHD families scored high at the level of unhealthy functioning in the problem solving, roles, affective involvement, general functioning, and behavior control subscales of FAD. Besides, problem solving behaviour and general functioning were significantly poorer than control families and they had more difficulties in area of roles. When DEHB was comorbid with ODD or DB, all areas of family functioning as measured by FAD were scored high at the level of unhealthy functioning . Additionally, general functioning and affective responsiveness were significantly poorer than ADHD without ODD or DB comorbidity. Discussion: Recent studies revealed that ADHD and especially ADHD comorbid with ODD or DB may disrupt family functioning in many ways. In this study, the families of children and adolescents with ADHD and ADHD comorbid with ODD or DB had poorer family functioning in most of the subscales of FAD. Treatment of children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD especially comorbid with ODD or DB should include parental treatment and intervention addressing parental skills, and family functioning. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000): 22-30]
Coping Strategies among Parents of Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  [PDF]
Rosnah Sutan, Nahlah Abduljaleel Al-Saidi, Zarina Abdul Latiff, Hishamshah Mohd Ibrahim
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.97071
Abstract:
Background: Having a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia represents challenges to the family which may impact their quality of life. In such circumstances, parents use various coping strategies to face this stressful situation, and understanding the relation of coping strategies on quality of life among parents of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia may provide professionals with ideas about how to support them which in turn may improve their quality of life. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the correlation between coping strategies and the health related quality of life of parents whose children are suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Study design: A cross-sectional design using guided self-administered questionnaire by a single researcher was used. Methods: A universal sample consisted of 299 parents of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was recruited from Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Kuala Lumpur Institute Pediatrics. The response rate was 98%. The data collection tools were WHOQOL BREF which is the World Health Organization Quality of Life shorter version and Brief COPE questionnaires. Results: The results revealed that half of the parents perceived their health related quality of life as good. The highest scores for parents were reported on the social relationship domain meanwhile the lowest were reported on the environmental health domain. In regard to the coping strategies, it was found that religion was most frequently used while humor was the least to be used. Moreover, there was a significant positive relationship between quality of life of the parents and problem-focused coping style and a significant negative relationship with emotion-focused coping style. Conclusion: On the basis of the finding of present study, an appropriate intervention could be design to include program that promote the use of problem-focused copings such as active coping and planning and discourage the use of emotion-focused copings such as self-blaming to enhance parents’ health related quality of life.
Family Functioning in Maltreating Families: Implications for Parenting Programs  [PDF]
Mihai-Bogdan IOVU
Revista de Cercetare ?i Interven?ie Social? , 2011,
Abstract: There is little research-based data on how child maltreating families experience their level of functioning and lack of data is even more stringent for Romanian space. Such knowledge generated primarily by qualitative methods is needed to deepen the different quantitative findings. Therefore, employing a qualitative design, the purpose of this study is to develop a preliminary theoretical model of functioning of child maltreating families. Child maltreatment was defined as physical, psychological or neglect caused by the one of the child’s parents. Family functioning referred to well-being or performance of the family unit in such domains as relationships within the family health/competence, conflict resolution, cohesion, leadership, and expressiveness. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with open-ended questions from children subject to maltreatment within the family (n=10). Transcribed interviews were analysed by using the McMaster Model of Family Functioning. Dysfunctional roles and lack of problem solving abilities within the family emerged as the core categories which described the phenomenon in general and was connected to all other categories of family functioning. The findings can be useful in developing future parenting programs for child maltreating families, in nursing education and in preventing child maltreatment.
The Contribution of Youth Self-Report (YSR) in the Diagnosis of Psychiatric Comorbidity of Juvenile Primary Headache Disorders
Fevziye TOROS,Aynur OZGE,Meryem Ozlem KUTUK,Hakan KALEAGASI
Journal of Neurological Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: There is conflicting evidence about the frequency and the best evaluation method of psychiatric co morbidity in juvenile primary headache disorders. There are also few data about sensitivity and specificity standardized self report tests (i.e. YSR) in the process of psychiatric co morbidity diagnosis in this group of youth. In order to determine comorbid psychiatric disorders and relationship between psychiatric co morbidity and YSR sub scores, as a worldwide test of child practice, in a primary headache disorders group of children and adolescents, we performed this clinical based prospective study.Method: Children were evaluated by the same specialists for the ICHD-II based headache diagnosis and DSM-IV criteria. Participants were clinically examined and filled out a questionnaire in which self-reported psychosocial functioning was assessed on standardized measures, including the Youth Self-Report (YSR), Child Beck Depression Inventory (CBDI), Trait-State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-C) and Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS) supported by face to face interview when it needed. Additionally at least one parents of the subjects have been evaluated by the same psychiatrist for psychiatric co morbidities. Using appropriate statistics results were evaluated.Results: Totally 112 patients were evaluated and 58.9% of them were girls. Headache diagnoses were migraine (14.3%), tension type headache (57.1%) and others (28.6%). It was determined 18% of patient's co-morbid psychiatric diagnosis, predominantly depression and anxiety disorders.Conclusions: We concluded in this study that headache subtypes and psychiatric disorders can be seen together. It should be considered this co morbidity for headache coping strategies.
A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Interventions for Parents' Distress in Pediatric Leukemia  [PDF]
A. Bougea,C. Darviri,E. C. Alexopoulos
ISRN Oncology , 2011, DOI: 10.5402/2011/959247
Abstract: Objective. This review aims to summarize the existing evidence concerning interventions towards reducing stress in parents with a child with leukemia and their effect in child and family wellbeing. Methods. A systematic review strategy was conducted using MEDLINE covering the period January 1980 to June 2010. Results. Seven randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria including in total 1045 parents participants. A variety of cognitive-behavioral interventions problem-solving skills training programs have been used for managing distress in parents and children. Outcome measures are assessed by self-report, observer report, behavioral/psychological, and physiological measures. The most prominent methodological problems were the marked heterogeneity in stress measurement and the relative absence of proper measurement and adjustment of moderating and mediating factors. The largest effect has been obtained by combined cognitive-behavioral interventions with promising but limited evidence for several other psychological interventions. Conclusions. Recommendations for future RCTs are provided, and particular attention to the quality of trial design and reporting is highlighted. 1. Introduction One third of cancer cases reported in children are leukemia cases [1]. Nowadays, the acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common type of childhood leukemia, has a very high rate (60–70%) of survival [2]. However, parents of children with leukemia experience a variety of negative emotions such as shock, disbelief, fear, hopelessness, anger, guilty, and loss of control following diagnosis [3]. In addition high levels of parental psychological distress remain throughout their child’s treatment or long after cessation of treatment [4, 5]. A cascade of negative effects of this psychological distress is manifested in parental posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSS) [6–11] depression, somatization disorders [12], economic burdens [13], and family tensions [14]. Furthermore, in several studies the results indicated that siblings of children with cancer are at risk for emotional, internalizing problems and/or behavioral, externalizing problems [15–21]. Recognizing the necessity of managing parental distress, research has focused on evaluating the effect of psychological and other interventions [22, 23]. Findings regarding intervention effects on specific psychological outcomes have been inconclusive [3]. The diversity of settings, of interventions’ targets and content, and of measurement tools makes difficult any comparison and assessment of intervention efficacy.
The Relationship between Parental Depressive Symptoms, Family Type, and Adolescent Functioning  [PDF]
Dominik Sebstian Sieh, Johanna Maria Augusta Visser-Meily, Anne Marie Meijer
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080699
Abstract: It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (p<.01) than the comparison group. Adolescents of single parents reported more internalizing problems (p<.01) and externalizing problems (p<.05) than children from the other family types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (p<.001). Adolescents of depressed chronically ill parents were particularly vulnerable to internalizing problems (interaction effect, p<.05). Older children and girls, and especially older girls, displayed more internalizing problems and stress. It can be concluded that growing up with a chronically ill parent in a family with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of family type and parental depressive symptoms on adolescent functioning. Older and female adolescents deserve particular attention.
Family functioning in neglectful families
Jalili B
Tehran University Medical Journal , 1998,
Abstract: Family functioning in 103 neglectful and 102 non-neglectful low-families is examined using selfreport and observational measures. Neglectful mothers reported their Audiotaped as having more family conflict and less expression of feelings, but not less cohesive. Ratings of observed and Audiotaped family interactions indicated neglect families were less organized, more chaotic, less verbally expressive, showed less positive and more negative affect than comparison families. However, there were wide differences on measures of functioning among neglect families. Three distinct types of neglectful family functioning are identified and interventions for each type are suggested to improve parental-family functioning
Family functioning in the aftermath of a natural disaster
Brett M McDermott, Vanessa E Cobham
BMC Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-12-55
Abstract: Three months after a category 5 tropical cyclone that impacted north Queensland Australia, school-based screening was undertaken to case identify children who may benefit from a mental health intervention. Along with obtaining informed consent, parents completed a measure of family functioning.Of 145 families of children aged 8 to 12?years, 28.3% met criteria for dysfunction on the Family Adjustment Device, double the frequency in a community sample. The dysfunction group was significantly more likely to have experienced more internalising (anxiety/depression) symptoms. However, in an adjusted logistic regression model this group were not more likely to have elevated disaster-related exposure nor did children in these families validate more PTSD symptoms.The implications of post-disaster discordant family functioning and possible different causal pathways for depressive and PTSD-related symptomatic responses to traumatic events are discussed.In a review of disaster literature since 1980 Galea, Nandi, and Vlahov [1] reported the estimated prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults following natural disasters varied between 5 and 60 percent within the first two years post disaster. There is also clear evidence that children and adolescents are vulnerable [1]. La Greca and Prinstein in a review of natural disaster studies reported that 30-50% of effected children and adolescents demonstrate moderate to severe symptoms of PTSD, while 5-10% meet criteria for a full PTSD diagnosis [2]. PTSD has tended to be the primary psychological outcome assessed in children and adolescents following a natural disaster, with depression and other anxiety disorders sometimes assessed. For example, three months after an earthquake, a school based study found PTSD was present in 4.3% of the sample, while clinical depression was present in 13.9% [3]. Research after man-made, often terrorism-related disasters has emphasised the range of possible short and long term emotion
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