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Food and macronutrient intake of elite Ethiopian distance runners
Lukas Y Beis, Lena Willkomm, Ramzy Ross, Zeru Bekele, Bezabhe Wolde, Barry Fudge, Yannis P Pitsiladis
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1550-2783-8-7
Abstract: The dietary intake of 10 highly-trained Ethiopian long distance runners, living and training at high altitude (approximately 2400 m above sea level) was assessed during a 7 day period of intense training prior to competition using the standard weighed intake method. Training was also assessed using an activity/training diary.Body mass was stable (i.e., was well maintained) over the assessment period (pre: 56.7 ± 4.3 kg vs. post: 56.6 ± 4.2 kg, P = 0.54; mean ± SD). The diet comprised of 13375 ± 1378 kJ and was high in carbohydrate (64.3 ± 2.6%, 545 ± 49 g, 9.7 ± 0.9 g/kg). Fat and protein intake was 23.3 ± 2.1% (83 ± 14 g) and 12.4 ± 0.6% (99 ± 13 g, 1.8 ± 0.2 g/kg), respectively. Fluid intake comprised mainly of water (1751 ± 583 mL), while no fluids were consumed before or during training with only modest amounts being consumed following training.Similar to previous studies in elite Kenyan distance runners, the diet of these elite Ethiopian distance runners met most recommendations of endurance athletes for macronutrient intake but not for fluid intake.The International Association of Athletic Federations (IAAF) Consensus Statement on Nutrition for athletics published in 2007 states: "Well chosen foods will help athletes train hard, reduce risk of illness and injury, and achieve performance goals, regardless of the diversity of events, environments, nationality and level of competitors." [1]. Specific nutritional recommendations for optimal performance, particularly for endurance athletes, include a daily carbohydrate (CHO) intake ranging from 6 to 10 g/kg body mass (BM) considered essential for replacing liver and muscle glycogen stores [2]. A significant protein intake ranging between 1.2 to 1.7 g/kg BM per day is required for optimal health and performance of endurance athletes [2]. Studies examining protein intake in athletes have shown an increased requirement for protein in endurance trained athletes [3-5] as opposed to healthy adult males (i.e., 0.8 g/kg) d
Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure
David R Paul, Matthew Kramer, Donna G Rhodes, William V Rumpler
Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1477-5751-4-2
Abstract: Preprandial ghrelin concentrations were not affected by macronutrient intake, energy expenditure or energy intake (all P > 0.05). In turn, daily energy intake was significantly influenced by energy expenditure, but not ghrelin.Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Similarly, ghrelin does not appear to affect acute or chronic energy intake under free-living conditions.Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is thought to play a significant role in the regulation of energy balance due to its effects on the stimulation of food intake [1,2] and weight gain [1-3] in rodents. It has been suggested that ghrelin may also play a role in meal initiation in humans, since the concentration of ghrelin increases immediately prior to a meal [4] and decreases after eating [4-6]. Furthermore, ghrelin infusions are associated with feelings of hunger and increased energy intake during a buffet-style lunch [7].Despite the evidence indicating a role in acute food intake, little is known about the factors regulating ghrelin and its effects on long-term energy balance in humans. One hypothesis is that ghrelin secretion is up-regulated in periods of negative energy balance and down-regulated in periods of positive energy balance [8]. Since energy balance is a function of both energy intake and expenditure, ghrelin concentrations should increase or decrease with fluctuations in food intake (macronutrient composition and/or energy intake) and/or energy expenditure. In turn, increased ghrelin concentrations should be associated with higher food intake. However, the effects of daily fluctuations in food intake and energy expenditure on ghrelin have not been investigated in humans.The purpose of the present study was to determine how changes in macronutrient composition, energy intake, and energy expenditure affect preprandial ghrelin concentrations, and ghrelin's subsequent
Food, energy and macronutrient intake of postmenopausal women from a menopause program
Schoppen,S.; Carbajal,A.; Pérez-Granados,A. M.a; Vivas,F.; Vaquero,M. Pilar;
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2005,
Abstract: objective: this study aimed to analyse the food, energy and macronutrient intake of a group of postmenopausal women participating in a health-care-program. methods: subjects included were 38 healthy postmenopausal women aged between 46 and 60 years, recruited from the menopause program of the madrid city council. physical activity, some anthropometric data and dietary information was obtained using a modified version of the dietary history method, which contained a 24-hour-recall and a food frequency questionnaire covering the preceding month as reference period. dietary quality indexes, including those of the energy provided by macronutrients, alcohol and fatty acids and pufa + mufa/sfa and pufa/sfa ratios were calculated. results: this group consumed a diet very similar to the traditional mediterranean diet. intake of vegetables (415 ± 165 g/d), fruits (396 ± 178 g/d) and fish (131 ± 69 g/d) was high and a wide variety of these products was consumed. potato and cereal (157 ± 76 g/d) intake was low. dairy products, meat, poultry and eggs were only a modest part of this diet. the fat quality (pufa + mufa/sfa = 2.26) was satisfactory. conclusion: the diet of this group of postmenopausal women attending a prevention program closely conforms to current nutritional guidelines. physical activity, body weight and intake of vegetable foods are adequate and may be very useful to counterbalance the increased risk of several pathologies after menopause. however, consumption of carbohydrate rich foods is lower than recommended. participation in the menopause healthcare-program is useful for weight control and dietary advice.
Plasma homocysteine levels, physical activity and macronutrient intake in young healthy men
Anna Czajkowska,Gra?yna Lutos?awska,Krzysztof Mazurek,Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz
Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: It is well documented that high blood homocysteine (Hcy) levels possibly contribute to insulin resistance through the induction of resistin and inhibition of adiponectin expression in mouce adipose tissue in vitro. Additionally, in humans, hyperhomocysteinemia has been recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aim of the study: Our study aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between total plasma Hcy levels and physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and dietary habits in young healthy men. Material and methods: Plasma Hcy levels, macronutrient intake, maximal oxygen uptake and physical activity were assessed in 65 volunteers. Physical activity was assessed using a Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall (SDPAR), maximal oxygen uptake was measured on bicycle ergometer, and plasma Hcy was determined with the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). Dietary habits were evaluated from dietary records collected over 4 days. On the basis of median Hcy levels (9.7 ?mol/l) two groups of subjects were separated - with plasma Hcy levels lower and higher than median value (Group LH and HH, respectively). Results: Group LH and HH did not differ with respect to maximal oxygen uptake or physical activity level. The only difference between groups with different circulating Hcy was the percentage of energy derived from protein - slightly but significantly higher in LH than in HH subjects (16% and 13% of total energy, respectively). Conclusions: At least in our participants neither cardiorespiratory fitness nor physical activity affected circulating Hcy. However, higher percentage of energy derived from protein had a beneficial effect on plasma Hcy.
Impact of fried foods on macronutrient intake, with special reference to fat and protein.
Henry, CJ K.
Grasas y Aceites , 1998,
Abstract: Thermal treatment of protein is known to reduce protein quality and the destruction of certain amino acids. Fish and chips still remain a popular food source in Britain. Little work has been done on the changes in protein quality during fish frying. The paper will present results obtained from the assessment of protein quality using net protein utilisation (NPU) in fried and steamed fish. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were given stock diet {RM1 expanded, SDS Ltd., Witham, Essex) for 7 days at 30 days of age, groups of four were offered one of four diets that differed only in the type of fish and processing used. Diets contained 200g of fish protein, 550g carbohydrate (400g sucrose and 150g corn-meal), 50g mineral and vitamin mix and 200g fat/kg diet. The different fish species used were Cod and Plaice and the processing used was either steaming or frying. Although a fall in NPU was noted in fried fish compared to the steamed fish these changes in NPU could be reduced if the fish was covered with batter prior to frying.
Nutrient intake amongst rural adolescent girls of Wardha  [cached]
Maliye C,Deshmukh P,Gupta S,Kaur S
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: To assess the nutrient intake of rural adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried in four adopted villages of the Department of Community Medicine, M.G.I.M.S., Sewagram. A household survey was carried out in the villages. A list of all the adolescent girls in the age group of 10-19 years was prepared by enumeration through house-to-house visit. All adolescent girls were included in the study. A pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic variables and anthropometric variables. A 24 h recall method was used to assess nutrient intake. Data generated was entered and analyzed using epi_info 2000. Nutrient intake was compared with ICMR Recommended Dietary Allowances. Nutritional status was assessed by BMI for age. Results: The mean height of the adolescent girls was 142.9 cm. Overall, 57% of the adolescents were thin (BMI for age <5 th percentile for CDC 2000 reference) and 43% of the adolescents were normal (BMI for age between 5 th - 85 th percentile for CDC 2000 reference). The average energy intake, which was 1239.6±176.4 kcal/day, was deficient of RDA by 39%. The average protein intake was 39.5±7 gm/day. It was deficient by 36% and the average iron intake, which was 13.2±2.5 mg/day, was deficient by 48%. Conclusion: The findings reiterate the dietary deficiency among adolescent girls which adversely affects the nutritional status. If the poor nutritional status is not corrected promptly before they become pregnant, it adversely affects the reproductive outcome. If we have to meet out the goals of Reproductive and Child Health Program, intervention strategies to improve the dietary intake of adolescent girls are needed so that their requirements of energy, protein, vitamins and minerals are met.
Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls  [PDF]
Lynn L. Moore,Martha R. Singer,M. Mustafa Qureshi,M. Loring Bradlee,Stephen R. Daniels
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4111692
Abstract: This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years). Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines ( DGA) recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy) from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy.
Nutrient intake in 5-17-year-old African boys and girls in a rural district of Kenya
Semproli,S.; Canducci,E.; Ricci,E.; Gualdi-Russo,E.;
Nutrición Hospitalaria , 2011,
Abstract: objective: to investigate relationships between nutritional status and growth among a sample of schoolchildren and adolescents living in a rural district of kenya. design: cross-sectional nutritional and anthropometric survey. setting: the data are from schools in a rural district of south-western kenya. subjects: schoolchildren and adolescents aged between 5 and 17 years of age. anthropometric measurements and interviews on dietary intake were carried out in 2001 and 2002 on 1,442 subjects. results: in this african rural sample, the degree of malnutrition differs with age (increasing with age) and sex (more accentuated in males). several correlations (p < 0.05) were observed between nutrient adequacy ratios and anthropometric values, particularly in males. there were no correlations between anthropometric characteristics and sodium or vitamin c (in males and females) and vitamin a or potassium (in females). conclusions: malnutrition was more evident in subjects at puberty. the diet was deficient in sodium, calcium and potassium. although weight-for-age (waz) and bmi-for-age (bmiz) did not show significant relationships with nutrients in girls, the anthropometric variables were significantly correlated with micronutrients and thiamine in boys. to develop effective intervention strategies, it is vital to understand both how changes in malnutrition do occur and how different factors influence nutrient intake. the different growth pattern of boys and girls could be caused by sexual differences in environmental sensitivity, access to food and energy expenditure.
Calcium intake and knowledge among white adolescent girls in Gauteng, South Africa
Cecilia T Chemaly, Una E MacIntyre, Heidi Abrahamse
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 2004,
Abstract: Objectives. To determine the knowledge and intake of calcium among white adolescent girls in Gauteng, South Africa. Design. A quantitative study using a questionnaire interview conducted over 13 months (1 June 2000 - 31 July 2001). Settings. Sixteen randomly selected private and state schools in the Gauteng area. Subjects. Adolescent white girls aged between 15 and 17 years. Outcome measures. Calcium intake and knowledge using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 7-day weighed records (WRS). Results. Mean calcium intake according to the FFQ was 811 mg/day (adequate intake (AI) 1 300 mg/day). Fiftyone per cent of participants had not been given any information relating to calcium and its benefits. Teachers and parents are the most noted sources of information and 31% of the participants knew that adolescence was the most important period for calcium absorption and bone building. Conclusions. Adolescents have low intakes of calcium compared with what is recommended. It is important to develop intervention programmes that target children, adolescents, teachers and mothers alike. It is also imperative to develop awareness of the importance of calcium consumption during childhood and adolescence in order to minimise the possibility of osteoporosis in later life. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition Vol.17(3) 2004: 102-108
Media and Cultural Influences in African-American Girls’ Eating Disorder Risk  [PDF]
Lakaii A. Jones,Catherine Cook-Cottone
ISRN Preventive Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.5402/2013/319701
Abstract: Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American females, mainstream sociocultural identification, cultural ethnic identification, and body dissatisfaction significantly predicted eating disorder behavior; and cultural ethnic identification was positively correlated with mainstream sociocultural identification. This study provides support for the importance of eating disorder prevention interventions that focus specifically on African-American girls. 1. Introduction The research on eating disorders (EDs) in minorities, specifically African-Americans, is scarce. Even rarer is literature that examines the cultural and media influences of eating pathology in this population, specifically in those from urban areas. There is also little research on African-American middle school and early high school age females. Few studies focus on middle school adolescents [1, 2]. Many of the studies on general EDs and media influences on EDs focus on college students [3, 4]. Some findings suggest that within minority populations, eating disorder (ED) development is considered rare (e.g., [5]). However, recently such findings have come into question [6] and few studies have used solely minority populations in investigating ED risk [4, 5]. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) describes three types of EDs, anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and Eating Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (ED-NOS). In AN, individuals refuse to sustain normal body weight;, in BN, individuals binge eat and compensate for binging using inappropriate methods (e.g., self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise), in order to maintain weight, and in ED-NOS, individuals do not meet the complete criteria for an ED but display features of either AN or BN [7]. AN and BN are found to be less common in African-American youth (In their review of the literature, Anthony and Yager [8] stated that various studies), [9]. However, the aforementioned studies did not specifically focus on middle school and early high school age African-American females living in an urban area. Compared with Caucasians, Binge Eating
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