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Genetic Relationship of Sago Palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) in Indonesia Based on RAPD Markers
Biodiversitas , 2009,
Abstract: The areas of sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) forest and cultivation in the world were estimated two million hectares and predicted 50% of that areas located in Indonesia. Distribution of sago palm areas in Indonesia is not evenly distributed as well as their diversities. Information of plant genetic diversities and genetic relationship is very important to be used for germ plasm collection and conservation. The objectives of research were revealed the genetic relationships of sago palm in Indonesia based on RAPD molecular markers. Fragments amplification PCR products were separated on 1.7% agarose gel, fixation in Ethidium Bromide, and visualized by using Densitograph. Genetic relationships of sago palm in Indonesia showed that sample in individual level were inclined mixed among the other and just formed three groups. Genetic relationship of sago palm population showed that samples populations from Jayapura, Serui, Sorong, Pontianak, and Selat Panjang were closely related each others based on phylogenetic analysis and formed clustered in one group, event though inclined to be formed two subgroups. Populations from Manokwari, Bogor, Ambon and Palopo were closed related each others, they were in one group. Genetic relationships in the level of island were showed sago palm from Papua, Kalimantan, and Sumatra closely related. Sago palms from Maluku were closed related with sago palm from Sulawesi whereas sago palm from Jawa separated from the others. Based on this observation we proposed that Papua as centre of sago palm diversities and the origin of sago palm in Indonesia. This research informed us the best way to decide sago palm places for germ plasm of sago palm conservation activity.
Conversion of Fibrous Sago (Metroxylon sagu) Waste into Fermentable Sugar via Acid and Enzymatic Hydrolysis  [PDF]
A.C. Kumoro,G.C. Ngoh,M. Hasan,C.H. Ong
Asian Journal of Scientific Research , 2008,
Abstract: The hydrolysis of dried-powdered fibrous sago waste by sulphuric acid and glucoamylase was studied. Both studies were carried out in an Erlenmeyer flask placed in a controlled temperature water bath. Samples were taken from the reaction flask at every 30 min interval for reducing sugar determination. The optimum condition for acid hydrolysis was found to be at 90 °C, using 1.5 M acid concentration and reaction time of 120 min yielding 0.6234 g glucose g-1 waste. The kinetic parameters of acid hydrolysis in the Saeman`s model, were the rate constant (k1 = 0.01405 (1/min)), activation energy (Ea =120.40 (kJ mol-1)) and pre-exponential factor (A = 9.52x1016 (1/min)). The optimum condition for enzymatic hydrolysis using glucoamylase was found to be at enzyme concentration of 6 AGU mL-1 and reaction time of 30 min, yielding 0.5646 g glucose g-1 waste. The kinetic parameters in the competitive inhibition model corresponding to the optimum condition, namely the equilibrium constant for enzyme-inhibitor complex, Michaelis-Menten constant and maximum velocity, are 1.4727, 0.24175 and 1.35460 g L-1.min, respectively.
Genetic diversity of sago palm in Indonesia based on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers
Biodiversitas , 2010,
Abstract: Abbas B, Renwarin Y, Bintoro MH, Sudarsono, Surahman M, Ehara H (2010) Genetic diversity of sago palm in Indonesia based on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers. Biodiversitas 11: 112-117. Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) was believed capable to accumulate high carbohydrate content in its trunk. The capability of sago palm producing high carbohydrate should be an appropriate criterion for defining alternative crops in anticipating food crisis. The objective of this research was to study genetic diversity of sago palm in Indonesia based on cpDNA markers. Total genome extraction was done following the Qiagen DNA isolation protocols 2003. Single Nucleotide Fragments (SNF) analyses were performed by using ABI Prism GeneScanR 3.7. SNF analyses detected polymorphism revealing eleven alleles and ten haplotypes from total 97 individual samples of sago palm. Specific haplotypes were found in the population from Papua, Sulawesi, and Kalimantan. Therefore, the three islands will be considered as origin of sago palm diversities in Indonesia. The highest haplotype numbers and the highest specific haplotypes were found in the population from Papua suggesting this islands as the centre and the origin of sago palm diversities in Indonesia. The research had however no sufficient data yet to conclude the Papua origin of sago palm. Genetic hierarchies and differentiations of sago palm samples were observed significantly different within populations (P=0.04574), among populations (P=0.04772), and among populations within the island (P=0.03366), but among islands no significant differentiations were observed (P= 0.63069).
Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from young leaves of Metroxylon sagu
Ching Ching Wee,Hairul Azman Roslan
3 Biotech , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s13205-012-0048-6
Abstract: Sago palm, or Metroxylon sagu, is a hardy and versatile plant that is able to tolerate many stresses, biotic and abiotic, during its growth. It is one of the plants that are able to grow in waterlogged area where others could not. Apart from that sago palm is also a source of starch, contributes economically to the people and an important export for the state of Sarawak. Despite the importance of sago palm especially in the production of starch and its ability to withstand stresses, so far, not many molecular studies have been reported on sago palm. To study the characters in sago palm, transcriptome analysis was conducted where it would give a better understanding of the plant development through gene expression. Here, we report the construction of a cDNA library and preliminary expressed sequence tags analysis from the young leaves of sago palm. A total of 434 clones were sequenced with inserts ranging from 1,000 to 3,000 bps with primary and amplified titers of 8 × 105 and 1.0 × 109 pfu/ml, respectively. Clustering of these sequences resulted in a set of 372 tentative unigenes comprising 340 singletons and 32 contigs. The database was also annotated with BLAST2GO which showed that majority of the transcripts were involved in primary metabolism and stress tolerance.
Isolation of Alcohol Dehydrogenase cDNA and Basal Regulatory Region from Metroxylon sagu  [PDF]
Ching Ching Wee,Hairul Azman Roslan
ISRN Molecular Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/839427
Abstract: Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) is a versatile enzyme involved in many biochemical pathways in plants such as in germination and stress tolerance. Sago palm is plant with much importance to the state of Sarawak as one of the most important crops that bring revenue with the advantage of being able to withstand various biotic and abiotic stresses such as heat, pathogens, and water logging. Here we report the isolation of sago palm Adh cDNA and its putative promoter region via the use of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and genomic walking. The isolated cDNA was characterized and determined to be 1464?bp long encoding for 380 amino acids. BLAST analysis showed that the Adh is similar to the Adh1 group with 91% and 85% homology with Elaeis guineensis and Washingtonia robusta, respectively. The putative basal msAdh1 regulatory region was further determined to contain promoter signals of TATA and AGGA boxes and predicted amino acids analyses showed several Adh-specific motifs such as the two zinc-binding domains that bind to the adenosine ribose of the coenzyme and binding to alcohol substrate. A phylogenetic tree was also constructed using the predicted amino acid showed clear separation of Adh from bacteria and clustered within the plant Adh group. 1. Introduction Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) is an enzyme involved in various biological activities such as in the germination and abiotic stresses in plants [1–3]. Previous studies have shown that there are between two or three Adh loci in flowering plants with exception in Arabidopsis [4, 5]. Previous Adh protein work on sago palm, a flood-tolerant plant, by Roslan et al. [6] detected the presence of Adh in the leaf and roots. A higher Adh enzyme expression was observed in sago palm young shoots compared to the other part of Metroxylon sagu [6]. The finding was consistent with those of Padmanabhan and Sahi [7] that reported a greater increase in Adh activity in the leaves than the roots of sunflower that was treated with high phosphorus. In contrast, in flood-intolerant plants such as Arabidopsis and pea, increased Adh activity was determined in the roots than in the shoots under anaerobic condition [8, 9]. A higher expression level in different tissue and developmental stage may be because the cells are dividing and exposed to many stresses [10]. The discovery of Adh protein expression in young leaf prompted the work to isolate the Adh gene from sago palm. The isolation of the regulatory region was also conducted to further understand the regulation of Adh in sago palm. Adh gene have been isolated from
Characterization of inflorescence-predominant chitinase gene in Metroxylon sagu via differential display
Hairul Azman Roslan,Syahrul Bariyah Anji
3 Biotech , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s13205-011-0004-x
Abstract: Chitinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of chitin, commonly induced upon the attack of pathogens and other stresses. A cDNA (MsChi1) was isolated from Metroxylon sagu and expressed predominantly in the inflorescence tissue of M. sagu, suggesting its role in developmental processes. The chitinase cDNA was detected and isolated via differential display and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Primers specific to M. sagu chitinase were used as probes to amplify the 3′-end and 5′-end regions of chitinase cDNA. Transcript analysis showed that chitinase is expressed in inflorescence and meristem tissues but was not detected in the leaf tissue. Sequence analysis of amplified cDNA fragments of 3′-end and 5′-end regions indicated that the chitinase cDNA was successfully amplified. The M. sagu chitinase cDNA isolated was approximately 1,143 bp long and corresponds to 312 predicted amino acids. Alignments of nucleotide and amino acid have grouped this chitinase to family 19 class I chitinase.
Improving the Quality of Sago Pith and Rumen Content Mixture as Poultry Feed Through Fermentation by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens  [PDF]
Wizna,Hafil Abbas,Yose Rizal,Abdi Dharma
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2008,
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to improve the nutrient content of sago pith (Metroxylon sago Rottb) and rumen content mixture through fermentation by using cellulolytic bacteria (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) as inoculums. The experiment was determination of the optimum conditions (dosage of inoculums, fermentation length and temperature) for sago pith and rumen content mixture fermentation based on nutrient quality and quantity of these fermented products. The study was conducted in experimental methods, using the completely randomize design in factorial with 3 treatment were : 1. A factor (Dosage of inoculums: A1 = 2%, A2 = 6%, A3 = !0%), 2. B factor (Fermentation length : B1 = 3 days, B2 = 6 days, B3 = 9 days) and 3. C factor (Temperature : C1 = 30oC, C2 = 40oC and C3 = 50oC). Results of study showed that optimum conditions of the fermentation of sago pith (Metroxylon sago Rottb) and rumen content mixture was at 2% dosage of inoculums, 9 days of fermentation length and 40oC temperature. This conditions can decrease 33% of crude fiber and increase 42% of crude protein which made the nutritional value of the product based on dry-substance was 15.79% crude protein, 2.75% crude fat, 18.54% crude fiber, 0.20% calcium, 0.16% phosphor, 2540 Kcal/kg metabolic energy, and 66.65% nitrogen retention.
Genetic Variation of Sago Palm (Metroxylonsagu Rottb.) Progenies with Natural Pollination by Using RAPD Markers  [PDF]
Barahima Abbas, Muhammad Dailami, Budi Santoso, ? Munarti
Natural Science (NS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2017.94010
Sago palm is flowering and fruiting just once in their life cycle. Sago palms that grow naturally and semi cultivated were generally occurred natural pollination to form fruits and seeds, if not cut down to take the starch contained in their trunk. Sago palm pollination may occur as self-pollinated and cross-pollinated. If cross-pollinated was occurred in the pollination process, it will be varied of their progenies. This study aims to reveal the genetic variation of sago palms progenies with naturally pollinated process. The research method is to collect seeds from one parent trees that have produced ripe fruit. Fruit seeds germinated to be made and tested genetic variation using RAPD markers. Isolation of DNA is done by using the fresh young leaves. DNA amplification is done by using RAPD primers. The results showed that the progenies derived from naturally pollinated of sago palms were genetically varied based on RAPD markers and also varied based on morphological phenotypic. Variations occurred in the progenies of sago palm indicated that the sago palms were estimated cross-pollinated naturally, as a result fruits and seeds with genetically differences.
BIOADSORPSI Hg(II) OLEH PATI SAGU TAUT SILANG FOSFAT [Bioadsorption of Hg(II) by Crosslinked Sago Starch Phosphate]  [cached]
Jorion Romengga1)*,Tun Tedja Irawadi2),Sri Sugiarti2)
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan , 2012, DOI: 10.6066/jtip.2012.23.2.140
Abstract: Crosslinked-sago-starch-phosphate (SgP) has been successfully synthesized from native sago starch (Sg) and Na2HPO4-NaH2PO4 in an acidic condition. The compound was designed as bioadsorbent for removing Hg(II) inside human digestion tract as shown by in vitro test. The bioadsorption followed pseudo-second order of reaction kinetic and Freundlich equation as chemisorption. As a result, 21% of Hg(II) was removed at pH of 6.80 and reached the isothermal equilibrium of the bioadsorption at pH of 5.80 and 8.60 for 29.95% and 31.39%, respectively. The result showed that SgP is more feasible than activated carbon to be used as bioadsorbent in removing Hg(II) in human digestion tract as proved by in vitro system.
EVALUASI KADAR PATI TAHAN CERNA (PTC) DAN NILAI INDEKS GLIKEMIK MI SAGU (Evaluation of Enzymatically Resistant Starch and Glycemix Index of Sago Noodle)
Winda Haliza,Endang Y. Purwani,Sri Yuliani
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan , 2006,
Abstract: This paper expressed the level of glycemic index and content of resistant starch of sago noodle. Determination of starch resistant of sago noodle is necessary because it is correlated with the value of glycamic index. Resistant starch content was determined by enzymatic process through glucooxydase method. RS content from four kinds of sago noodle ranged between 7,55 - 9,45 mg/g substances. Pancasan sago noodle showed the highest RS content, and this was further used to analysis the glycemix index. The glycemic index was determined based on ratio of area under blood glucose curve which represent total carbohydrate available from the 50 g glucose to the area under blood glucose curve which represent the glucose content after consumption of 50 gram glucose. The tested used seven health volunteers and resulted in glycemix index about 28. This level was considered low affect the blood glucose consuming. The sago noodle therefore the noodle can be constued by diebetes people.
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