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Heavy Metal Contents of Different Wastes Used for Compost  [PDF]
Tazeen Fatima Khan, Mohammed Waji Ullah, Shah Muhammad Imamul Huq
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2016.43022
Abstract: A study was conducted to assess the heavy metal (As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Hg) contents of different sources of wastes generated in Dhaka city which was further used for a compost plant. The study consisted of both field survey and laboratory analyses. Relevant primary and secondary sources of data were collected to identify the source and nature of wastes generated near the compost plant. A total of eight households, ten officers and ten waste collectors were surveyed for data collection. For laboratory analyses, wastes from various socio-economic niches (lower, lower middle, middle and high) were collected. The result showed that wastes generated in the lower income niche contained the minimum contents of heavy metals compared to middle and high niches. The increasing trend of heavy metal contents of the wastes from lower to high income groups has been found to be linked to the life style, attitude, profession, culture and food habit. Most of the heavy metals did not meet the standard level for almost all the niches. Most of the correlations were found to be insignificant between the contents of nutrient element (C, N and P) and heavy metals (As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Hg).
SEROLOGICAL RELATIONSHIP OF SOME CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS STRAINS
Angela Yordanova and Dimitrinka Hristova
Journal of Culture Collections , 1995,
Abstract: The serological relationship of several strains of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) has been studied using double immunodiffusion test and counter immunoelectrophoresis. By the application of homologous and heterologous immune sera it can be concluded that the tested strains might be referred to two serological groups - U and N. The immunoelectrophoretical analysis gives faster and more definite results.
Influence of applying compost from municipal wastes on some physical properties of the soil
Jamroz E.,Drozd J.
International Agrophysics , 1999,
Abstract: Influence of compost from municipal wastes (MSWC), used as a fertilizer, on some physico- chemical and physical properties of the soil such as: pHKCl, total porosity, bulk density, specific density, water retention at pF 2.54 of field water capacity as well as pF range of 1.0 - 2.9, is presented in the paper. The paper is part of a general project analysing the possibility of using compost from municipal wastes in horticulture.
Varietal Reaction of Cucumber against Cucumber mosaic virus  [PDF]
Asma Akbar, Zahoor Ahmad, Farzana Begum,   Ubairah, Neelam Raees
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.67090
Abstract: Family Cucurbitaceae is primarily found in the warmer regions of the world. It is the major family for economically important species, particularly edible fruits. In Pakistan cucurbits occupies an area of 28,600 ha with a very low production in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa due to many biotic and abiotic stresses. The reason is also the lack of growers’ awareness about the diseases and the cultural practices adopted to provide favorable environment for development of epidemics. Viral diseases such as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) cause losses as high as 100%. Various control strategies are being used to control CMV. The aim of the current study was to screen out different verities and to find the most resistant one against CMV. CMV isolate was collected from farmer’s field at the site of TaruJaba during a survey of cucurbit crops. The identity of the virus was confirmed through DAS-ELISA using diagnostic kit (ADGEN, UK). Seventeen cucumber germplasm seeds were sown in earthen pots in which fourteen were germinated and exhibited characteristics symptoms of the virus while none of them showed resistance against CMV. Symptoms’ expression was delayed in summer green and local green till 12 days post inoculation. While in khyber, Diamond, VEGAF1 and Yousaf, symptoms started to appear soon after inoculation categorizing them as highly susceptible. No resistance is found in available commercial germplasm, so more germplasm from different area of Pakistan should be tested for resistance against CMV. If no resistance is found locally imported, germplasm can be evaluated for a source of resistance against the prevalent isolates of CMV.
Study of compost quality from rural solid wastes (Babol, Iran)
Abdoliman Amouei,Hossein Ali Asgharnia,Ali Khodadi
Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: (Received 7 September, 2009 ; Accepted 10 March, 2010)AbstractBackground and purpose: In spite of many studies on composting from municipal solid wastes, rural solid wastes have not been studied. A high percentages of rural solid wastes containing domestic, animal and agricultural solid waste is biodegradable. The objective of this research was to study the chemical and microbial quality of compost produced by mixed rural solid wastes and other composts.Materials and methods: In this study, food wastes mixed with animal and agricultural wastes with a weight ratio of 2, 5 and 2 (with a final mixed weighting 150 kg) were studied. For investigation of chemical quality of these materials, some indexes such as carbon/ nitrogen ratio, percentage of carbon, phosphorus, potassium, lead, cadmium and zinc were measured. Microbial quality of these compost materials were defined by assessing the amounts of coliforms and parasite ova.Results: The average amounts of some indices in mixed, household and animal composts were: C/N (14 ± 1.5; 20 ± 1.7; 17 ± 1.8), percentages of organic material (73 ± 3.9; 64 ± 3.8; 76 ± 2.5), carbon (32 ± 2.2; 40 ± 2.4; 37 ± 4.5), nitrogen (2.5 ± 0.5; 1.5 ± 0.6; 1.9 ± 0.3) and lead in mg/Kg (3.5 ± 0.7; 16 ± 2.9; 11 ± 1.9), cadmium (0.3 ± 0.05; 3 ± 0.9; 1.5 ± 0.4), respectively. The number of total fecal coliforms in compost produced by mixed solid materials was 643 ± 176; 131 ± 52 respectively in 10 g of solid materials and the number of parasite ova was less than 2 in 4 g solid materials. The compost quality of mixed materials was in agreement with class A of USEPA guidelines hence, usable for flower and plant culturing.Conclusion: Composting may be considered a method to manage the rural solid waste problem.Key words: Rural solid wastes, compost, waste managementJ Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 20(74): 55-61 (Persian).
Differentiation of biologically distinct Cucumber mosaic isolates by double stranded RNA profile  [cached]
SHELLY PRAVEEN, SAVARNI TRlPATHI and B.K. GIRl
Indian Phytopathology , 2012,
Abstract: Four isolates of Cucumber mosaic virus from Nicotiana tabacum, Commellina species and Petunia, designated as MV- T, C, PI and P 2 , differed in their host reaction, temperature sensitivity, and at the molecular level. Serologically related isolates of CMV
The Presence of Tobacco Mosaic Virus in the Compost Extract of Cigar Tobacco Debris  [PDF]
WIWIEK SRI WAHYUNI,MUHAMMAD HANAPI,IGNASIUS HARTANA
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2008,
Abstract: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is resistance to high temperature and able to survive over 10 years on dried leaves, and plant debris is considered as source of inoculums of TMV in the field. In order to inactivate TMV, TMV-infected cigar tobacco debris was composted at starting temperature of 50 oC for two to three days; however, TMV was still infective in the extract compost. If a half leaf cigar tobacco 'H877' was inoculated with compost extract, the symptoms appeared as a necrotic local lesion (NLL) and did not develop systemic lesions. The dilution end point of TMV in extract compost was 10-3. The number of lesion was higher in the glasshouse with average daylight temperature of 32 oC than in the field with average daylight temperature of 29-30 oC. The number NLL was lower and NLL size seemed to be smaller on the first and second inoculated leaves with extract than that of on the first and second inoculated leaves with TMV inoculums. There was a delay of time about 58-106 hours after inoculation of NLL from extract compost inoculums to appear than those of from TMV inoculums. These could be happened because of mineral nutrients of compost and also the temperature of maintaining tobacco plant which inhibited the infections, and of a thermal composting process which destroyed some TMV particles, particularly degraded it’s coat protein.
Investigation on seed transmission of cucumber mosaic virus in cowpea
I. Abdullahi, T. Ikotun, S. Winter, G. Thottappilly, G. I. Atiri
African Crop Science Journal , 2001,
Abstract: Cowpea breeding lines were infected with cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) by mechanical inoculation to investigate seed transmission rates for this virus. Transmission rates ranging from 0% to 6% were scored by symptom assessment. However, when cowpeas grown from seeds of infected mother plants were tested by ELISA, up to 30% of the plants were infected with CMV. Evaluating ELISA for CMV detection in cowpea revealed that virus concentration was highest in flowers and lowest in primary leaves. To compare the capacity of ELISA for CMV detection, the serological test was compared with RT-PCR; ELISA proved sensitive and reliable for detection of CMV in infected tissue. For seed analysis, a non-destructive assay for CMV detection based on tissue blotting of hypocotyls tissue was developed. RéSUMé Des varietés sélectionnées du niebé étaient infectées par inoculation mécanique avec le virus de la mosaíque de concombre (CMV) afin d'étudier la transmission par semence de ce virus. Les taux de transmission de l'ordre de 0 % à 6 % étaient enregistrés après l'évaluation des sympt mes. Cependant, lorsque les plantes de niébé issues de semences provenant des parents infectés ont été testéés par ELISA, jusqu'á 30 % des plantes étaient infectées par le CMV. L'évaluation de L'ELISA pour la détection du CMV chez le niébé a révélé que la concentration du virus était la plus élevée dans les fleurs et le plus faible dans les feuilles primaires. Afin d'évaluer la capacité d'ELISA de détecter CMV, le test sérologique était comparé á la RT-PCR, où l'ELISA s'est montré sensible et fiable pour la détection du CMV dans des tissus infectés. Pour l'analyse de semence, une méthode non-destructive de détection de CMV basée sur le blotting de tissus d'hypocotyle était développé. (Af Crop Science and Production: 2001 9(4): 677-684)
Occurrence of Cucumber mosaic virus Infecting Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) in Turkey  [cached]
Mehmet Ali SEV?K,Cemile AKCURA
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2011,
Abstract: Parsley plants are grown throughout Turkey as summer and winter crops. Diseased plants having typical of a virus infection such as mosaic, mottling, and leaf distortion symptoms were frequently observed in most of the parsley fields and vegetable public markets in the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey in 2010. Using double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was detected on the diseased parsley plants. However, using farmers and commercial seed lots, CMV was not detected in seeds or germinating seedlings.
Induction of Systemic Acquired Resistance in Cucumber Plant Against Cucumber Mosaic Cucumovirus by Local Streptomyces Strains
Abdel-Moneim M. Galal
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Nine Streptomyces strains were screened for their potential to protect Cucumis sativus from Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV). Foliage treatment with the Streptomyces culture filtrates resulted in 50-85% reduction of the mosaic symptoms. S. violatus, S. nasri H35, Streptomyces sp., S. aureofaciens and S. violaceuisniger showed the highest five antiphytoviral activities. The filtrate of the five Streptomyces strains showed more antiphytoviral activity when applied before virus inoculation compared to their application after viral inoculation. The most favourable incubation period for the highest antiphytoviral activity detected in the filtrates were attained after incubation for 6 h. On the other hand, soaking of seeds for 2 h in the actinomycetes filtrates resulted in the highest viral inhibition, although there is no direct relationship between the percentage of inhibition and the time of soaking. Generally, S. violaceusniger filtrate recorded the highest percentage of viral inhibition (85%). Studies on the ultrastructural changes in cucumber plants showed that viral inoculation led to distortion of spongy and vascular bundle cells as a results of presence of large vacuoles inside these cell. Treatment of inoculated cucumber plants with either Streptomyces strains gave a moderate recovery of cells.
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