Abstract:
We study the gravitational wave emission from the first stars which are assumed to be Very Massive Objects (VMOs). We take into account various feedback (both radiative and stellar) effects regulating the collapse of objects in the early universe and thus derive the VMO initial mass function and formation rate. If the final fate of VMOs is to collapse, leaving very massive black hole remnants, then the gravitational waves emitted during each collapse would be seen as a stochastic background. The predicted spectral strain amplitude in a critical density Cold Dark Matter universe peaks in the frequency range \approx 5 \times 10^{-4}-5 \times 10^{-3} Hz where it has a value in the range \approx 10^{-20}-10^{-19} Hz^{-1/2}, and might be detected by LISA. The expected emission rate is roughly 4000 events/yr, resulting in a stationary, discrete sequence of bursts, i.e. a shot--noise signal.

Abstract:
The collapse of massive stars not only produces observable outbursts across the entire electromagnetic spectrum but, for Galactic (or near-Galactic) supernovae, detectable signals for ground-based neutrino and gravitational wave detectors. Gravitational waves and neutrinos provide the only means to study the actual engine behind the optical outbursts: the collapsed stellar core. While the neutrinos are most sensitive to details of the equation of state, gravitational waves provide a means to study the mass asymmetries in this central core. We present gravitational wave signals from a series of 3-dimensional core-collapse simulations with asymmetries derived from initial perturbations caused by pre-collapse convection, core rotation, and low-mode convection in the explosion engine itself. A Galactic supernovae will allow us to differentiate these different sources of asymmetry. Combining this signal with other observations of the supernova, from neutrinos to gamma-rays to the compact remnant, dramatically increases the predictive power of the gravitational wave signal. We conclude with a discussion of the gravitational wave signal arising from collapsars, the leading engine for long-duration gamma-ray bursts.

Abstract:
We present results from simulations of axisymmetric relativistic rotational core collapse. The general relativistic hydrodynamic equations are formulated in flux-conservative form and solved using a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme. The Einstein equations are approximated with a conformally flat 3-metric. We use the quadrupole formula to extract waveforms of the gravitational radiation emitted during the collapse. A comparison of our results with those of Newtonian simulations shows that the wave amplitudes agree within 30%. Surprisingly, in some cases, relativistic effects actually diminish the amplitude of the gravitational wave signal. We further find that the parameter range of models suffering multiple coherent bounces due to centrifugal forces is considerably smaller than in Newtonian simulations.

Abstract:
(Abridged) We study the gravitational radiation from gravitational collapses of rapidly rotating neutron stars induced by a phase-transition from normal nuclear matter to a mixed phase of quark and nuclear matter in the core of the stars. The study is based on self-consistent three dimensional hydrodynamic simulations with Newtonian gravity and a high resolution shock capturing scheme, and the quadrupole formula of gravitational radiation. The quark matter of the mixed phase is described by the MIT bag model and the normal nuclear matter is described by an ideal fluid equation of state (EOS). 1. We determined the magnitudes of the emitted gravitational waves for several collapse scenarios. 2. We determined the types and frequencies of the fluid oscillation modes excited by the process. In particular, we find that the gravitational wave signals produced by the collapses are dominated by the fundamental quadrupole and quasi-radial modes of the final equilibrium configurations. In some collapse scenarios, we find that the oscillations are damped out within a few dynamical timescales due to the growth of differential rotations and the formation of strong shock waves. 3. We showed that the spectrum of the gravitational wave signals is sensitive to the EOS, implying that the detection of such gravitational waves could provide useful constraints on the EOS of newly born quark stars. 4. For the range of rotation periods we have studied, we found no sign of the development of nonaxisymmetric dynamical instabilities in the collapse process.

Abstract:
We present the gravitational wave signatures for a suite of axisymmetric core collapse supernova models with progenitors masses between 12 and 25 solar masses. These models are distinguished by the fact they explode and contain essential physics (in particular, multi-frequency neutrino transport and general relativity) needed for a more realistic description. Thus, we are able to compute complete waveforms (i.e., through explosion) based on non-parameterized, first-principles models. This is essential if the waveform amplitudes and time scales are to be computed more precisely. Fourier decomposition shows that the gravitational wave signals we predict should be observable by AdvLIGO across the range of progenitors considered here. The fundamental limitation of these models is in their imposition of axisymmetry. Further progress will require counterpart three-dimensional models.

Abstract:
Black holes in core-collapse of massive stars are expected to surge in mass and angular momentum by hyper-accretion immediately following their formation. We here describe a general framework of extended emission in gravitational waves from non-axisymmetric accretion flows from fallback matter of the progenitor envelope. It shows (a) a maximum efficiency in conversion of accretion energy into gravitational waves at hyper-accretion rates exceeding a critical value set by the ratio of the quadrupole mass inhomogeneity and viscosity with (b) a peak characteristic strain amplitude at the frequency $f_b=\Omega_b/\pi$, where $\Omega_b$ is the Keplerian angular velocity at which viscous torques equal angular momentum loss in gravitational radiation, with $h_{char}\propto f^{1/6}$ at $ff_b$. Upcoming gravitational wave observations may probe this scaling by extracting broadband spectra using time-sliced matched filtering with chirp templates, recently developed for identifying turbulence in noisy time series.

Abstract:
We present a new multivariate regression model for analysis and parameter estimation of gravitational waves observed from well but not perfectly modeled sources such as core-collapse supernovae. Our approach is based on a principal component decomposition of simulated waveform catalogs. Instead of reconstructing waveforms by direct linear combination of physically meaningless principal components, we solve via least squares for the relationship that encodes the connection between chosen physical parameters and the principal component basis. Although our approach is linear, the waveforms' parameter dependence may be non-linear. For the case of gravitational waves from rotating core collapse, we show, using statistical hypothesis testing, that our method is capable of identifying the most important physical parameters that govern waveform morphology in the presence of simulated detector noise. We also demonstrate our method's ability to predict waveforms from a principal component basis given a set of physical progenitor parameters.

Abstract:
The possible formation of Direct Collapse Black Holes (DCBHs) in the first metal-free atomic cooling halos at high redshifts ($z > 10$) is nowadays object of intense study and several methods to prove their existence are currently under development. The abrupt collapse of a massive ($\sim 10^4 - 10^5 \, \mathrm{M_{\odot}}$) and rotating object is a powerful source of gravitational waves emission. In this work, we employ modern waveforms and the improved knowledge on the DCBHs formation rate to estimate the gravitational signal emitted by these sources at cosmological distances. Their formation rate is very high ($\sim 10^4 \, \mathrm{yr^{-1}}$ up to $z\sim20$), but due to a short duration of the collapse event ($\sim 2-30\, \mathrm{s}$, depending on the DCBH mass) the integrated signal from these sources is characterized by a very low duty-cycle (${\cal D}\sim 10^{-3}$), i.e. a shot-noise signal. Our results show that the estimated signal lies above the foreseen sensitivity of the Ultimate-DECIGO observatory in the frequency range $(0.8-300) \, \mathrm{mHz}$, with a peak amplitude $\Omega_{gw} = 1.1 \times 10^{-54}$ at $\nu_{max} = 0.9 \, \mathrm{mHz}$ and a peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio $\mathrm{SNR}\sim 22$ at $\nu = 20 \, \mathrm{mHz}$. This amplitude is lower than the Galactic confusion noise, generated by binary systems of compact objects in the same frequency band. For this reason, advanced techniques will be required to separate this signal from background and foreground noise components. As a proof-of-concept, we conclude by proposing a simple method, based on the auto-correlation function, to recognize the presence of a ${\cal D} \ll 1$ signal buried into the continuous noise. The aim of this work is to test the existence of a large population of high-z DCBHs, by observing the gravitational waves emitted during their infancy.

Abstract:
We investigate the collapse of clusters of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the core of a Sun-like star and the possible formation of mini-black holes and the emission of gravity waves. When the number of WIMPs is small, thermal pressure balances the WIMP cluster's self gravity. If the number of WIMPs is larger than a critical number, thermal pressure cannot balance gravity and the cluster contracts. If WIMPs are collisionless and bosonic, the cluster collapses directly to form a mini-black hole. For fermionic WIMPs, the cluster contracts until it is sustained by Fermi pressure, forming a small compact object. If the fermionic WIMP mass is smaller than $4\times 10^2$ GeV, the radius of the compact object is larger than its Schwarzschild radius and Fermi pressure temporally sustains its self gravity, halting the formation of a black hole. If the fermionic WIMP mass is larger than $4\times 10^2$ GeV, the radius is smaller than its Schwarzschild radius and the compact object becomes a mini-black hole. If the WIMP mass is 1 TeV, the size of the black hole will be approximately 2.5 cm and ultra high frequency gravitational waves will be emitted during black hole formation. The central frequency $f_c$ of ringdown gravitational waves emitted from the black hole will be approximately 2 GHz. To detect the ringdown gravitational waves, the detector's noise must be below $\sqrt{S_h(f_c)}\approx 10^{-30}/\sqrt{\rm Hz}$.

Abstract:
Nonspherical stellar collapse to a black hole is one of the most promising gravitational wave sources for gravitational wave detectors. We numerically study gravitational waves from a slightly nonspherical stellar collapse to a black hole in linearized Einstein theory. We adopt a spherically collapsing star as the zeroth-order solution and gravitational waves are computed using perturbation theory on the spherical background. In this paper we focus on the perturbation of odd-parity modes. Using the polytropic equations of state with polytropic indices $n_p=1$ and 3, we qualitatively study gravitational waves emitted during the collapse of neutron stars and supermassive stars to black holes from a marginally stable equilibrium configuration. Since the matter perturbation profiles can be chosen arbitrarily, we provide a few types for them. For $n_p=1$, the gravitational waveforms are mainly characterized by a black hole quasinormal mode ringing, irrespective of perturbation profiles given initially. However, for $n_p=3$, the waveforms depend strongly on the initial perturbation profiles. In other words, the gravitational waveforms strongly depend on the stellar configuration and, in turn, on the ad hoc choice of the functional form of the perturbation in the case of supermassive stars.