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Procedures in multilateral trade negotiations within the GATT/WTO international trade system
Markovi? Ivan
Medjunarodni Problemi , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/medjp0602067m
Abstract: In the first part of the paper the author deals with some general aspects of the very complex process of trade negotiations. He explains that trade negotiations, bilateral or multilateral, are the basis for establishment of the international trade regime. In order to understand multilateral trade negotiations one should be familiar with its basis, which is composed of rules and procedures. Also, it is necessary to take into consideration the fact that these rules and procedures have not emerged at once but have been introduced in the process of adjustment to the needs of negotiators. In the second part of the paper the author considers the procedures in multilateral trade negotiations within the GATT/WTO international trade system.
Reform at the top: What's next for the WTO? A second life? A socio-political analysis
Daniel Drache
O?ati Socio-Legal Series , 2011,
Abstract: A fundamental change is taking place in the global economy, and the standoff in the Doha Round has raised many questions about the World Trade Organization’s troubled architecture (Khor, 2009). So far, the quest for renewed policy coherence in the rules-based multilateral system has produced stalemate rather than reform. The analysis that follows explores the proposition that, without the metaphoric ‘knife at its throat’ to shock it to its senses, the WTO will continue in the short term to be trapped by its existing architecture. There is no coherent reform-minded movement supported by a critical number of states to instigate a change in the way the WTO does business. The paper looks at the following idea: with many states pursuing new policy frames to enhance their strategic interests, the second life of the WTO will be dramatically different from the present configuration. A lengthy trade pause is a certainty. Four options of what the WTO will become are examined. The conclusion is that as a governance body the WTO faces gradual and likely irreversible decline. It will have a smaller remit, be prone to mini-multilateralism and have to learn to live with a proliferation of regional trade agreements. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1832354
Unification of roles of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and International Financial Institutions (IFIs) in Education: The maintenance of global neoliberal hegemony?
Anita Trisnawati Abbott
Educate~ , 2009,
Abstract: Education is viewed as an instrument for development. Therein lies the importance of education for social change. It is education that makes people aware of the situation around them. Yet, in a different way, education is also an instrument to maintain hegemony. At the international level, the institutions of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the International Financial Institutions (IFIs), such as the World Bank (WB), and International Monetary Fund (IMF) are crucial to the determination of the real meaning of education; whether or not education is an instrument for development for maintaining hegemony. The WTO system is arguably more than simply an international institution, but rather it is a center of hegemonic power. The emergence of neoliberalism has been accompanied by the coercion of hegemonic power that results in deleterious effects on human life. In the education sector, through the provision of the WTO General Agreement of Trade and Services (GATS), trade barriers in education are eliminated. Not only education is becoming globalized but also increasingly becoming a competitive commodity. Thus, the commodification of education means that education serves those who can afford to pay. The controversies surrounding the role of the WTO in the trade of education are significant to the debates about Neoliberal ideology and the problems of governance in the realm of globalization. These debates arise not only because of the actions of the WTO, which is deeply informed by Neoliberal ideology, but also because of the diverse beliefs about world economic governance. Not only the WTO, but also the roles of International Financial Institutions in global education revealed controversies. State intervention, for instance is minimized. Government spending in the education sector is reduced. Privatization and commercialization are encouraged. Social injustice seems to be the source of the presupposition of these controversies. This research will explore the unification roles of the WTO, IMF, and WB in global education. The research will be built on secondary sources, articles and literature dealing with the WTO and the IFIs. This research will also be built on secondary sources through the collection of data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), and United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). This research will identify the link between the roles of the WTO and the IFIs in global educat
Crisis of the Doha cycle of multilateral trade negotiations and EU: Developing countries relations  [PDF]
Stevovi? Jelena
Medjunarodni Problemi , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/medjp0603294s
Abstract: The author deals with the new cycle of multilateral trade negotiations that started in Doha in 2001. Since then, the main question has remained to be how to overcome the radically different priorities of developed and developing countries. EU insists on expanding the WTO regulation system. Developing countries were against broadening of the negotiations, especially not to development that is not directly related to the trade dimension. The clash appeared in the form of a crisis of the multilateral system but also in the form of a crisis of confidence in WTO. The general agreement signed by the members of WTO in July 2004 was of great importance for the future of multilateralism. It remains to be seen if that will be confirmed at the conclusion of the Doha cycle envisaged for the end of 2006.
Multilateral trading system and regional economic integrations  [PDF]
Savi? Biljana
Medjunarodni Problemi , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/medjp1004678s
Abstract: Development in recent years suggets that Regional Trade Agreements have become a very prominent feature of the Multilateral Trading System and an important trade policy instrument for WTO Members. Regional agreements can play an important role in promoting trade and in fostering economic development by increasing trade and FDI flows, and by integrating developing countries into the world economy. However, the proliferation of regional agreements and the development of complex network of preferential trade relations known as the “spaghetti bowl” phenomenon leads to trade diversion which reduce economic efficiency. There is the need to multilateralize regionalism. WTO rules could and should be modified to ensure that regional agreements are designed and implemented so to complement the multilateral process and not to undermine it. A step forward in that direction would be a developing a WTO Action Plan on Regionalism.
EL MECANISMO DE SOLUCIóN DE DIFERENCIAS DE LA OMC. UN ELEMENTO DE SEGURIDAD Y PREVISIBILIDAD EN EL SISTEMA MULTILATERAL DE COMERCIO A dispute settlement body of the wto. an element of security and previsibility in the multilateral trading system  [cached]
Cristian Delpiano Lira
Revista de Derecho (Coquimbo) , 2011,
Abstract: Uno de los objetivos fundamentales del sistema de solución de diferencias de la Organización Mundial de Comercio consiste en otorgar seguridad y previsibilidad al sistema multilateral de comercio. El presente artículo pretende otorgar una visión panorámica acerca de la forma en que se lleva a cabo este objetivo, a través de un análisis orgánico y procesal de las actuaciones ante los Grupos Especiales y el órgano de Apelación. De esta manera, el artículo identificará las materias fundamentales a través de las cuales el sistema funciona, así como los criterios del órgano de Solución de Diferencias que han permitido su desarrollo desde 1995 hasta la fecha. El autor examina de esta manera el órgano de Solución de Diferencias y los órganos que le sirven de soporte (Grupos Especiales y órgano de Apelación), el fundamento de las reclamaciones, y los actores del sistema. One of the main objectives of the dispute settlement body of the World Trade Organization is to provide security and previsibility to the multilateral trading system. This article intends to give an overview about how this aim is carried out through the organic and procedural analysis of the proceedings before the panel and the Appellate Body. Thus, this article tries to identify the key areas through which the system carries out its objective and the criteria of the Dispute Settlement Body that have enabled its development from 1995 to nowadays. The author examines in this way the Dispute Settlement Body and bodies to support them (Panel and Appellate Body), the merits of complaints, and the actors of the system.
MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS AND THE TRADE MEASURES CONTAINED IN THESE AGREEMENTS  [PDF]
Margareta Timbur
CES Working Papers , 2012,
Abstract: The environmental problems which the society is facing, ozone depletion, biodiversity loss, the spread of persistent organic pollutants, are a result of human activity with a worldwide impact, requiring immediate resolution. In this context, negotiation, signing and implementation of several multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) are one of the best solutions, affordable and reliable. The aim of this study is to analyze the commercial measures, which to some extent, ensure stability, security, and expansion of MEAs. The paper discusses, also, the efficiency, necessity and the influences of trade measures in MEAs and the WTO role in signing these agreements.
WTO accession in the Ethiopian context: a bittersweet paradox
E Stebek
Mizan Law Review , 2007,
Abstract: Trade liberalization may be unilateral, bilateral, sub-regional or multilateral. The end of the cold war has witnessed an increasingly growing wave of unilateral trade liberalization accompanied by a regulatory framework that facilitates and enhances the momentum. Although the impact of unilateral trade liberalization undertaken in many countries including Ethiopia deserves discussion, the theme of this article has necessitated focus on multilateral trade liberalization under the WTO system.
TRIPs Agreement, Important Multilateral WTO Treaty
Oana-Maria Florescu
Theoretical and Applied Economics , 2006,
Abstract: This article aims at presenting the content and the frame of the TRIPs. Agreement. It starts by introducing the reader to the terms that defined the world economical climate by the time of the Agreement negociation. Also, it explains the need of having an Agreement on intellectual property rights with impact on the business world. Moreover, the article reviews the main provisions of the Agreement and the most important intellectual property rights.
WTO Members’ Commitments in Education Services  [cached]
Jian Xu
International Education Studies , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v2n2p37
Abstract: The establishment of World Trade Organization is in line with the conclusion reached at the end of the Uruguay Round in April 1994 by the bulk of the world’s trading nations. WTO is in charge of managing multilateral trading system. WTO’s “General Agreement on Trade in Services” (GATS) requires member nations to comply with the following basic rules: all member nations equally enjoy Most-Favored-Nation (MFN) treatment; enterprises of other member nations can enjoy equal treatment and market access in one member nation’s territory with its domestic enterprises. GATS includes the general agreement, annex and the schedules of commitments. Schedules of commitments is a sort of document which shows the obligations stimulated in the GATS about market access and national treatment that one WTO member nation will fulfill, or that the obligations that one WTO member nation hopes to be exempted from. When a WTO member nation makes a commitment, it has set legally the standards of market access and national treatment in its schedule of commitments, and will no longer introduce any other measures which will limit the market access and national treatment in trade in education services.
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