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Palatability of Selected Alpine Plant Litters for the Decomposer Lumbricus rubellus (Lumbricidae)  [PDF]
Alexander Rief, Brigitte A. Knapp, Julia Seeber
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045345
Abstract: On alpine pastureland the decline in large-bodied earthworm numbers and biomass after abandonment of management might be the result of a shift from highly palatable grass litter to poorly digestible leaf litter of dwarf shrubs. To test this hypothesis, we analysed nitrogen, phosphorous and total phenolic contents of fresh and aged litter of eight commonly occuring alpine plant species and compared consumption rates of these food sources in a controlled feeding experiment with Lumbricus rubellus (Lumbricidae). Furthermore, we analysed the microbial community structure of aged litter materials to check for a relationship between the microbial characteristics of the different plant litter types and the food choice of earthworms. Plant litters differed significantly in their chemical composition, earthworms, however, showed no preference for any litter species, but generally rejected fresh litter material. Microbial community structures of the litter types were significantly different, but we could find no evidence for selective feeding of L. rubellus. We conclude that L. rubellus is a widespread, adaptable ubiquist, which is able to feed on a variety of food sources differing in quality and palatability, as long as they have been exposed to wheathering.
Inhibitory of Encapsulated Earthworm Extract (Lumbricus rubellus) on Pathogenic Bacteria in Vitro
L. Istiqomah,H. Herdian,E. Damayanti,S. N. Hayati
Media Peternakan , 2012,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the inhibitory of earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) extract (ECT) and encapsulated earthworm extract (ECT-t) as poultry feed additive against some pathogenic bacteria. Earthwom extract was prepared by dekokta method with water at 90 oC then encapsulated by spray drying with maltodextrin as filler. In vitro antibacterial activity was performed using dilution method against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella pullorum, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The optical density results showed that started from ECT level 0.26% inhibited (P<0.05) growth of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, while ECT level 0.52% inhibited (P<0.05) E. coli and S. pullorum along with the increased levels of concentration. The percentage of growth showed that ECT level 1.04% had inhibitory (P<0.05) against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, while ECT level 0.52% showed antibacterial activity (P<0.05) on S. aureus. The result showed that S. aureus was the most sensitive bacterium to earthworms extract. ECT-t level 0.78% and 1.04% measured by spectrophotometer showed inhibitory (P<0.05) against P. aeruginosa and S. pullorum respectively. While ECT-t level 0.26% measured by spread plate count method showed inhibitory activity against P. aeruginosa. LD50 of E. coli and P. aeruginosa were found at ECT level 1.04%, while LD50 of S. aureus was found at level 0.52%. LD50 of P. aeruginosa was found at ECT-t level 0.52%. There were no antibacterial action (P>0.05) of ECT and ECT-t against S. pullorum.
Organic Fertilizer Production From Cattle Waste Vermicomposting Assisted By Lumbricus Rubellus  [cached]
Siswo Sumardiono,R.P. Djoko Murwono
International Journal of Science and Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.12777/ijse.v2i1.1235
Abstract: Composting is decomposition of compound in organic waste by specific treatment using microorganism aerobically. Natural composting for producing organic fertilizer from manure and market waste utilize long time processing and less equal to the market demand. Vermicomposting is a technique to produce high quality compos fertilizer from biodegradable garbage and mixture of red worm (Lumbricus Rubellus). In conventional compos production took 8 weeks of processing time, in vermicomposting only took half processing time of conventional technique. It is occurred by red worm additional ease cellulose degradation contain in manure which is could not decomposed with composting bacteria. The purposes of this research are to investigate the effect of manure comparison to red worm growth and to evaluate the effect of comparison between manure and market waste to red worm growth. This research was conducted by vary the weight of red worm (100 gr, 200 gr, 300 gr, 400 gr, 500 gr) and market waste addition (50 gr, 100 gr, 150 gr, 200 gr, 300 gr). Moreover, 3 kg of manure was mixed by various weight of red worm, while variation of market waste addition was involved 500 gr red worm and 3 kg manure mixture. Optimum increasing weight of red worm that was obtained by 100 gr red worm addition is 160 gr within 2 weeks. In added market waste variation, the highest increasing of red worm was resulted by 50 gr market waste addition, with 60 gr increasing weight of red worm. Production of casting fertilizer was highly effected by composition of used materials such as medium, manure and red worm comparison as well as market waste additional
Bioconversion of biomass residue from the cultivation of pea sprouts on spent Pleurotus sajor-caju compost employing Lumbricus rubellus  [PDF]
Azizi Abu Bakar
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Vermicomposting is a green technology for the purpose of nutrient enrichment from a variety of organic waste products. In this study, saw dust-based spent mushroom compost (SMC), an organic waste and biomass residue, was used as a medium for the cultivation of pea sprouts. After harvesting the pea sprouts, the growth medium was reused to culture earthworms, Lumbricus rubellus. The culturing activity was conducted for 50 days without any pre-composting or thermocomposting. Thus duration of vermicomposting process was shortened as opposed to previous work on vermicomposting of saw dust-based SMC (no amendment) for 70 days. The culturing treatments were conducted in triplicate, including one treatment without earthworms as the control. The analysis showed that concentrations of macronutrients in vermicompost were higher compared to controls, in which N = 4.12%, P = 2.07% and K = 1.56%. The C:N ratio was 11.77, which indicates a stabilisation and maturity of the organic waste compost, compared with the C:N ratio for the control, which was 59.34. At the end of the experiment, increment of total biomass and number of earthworms were observed and no mortality was recorded. The results suggested that vermicomposting could be used as an environmentally valuable technology to convert saw dust used for mushroom and pea sprouts cultivation into vermicompost or bio-fertiliser by employing L. rubellus.
DLBS1033, A Protein Extract from Lumbricus rubellus, Possesses Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Activities
Jessica Trisina,Febrina Sunardi,Maggy T. Suhartono,Raymond R. Tjandrawinata
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/519652
Abstract: The medicinal value of earthworm has been widely known since the history of Asian ancient medicine. This present study aims to determine the mechanism of action and effect of a standardized extract of Lumbricus rubellus named as DLBS1033. The fibrinogen degradation, antiplatelet aggregation, and ex vivo antithrombotic assay using human blood were performed to study antithrombotic activity. Fibrin plate and clot lysis assay were also done to examine thrombolytic properties. DLBS1033 was found to possess fibrinogenolytic activity on α-, β-, and γ-chain of fibrinogen. It also induced antiplatelet aggregation and prolonged blood clotting time, which further confirmed its antithrombotic properties. In addition, thrombolytic properties of DLBS1033 were shown with its fast and long-acting fibrinolytic activity, as well as its effective blood clot lysis activities. In conclusion, DLBS1033 conferred antithrombotic and thrombolytic action which could be used as a safe and promising oral thrombolytic drug.
Uji in Vitro Penghambatan Aktivitas Escherichia coli dengan Tepung Cacing Tanah (Lumbricus rubellus)  [cached]
H. Julendra,A. Sofyan
Media Peternakan , 2007,
Abstract: This research was conducted to study the inhibition growth of E. coli by using earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) meal. The earthworm meal was used in various concentrations, i.e. 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg of earthworm meal in 100 ml DMSO for 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v) as treatments respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA in Randomized Complete Block Design. Duncan’s multiple range test and polynomials orthogonal were used. Inhibition effects were measured through agar well diffusion test. Results showed that earthworm meal contain antibacterial compound which inhibit E. coli activity. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between earthworm meal treatments and control. The best antimicrobial effect was found in treatment of 50% (w/v) of earthworm meal and significantly higher than those of 25, 75 and 100% (w/v), but 25% (w/v) was not different (P>0.05) with 75% (w/v). It is concluded that earthworm meal is capable to inhibit E. coli in-vitro at the optimum level of 50% (w/v).
Performa dan Histopatologi Ayam Broiler yang Diinfeksi dengan Salmonella pullorum Setelah Pemberian Imbuhan Pakan Mengandung Tepung Cacing Tanah (Lumbricus rubellus)  [cached]
A. Sofyan,H. Julendra,E. Damayanti,B. Sutrisno
Media Peternakan , 2010,
Abstract: A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of earth worm meal (Lumbricus rubellus) added into feed additive (FA) on performance and histopathology of broilers which were infected with 1 ml/bird containing 3x108 pure culture of Salmonella pullorum orally. Broilers were tested their antibody to S. pullorum by agglutination test before the chickens were infected at 22 days of age. Treatment consisted of control without FA (R0), control with antibiotic (R1), FA contain 25% earth worm meal/EWM (R2), FA contain 50% EWM (R3), FA contain 75% EWM (R4), and FA contain 100% EWM (R5) which were periodically fed to broilers every three days at seventh days before and 10 days after infection. Treatments were arranged on completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications of four broilers each. Broilers given FA had significantly (P<0.05) increased body weight gain and improved feed conversion ratio. Broiler treated with FA containing 25% EWM (R2) improved feed utilization compared to R1, R3, and control. Histopathology analysis showed that broilers treated with FA could reduce viscera’s necrosis, especially in the liver and intestine. Lesions found in broilers which were infected S. pullorum, could be reduced by FA treatment. It is concluded that EWM can be used as feed additive to improve broilers performance.
Transcriptome profiling of developmental and xenobiotic responses in a keystone soil animal, the oligochaete annelid Lumbricus rubellus
Jennifer Owen, B Ann Hedley, Claus Svendsen, Jodie Wren, Martijs J Jonker, Peter K Hankard, Linsey J Lister, Stephen R Stürzenbaum, A John Morgan, David J Spurgeon, Mark L Blaxter, Peter Kille
BMC Genomics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-9-266
Abstract: We generated a 17,000 sequence expressed sequence tag dataset, defining ~8,100 different putative genes, and built an 8,000-element transcriptome microarray for L. rubellus. Strikingly, less than half the putative genes (43%) were assigned annotations from the gene ontology (GO) system; this reflects the phylogenetic uniqueness of earthworms compared to the well-annotated model animals. The microarray was used to identify adult- and juvenile-specific transcript profiles in untreated animals and to determine dose-response transcription profiles following exposure to three xenobiotics from different chemical classes: inorganic (the metal cadmium), organic (the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluoranthene), and agrochemical (the herbicide atrazine). Analysis of these profiles revealed compound-specific fingerprints which identify the molecular responses of this annelid to each contaminant. The data and analyses are available in an integrated database, LumbriBASE.L. rubellus has a complex response to contaminant exposure, but this can be efficiently analysed using molecular methods, revealing unique response profiles for different classes of effector. These profiles may assist in the development of novel monitoring or bioremediation protocols, as well as in understanding the ecosystem effects of exposure.Ever since Charles Darwin's classic work [1], earthworms (Phylum Annelida, Class Oligochaeta) have been renowned as 'ecosystem engineers' in recognition of the direct and indirect effects they have on water, nutrient and carbon cycling in temperate and tropical soils [2]. Earthworms have therefore been widely adopted by international and national agencies for the diagnosis of soil ecosystem health, and for predicting the potential environmental impact of xenobiotics, such as industrial chemicals, pesticides and medicines, from anthropogenic sources [3]. Quantification of chemical toxicity to earthworms currently relies on measuring the effects of exposure on key life-hi
Effects of Heavy Metal Pollution on the Population Density and Biomass of Lumbricus rubellus from Weak Alkaline Farmlands

- , 2017,
Abstract: 中文摘要:为了探讨弱碱性农田土壤重金属污染对粉正蚓 Lumbricus rubellus种群密度和生物量的影响,本研究于2016年5-8月,选取以重金属Cd、Pb、Zn、Cu污染为主的甘肃省白银市四龙镇梁庄村和双合村的玉米农田作为实验样地,同时以自然条件相近但相对无污染的永靖县尤塬村的玉米农田作为参照样地。本研究对比检测了实验样地与参照样地的重金属污染水平,粉正蚓种群密度、抗氧化酶活力(SOD、CAT和GSH-PX)、金属硫蛋白浓度和溶酶体膜损伤程度等指标。结果显示,2个实验样地粉正蚓抗氧化酶活力与参照样地的差异无统计学意义( P>0.05),但金属硫蛋白浓度极显著高于参照样地( P<0.01),表明粉正蚓在受到重金属污染胁迫后产生了明显的应激反应;与参照样地相比,实验样地粉正蚓体腔细胞内中性红保留时间极显著缩短( P<0.01),表明土壤重金属污染已导致粉正蚓溶酶体膜受损;实验样地粉正蚓的种群密度和生物量与参照样地相比,总体上显著( P<0.05)甚至极显著( P<0.01)下降。研究结果表明,弱碱性农田土壤中粉正蚓种群密度与生物量显著低于相对无污染地区,这可能与长期重金属污染导致粉正蚓溶酶体膜损伤、抗氧化酶活力不稳定以及对环境胁迫应激反应增强等有关。
英文摘要:To investigate the toxic effect of heavy metal on the population density and biomass of Lumbricus rubellus from weak alkaline farmlands, in this study, the maize farmlands of Liangzhuang and Shuanghe villages in Baiyin city (Gansu province), which were mainly contaminated by Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu for a long time, were selected as the study sites, and the maize farmlands of Youyuan village in Yongjing county which had similar natural conditions but with relatively unpolluted area was selected as the control site. The heavy metal contamination levels between the polluted and the control sites, the population density and biomass, antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-PX), metallothionein (MT) concentration and lysosomal membrane damage degree of L. rubellus were comparatively studied. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the antioxidase activities of L. rubellus between the polluted and control sites, while extreme significantly higher MT concentration was found in the polluted sites ( P<0.01), indicating that L. rubellus from the polluted sites might be involved in stress responses; the test of neutral red retention time showed an extremely significant shortening in the coelomic cells of L. rubellus from the polluted sites ( P<0.01), this suggested that the lysosomal membrane was damaged; furthermore, the population density and biomass of L. rubellus were significantly ( P<0.05) or extremely declined ( P<0.01). According to the results of this study, we concluded that the significant decreased population density and biomass of L. rubellus from weakly alkaline sites might be related to the long-term heavy metal pollution which lead to the damage of lysosomal membrane, change of antioxidase activities and increased responses to the environmental stress. 2017,36(5): 507-512 收稿日期:2017-04-08 DOI:10.11984/j.issn.1000-7083.20170113 分类号:Q958.113;Q959.19 基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41171391) 作者简介:任梁(1991-),男,硕士研究生,研究方向:环境动物学,E-mail:renl2014@lzu.edu.cn
'Systems toxicology' approach identifies coordinated metabolic responses to copper in a terrestrial non-model invertebrate, the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus
Jacob G Bundy, Jasmin K Sidhu, Faisal Rana, David J Spurgeon, Claus Svendsen, Jodie F Wren, Stephen R Stürzenbaum, A John Morgan, Peter Kille
BMC Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-6-25
Abstract: Both of the molecular endpoints, metabolomics and transcriptomics, were highly sensitive, with clear copper-induced differences even at levels below those that caused a reduction in reproductive parameters. The microarray and metabolomic data provided evidence that the copper exposure led to a disruption of energy metabolism: transcripts of enzymes from oxidative phosphorylation were significantly over-represented, and increases in transcripts of carbohydrate metabolising enzymes (maltase-glucoamylase, mannosidase) had corresponding decreases in small-molecule metabolites (glucose, mannose). Treating both enzymes and metabolites as functional cohorts led to clear inferences about changes in energetic metabolism (carbohydrate use and oxidative phosphorylation), which would not have been possible by taking a 'biomarker' approach to data analysis.Multiple post-genomic techniques can be combined to provide mechanistic information about the toxic effects of chemical contaminants, even for non-model organisms with few additional mechanistic toxicological data. With 70-day no-observed-effect and lowest-observed-effect concentrations (NOEC and LOEC) of 10 and 40 mg kg-1 for metabolomic and microarray profiles, copper is shown to interfere with energy metabolism in an important soil organism at an ecologically and functionally relevant level.Understanding biological responses to individual toxic chemicals and chemical classes is clearly of key importance for pollution assessment, both for monitoring exposure to existing environmental contamination and for informing the risk assessment of off-target effects. However, ecotoxicological research frequently focuses only on easily measurable endpoints, typically mortality, although more sensitive tests on effect endpoints such as reproduction and growth are also used widely. Thus, a major challenge for ecotoxicology is understanding toxic mechanisms at a molecular level, and how these molecular changes relate to functional changes
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