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Prevalence of Hamstring and Calf Mucles Shortness
Zahra Fakhari,Maryam Senobari,Soghrat Jalaie
Modern Rehabilitation , 2008,
Abstract: Background and aim: With respect to attachment and mechanical relationship of hamstring and calf muscles, interaction between their function is unavoidable. Inspite of prevalence of hamstring and calf muscles shortness, there is not any statistical data about the relationship of shortness of above-mentioned muscles in Iran. The aim of this study was to verify of this prevalence. Materials and methods: In this study 3308 healthy girls with age 3-17 years old participated. Length of calf muscles with dorsi flexion angle and hamstring with hip flexion angle (SLR) in both side were measured. Results: The prevalence of hamstring and calf muscles shortness with together was20% in right and 25% in left side .The Prevalence of hamstring and calf muscles shortness with together in 20 district was greater than 3.The greatest amount was seen in secondary school(31.6%) Conclusion:The results indicated that most of subjects who had hamstring shortness, they had also calf muscles shortness, so if there is any shortness in one of them, we shouhd pay attention to shortness of the another.
Quantitative Effects on Proximal Joints of Botulinum Toxin Treatment for Gastrocnemius Spasticity: A 4-Year-Old Case Study
Veronica Cimolin,Manuela Galli,Marcello Crivellini,Giorgio Albertini
Case Reports in Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1155/2009/985717
Abstract: Botulinum toxin A (BTA) is a recognized treatment for the early management of spasticity in children with Cerebral Palsy. This study quantified with Gait Analysis (GA) the gait pattern of a 4-year-old diplegic child with calf contracture before, 5 days, and 3 months after BTA injections into gastrocnemius. Kinematic and kinetic data of main lower limb joints were investigated. After only 5 days, ankle dorsi-plantarflexion and knee flex-extension improved, but hip joint worsened, increasing its excessive flexion, to compensate the improvement in knee position of the treated limb and to obtain better stability. A worsening of hip power happened. After 3 months, all joints generally improved their position during gait cycle. Hip and knee joints increased their range of movement and improvements occurred at ankle kinematics and kinetisc, too; a better ankle position and an increase of its capacity of propulsion during terminal stance were evident.
Efficacy of Muscle Energy Technique on Hamstring Muscles flexibility  [PDF]
Mohd. Waseem,Shibili Nuhmani,C. S. Ram
Calicut Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Purpose of Study: Success in sports dependson athlete’s ability to develop and perfect aspecific set of coordination and joint range ofmotion/flexibility. Purpose of the study toinvestigate the effectiveness of Muscle EnergyTechnique (MET) on hamstring flexibility innormal Indian collegiate males.Material and Methods: 20 healthy collegiatemale subjects with hamstring tightness wererandomly allocated to two study groups. Groups-A (n=10) subjects were treated with Muscleenergy technique where as other group-B (n=10)were kept as Control (No intervention). Thetreatment was given for 5 consecutive days and afollow-up measurement on 8th day was done. Theoutcome was measured in terms of poplitealangle (Active knee extension test).Results: Independent-t test was used tocompare the pre test-post test values betweenthe groups. There was a significant differencebetween the subjects treated with Muscle energytechnique and control group subjects, in terms ofimprovement in Active knee extension range ofmotion/Popliteal angle (p<.001) and significantdecrease in ROM (Range of motion) in the followup measurement .Conclusion: Result indicates that MET issignificantly improving the hamstring flexibility.(range of motion) in collegiate males.
The effects of static stretch duration on the flexibility of hamstring muscles
NA Odunaiya, TK Hamzat, OF Ajayi
African Journal of Biomedical Research , 2005,
Abstract: The effects of duration of a static stretching protocol (Intervention) on hamstrings tightness were evaluated. Sixty purposively sampled subjects with unilateral hamstring tightness that had no history of low back and lower extremity dysfunctions that necessitated medical intervention participated in the study. They we re randomly assigned into one of 5 intervention and one control groups. Groups a, b, c, d, e subjects had their hamstrings passively stretched for 120, 90, 60, 30, and 15 seconds respectively, while group f served as control. Th is intervention was carried out on alternate days for 6 consecutive weeks. Knee extension deficit (KED) was measured for all groups at baseline, weekly and 7 days post cessation of the intervention (carry-over). Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA and paired t-test at 0.05 alpha. A significant reduction (P<0.05) was observed in the KED of subjects in all the intervention groups across the 6 intervention weeks. There was no significant difference between the immediate post intervention and carry-over KED values (p>0.05). The study shows that statically stretching tight hamstrings for any duration between 15 and 120 seconds on alternate days for 6 weeks would significantly increase its flexibility. The effect was also sustained for up to 7 days post intervention.
The Effect of Muscle Energy Techniques on Flexibility of the Short Hamstring Muscles
A Shadmehr,M.R Hadian,S Naeimi,A Mokhtari
Modern Rehabilitation , 2007,
Abstract: Background and Aim: Several stretching methods have been shown to increase flexibility of the short muscles. Previous research suggests muscle energy techniques produce increments in range of motion, but there are many variations of muscle energy techniques. The purpose of our study was to determine the efficacy of muscle energy techniques with 50% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction and 10 second hold in compared to control group. Materials and methods: A sample of 30 female subjects (aged 20 -25 years) participated in this study. All subjects had limited hamstrings flexibility in degrees of passive knee extension. The subjects in experimental group (n=15) received 3 muscle energy techniques (50% MVIC, hold time=10 sec) for 4 weeks, whereas the control group (n=15) remained without treatment. Before and after range of knee extension was measured for all subjects. Results: The paired t test revealed a significant differences in flexibility for experimental group (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in flexibility gains in control group (P<0.001). Treatment group had significant greater flexibility than the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Muscle energy techniques with above protocol produce an increase of hamstring flexibility.
Effects of cryotherapy and thermotherapy associated with static stretching on the flexibility of hamstring muscles  [PDF]
S.A. Silva,D.J. Oliveira,M.J.N. Jaques,R.C. Araújo
Motricidade , 2010,
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of cryotherapy and muscular warming on the flexibility of the hamstring muscles associated with three minutes of static stretching. Forty young male and female volunteers were randomly included in one of four groups: Group 1 – Control group, Group 2 – Three minutes of static stretching, Group 3 – Stretching preceded by warming using shortwave diathermy (20 minutes), and Group 4 – Stretching preceded by applying cryotherapy (20 minutes) to the posterior thigh region. The program consisted of three series of stretching during five consecutive days and flexibility was assessed by goniometric evaluations of the extensor angle of the knee at the beginning of the protocol, at the end of the day and at the end of the protocol. The intergroup comparison was made through ANOVA post-hoc Tukey and the intragroup by paired t test, all with 5% level of significance. The three experimental groups significantly increased their range of motion in relation to the control group. However, differences were not observed among groups submitted to the different stretching programs. In conclusion, increases in flexibility were due to stretching and did not depend on previous application of hyperthermia and/or hypothermia.
Does the peak torque of the hamstring and quadriceps muscles affect the knee laxity measurements in male patients with anterior cruciate ligament rupture?
Ninni Sernert,Jüri Kartus,Kristina K hler,Lars Ejerhed,Sveinbj rn Brandsson,Jon Karlsson
Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology , 2000, DOI: 10.1007/s101950070003
Abstract: The aim of the study was to examine whether the peak torque of the hamstring and quadriceps muscles affects the anterior knee laxity measurements in male patients. The study comprised 45 male patients who had a chronic unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Preoperatively, one experienced physiotherapist performed all the KT-1000 examinations. The anterior displacement was registered at 89 Newton. Immediately after the KT-1000 examination, an isokinetic concentric peak torque measurement was performed at 60°/s for both the hamstring and quadriceps muscles. The anterior displacement was significantly larger in the ACL-ruptured knees compared with the noninjured knees (p < 0.001). Patients with strong hamstring muscles on the injured side displayed significantly less knee laxity compared with patients with less strength (p = 0.018). There was an inverse correlation between the peak torque of the hamstring muscles and the KT-1000 anterior laxity measurements in the ACL-ruptured knees (rho = 0.37, p = 0.01). We conclude that male patients with strong hamstring muscles display smaller KT-1000 laxity measurements than patients with less strength.
Effects of botulinum toxin type A on healing of injured skeletal muscles  [cached]
Shokravi Ramin,Moshref Mohammad,Eslami Behnam,Aghmasheh Farhad
Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery , 2007,
Abstract: Objectives: (1) Evaluation of microscopic healing of skeletal muscle fibers after injuries, especially the arrangement of new muscle fibers and scar tissue diameter in the injury region. (2) Evaluation of alterations in microscopy of the healing procedure within skeletal muscles after injury following botulinum toxin type A (BTX -A) induced muscle immobilization. Materials and Methods: The study was done on 12 white lab rabbits of either sex in a 6-month period. Results: The immobilization of skeletal muscle fibers as a result of the use of BTX-A after injury caused a qualitative increase in fibrous tissue formation in the area of injury, and the BTX-A-induced immobilization for a period of 6 months led to muscle atrophy.
Influence of Botulinum Toxin Therapy on Postural Control and Lower Limb Intersegmental Coordination in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy  [PDF]
Marc Degelaen,Ludo de Borre,Eric Kerckhofs,Linda de Meirleir,Ronald Buyl,Guy Cheron,Bernard Dan
Toxins , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/toxins5010093
Abstract: Botulinum toxin injections may significantly improve lower limb kinematics in gait of children with spastic forms of cerebral palsy. Here we aimed to analyze the effect of lower limb botulinum toxin injections on trunk postural control and lower limb intralimb (intersegmental) coordination in children with spastic diplegia or spastic hemiplegia (GMFCS I or II). We recorded tridimensional trunk kinematics and thigh, shank and foot elevation angles in fourteen 3–12 year-old children with spastic diplegia and 14 with spastic hemiplegia while walking either barefoot or with ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) before and after botulinum toxin infiltration according to a management protocol. We found significantly greater trunk excursions in the transverse plane (barefoot condition) and in the frontal plane (AFO condition). Intralimb coordination showed significant differences only in the barefoot condition, suggesting that reducing the degrees of freedom may limit the emergence of selective coordination. Minimal relative phase analysis showed differences between the groups (diplegia and hemiplegia) but there were no significant alterations unless the children wore AFO. We conclude that botulinum toxin injection in lower limb spastic muscles leads to changes in motor planning, including through interference with trunk stability, but a combination of therapies (orthoses and physical therapy) is needed in order to learn new motor strategies.
The Effect of Stretching Hamstring, Gastrocnemius, Iliopsoas and Back Muscles on Pain and Functional Activities in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial  [PDF]
Hamada E. Seif, Aqeel Alenazi, Sahar Mahmoud Hassan, Shaji John Kachanathu, Ashraf R. Hafez
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation (OJTR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojtr.2015.34019
Abstract: A back pain lasting more than 12 weeks has been defined as a chronic low back pain (LBP) [1]. More than half of people suffer from LBP [1]. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of gastrocnemius muscle stretching in the treatment of chronic low back pain. Methods: Forty patients with chronic low back pain, ages ranging from 25 to 40 years, were recruited and divided randomly into two groups. The control group followed a physical therapy program that included stretching exercises for back, hamstring and iliopsoas muscles. Strengthening exercises for abdominal muscle and postural instructions for activities of daily living were also performed. The experimental group followed the same control-group exercises with the addition of stretching exercises for gastrocnemius muscles. The interventions for both groups consisted of three sessions per week for six weeks, each session lasting for an hour. The outcome measures were visual analog scale (VAS) for pain severity, modified fingertip to floor (FTF) for range of motion (ROM) of trunk flexion, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and loading X-ray to detect lumbosacral angle. Results: There was no significant difference between groups at baseline characteristics. At final follow up, the two groups were significantly different in all outcome measures in terms of pain (p < 0.01), modified FTF (p < 0.01), disability questionnaire (p < 0.01), and lumbosacral angle (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Gastrocnemius manual stretching exercise is more beneficial in reducing pain and improving functions for patients with chronic low back pain when adding to stretching exercises for hamstring, iliopsoas, and back muscles, and strengthening exercise for abdominal muscles.
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