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Diferenciación morfológica y molecular de especies de crisópidos (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
CADENA,PATRICIA; áNGEL,FERNANDO; GóMEZ,LUIS A; GONZáLEZ,RANULFO;
Revista Colombiana de Entomología , 2007,
Abstract: in the cauca valley (colombia), the distribution and identification of the most abundant lacewing species were studied in zones where sugar cane (saccharum spp.) is cultivated. it has therefore been possible to determine the species that could be used to counter the effect of the yellow aphid sipha flava (hemiptera: aphididae) on the overall production of sugar cane. although the lacewing species and morphotypes in the current study can be separated using morphological characters, the validity of those characters was studied. to do that, we established a morphological differentiation using internal genitalia and a molecular differentiation using a pcr-rflp analysis of the 18s rdna region of 11 species from three genera of the family chrysopidae (ceraeochrysa, chrysoperla, and leucochrysa), some of whom could be important biological control agents of the yellow sugar cane aphid s. flava. the characters used proved to be useful for distinguishing the species. in the case of internal genitalia, there were different patterns of the structures. in the case of molecular data, the species were differentiated using only one combination of ns primers for the dna amplification, followed by digestion of fragments with a restriction enzyme (ns5-ns6+drai). these results add to the taxonomic understanding of the family, and may help resolve systematic problems within the genera.
A charismatic new species of green lacewing discovered in Malaysia (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae): the confluence of citizen scientist, online image database and cybertaxonomy  [cached]
Shaun Winterton,Hock Ping Guek,Stephen Brooks
ZooKeys , 2012, DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.214.3220
Abstract: An unusual new species of green lacewing (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae: Semachrysa jade sp. n.) is described from Selangor (Malaysia) as a joint discovery by citizen scientist and professional taxonomists. The incidental nature of this discovery is underscored by the fact that the species was initially photographed and then released, with images subsequently posted to an online image database. It was not until the images in the database were randomly examined by the professional taxonomists that it was determined that the species was in fact new. A subsequent specimen was collected at the same locality and is described herein along with another specimen identified from nearby Sabah.
Suitability of leguminous cover crop pollens as food source for the green lacewing Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
Venzon, Madelaine;Rosado, Maria C.;Euzébio, Denise E.;Souza, Brígida;Schoereder, José H.;
Neotropical Entomology , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2006000300012
Abstract: diversification of crops with species that provide suitable pollen for predators may reduce pest population on crops by enhancing predator effectiveness. in this paper we evaluated the suitability of leguminous cover crop pollens to the predatory green lacewing chrysoperla externa (hagen). the predator is commonly found in coffee agroecosystems and the plant species tested were pigeon pea and sunn hemp, which are used in organic coffee systems. newly emerged females and males of c. externa were reared on diets containing pollen of pigeon pea, sunn hemp, or castor bean, used as a control. the reproductive success of c. externa was evaluated when females fed the pollen species and when honey was added to the diets, to verify the predator need for an extra carbohydrate source. similar intrinsic growth rates were found for females fed on pigeon pea pollen and on sunn hemp pollen but these rates increased significantly when honey was added to the diets. females fed with pigeon pea pollen plus honey and with sunn hemp pollen plus honey had higher intrinsic growth rates than those fed with castor bean pollen plus honey. females fed on castor bean pollen only or on honey only, did not oviposit. leguminous pollen species were equally suitable for c. externa especially when they were complemented with honey. the results suggest that to successfully enhance predator effectiveness, organic coffee plantation should be diversified with plant providing pollen in combination with plant providing nectar.
Effects of pesticides on eggs of Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and consequences on subsequent development Efectos de los plaguicidas en huevos de Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) y las consecuencias sobre su desarrollo
ROGéRIO ANT?NIO SILVA,GERARDO ANDRADE CARVALHO,CéSAR FREIRE CARVALHO,DIEGO BASTOS SILVA
Revista Colombiana de Entomología , 2012,
Abstract: The effects of six pesticides applied to the coffee crop on eggs and their consequences on the subsequent developmental stages of Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The pesticides and water (control) were sprayed on eggs using a Potter's tower. After spraying, forty eggs per treatment were individualized in glass tubes and maintained in a climatic chamber, in order to evaluate immature development of this predator. The treatments showed significant differences for egg viability and survival of first-instar larvae. Chlorpyrifos, sulphur and copper oxichlorate reduced the treated egg viability, whereas both sulphur and betacyfluthrin reduced the survival of first-instar larvae. Endosulphan and azociclotin reduced the daily oviposition of this green lacewing species. The harmless products (Class 1, E < 30%), can be recommended for use in integrated pest management programs in coffee crops, in order to preserve this predator. Los efectos de seis plaguicidas aplicados al cultivo de café sobre los huevos y etapas de desarrollo posteriores de Chrysoperla externa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), fueron evaluados bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Los plaguicidas y el agua (control) fueron aplicados en los huevos usando una torre de Potter. Después de la aplicación, cuarenta huevos por tratamiento fueron individualizados en tubos de vidrio y mantenidos en cámara bioclimática, con el objetivo de verificar las posibles anormalidades en el desarrollo de este depredador. Los tratamientos mostraron diferencias significativas para la viabilidad de los huevos y la supervivencia del primer instar larval. Chlorpyrifos, azufre y oxicloruro de cobre redujeron la viabilidad de los huevos tratados, mientras que el azufre y el betacyfluthrin redujeron la supervivencia del primer instar larval. Endosulfán y azociclotin redujo la oviposición diaria de esta especie crisopa. Los productos inocuos (Clase 1, E < 30%), pueden recomendarse para su uso en programas integrados de manejo de plagas en los cultivos de café, a fin de preservar este depredador.
Effects of temperature and relative humidity on survival of the overwintering green lacewing,Chrysoperla sinica(Tjeder) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
温湿度对中华通草蛉越冬成虫存活的影响

XU Yong-Yu,
许永玉

生态学报 , 2004,
Abstract: The green lacewing, Chrysoperla sinica (Tjeder), a common species in China, is known as an important natural enemy attacking aphids, mites and many lepidopteron pests. Under natural conditions, it overwinters as adults in facultative diapause. Previous field surveys conducted in Shandong showed that adult population of C. sinica was high in the early winter, and low in the coming spring, indicating that high mortality occurred during the winter. To determine if the winter's low temperature and relative ...
A??o de produtos fitossanitários utilizados em cafeeiros sobre pupas e adultos de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
Silva, Rogério Ant?nio;Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade;Carvalho, César Freire;Reis, Paulo Rebelles;Souza, Brígida;Pereira, Ant?nio Marcos Andrade Rezende;
Ciência Rural , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782006000100002
Abstract: it was evaluated the action of the pesticides endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, betacyfluthrin, sulphur, azocyclotin and copper oxychloride to pupae and adults of chrysoperla externa (hagen)(neuroptera: chrysopidae). the bioassays were carried out in the entomology department of the universidade federal de lavras - ufla, mg, brazil. the treatments in g i.a.l-1 of water, were: 1 - endosulfan (thiodan 350 ce - 1.75), 2 - chlorpyrifos (lorsban 480 ce - 1.2), 3 - betacyfluthrin (turbo 50 ce - 0.013), 4 - sulphur (kumulus 800 pm - 4.0), 5 - azocyclotin (peropal 250 pm - 0.31), 6 - copper oxychloride (cuprogarb 500 pm - 5.0) and 7 - control (water). the sprayings were accomplished directly on pupae and adults of green lacewing, using a potter's tower. the pupae were placed in glass tubes and the adults in pvc cages and maintained in climatic chambers at 25 ± 2°c, rh of 70 ± 10% and 12-hour photophase. the experimental design was completely randomized, with seven treatments and ten replicates. each plot was made up by either four pupae or one couple of c. externa. the pesticides were classified according recommendations of the iobc. chlorpyrifos was classified in the class 2 = slightly harmful (30£e£79%) for pupae, and the all the other products were selective and classified in the class 1 = harmless (e<30%). to adults, chlorpyrifos was toxic, being classified in class 4 = harmful (e>99%) and betacyfluthrin in class 3 = moderately harmful (80£e£99%). endosulfan, sulphur, azocyclotin and copper oxychloride were harmless to adults, being classified in class 1. the pesticides endosulfan, azocyclotin, sulphur and copper oxychloride can be recommended in coffee pest management programs in association with c. externa, based in the reduced toxicity presented in these products for this predator.
Seasonal changes of cold hardiness of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla sinica (Tjeder) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
中华通草蛉成虫抗寒能力季节性变化

GUO Hai-Bo,XU Yong-Yu,JU Zhen,LI Ming-Gui,
郭海波
,许永玉,鞠珍,李明贵

生态学报 , 2006,
Abstract: The green lacewing,Chrysoperla sinica (Tjeder),a common species in China,is known as an important natural enemy attacking many kinds of agricultural and forestry pests.It is one of the important dominant natural enemies in Tai'an of Shandong Province.Under natural conditions, it has four generations and obvious metagenesis during the whole year,and overwinters in adults of the fourth generation in facultative diapause.In the present study, experiments were carried out to examine the capability of the adult cold hardiness among the different generations,especially the seasonal changes of the water and fat content in adult body and the supercooling point (SCP) were determined.Results showed that the cold hardiness of the female and male adults took on seasonal changes that the cold hardiness gradually strengthened with the winter temperature decreasing and weakened with the temperature increasing after winter.The water and fat content,the SCP and freezing point (FP) of the female and male adults changed greatly among the generations in the different seasons.The water content and SCP of the overwintering female and male adults during the pre- and mid-overwintering period were significantly lower than that of other generations in growing seasons,but the water content and SCP had no difference between the adults during the late overwintering period and other generations in growing seasons.The regression analysis showed that there was remarkably negative correlation between the water content and SCP of the adults (p<0.01).The total fat content of the overwintering generation (especially at the pre-overwintering period) was significantly higher than that of other generations,and the correlation between the total fat content and SCP was significantly positive in female adults (p<0.05),otherwise,there was no correlation in male adults(p>0.05).Compared the female adults with the male adults in the different generations,the water content had significant difference only in the pre-overwintering period,and the SCP and the total fat content had significant difference only in the late overwintering period.
Ancestral Gene Organization in the Mitochondrial Genome of Thyridosmylus langii (McLachlan, 1870) (Neuroptera: Osmylidae) and Implications for Lacewing Evolution  [PDF]
Jing Zhao, Hu Li, Shaun L. Winterton, Zhiqi Liu
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062943
Abstract: The first complete mitochondrial genome of the lacewing family Osmylidae (Thyridosmylus langii (McLachlan, 1870)) (Neuroptera) was sequenced in this study. The genome is a circular molecule of 16,221 bp containing the typical 37 genes but is arranged in the same order as that of the putative ancestor of hexapod and lacks translocation of trnC as shared by all previously sequenced neuropteran mtDNAs. This reveals that trnC translocation does not represent an organizational synapomorphy in the mitochondrion for the entire Neuroptera clade. Comparative analysis of neuropteran tRNA genes reveals a relatively slow and conserved evolution of the mitochondrion throughout the order. Secondary structure models of the ribosomal RNA genes of T. langii largely agree with those proposed for other insect orders. Nevertheless, domain I of T. langii rrnL is consisted of nine helices rather than eight helices which is typical for neuropteran rrnL. Protein-coding genes have typical mitochondrial start codons, with the exception of COI, which uses the TCG start codon also found in Ithonidae and Chrysopidae. Like other neuropteran insects, the control region is the most AT-rich region and comparatively simple, with little evidence of conserved blocks or long tandem repeats. Considering the issues of base-compositional and branch length heterogeneity, we used a range of phylogenetic approaches to recover neuropteridan relationships and explored the effect of method choice on recovery of monophyly of Neuropterida: ((Neuroptera + Megaloptera) + Raphidioptera). The monophyly of Neuroptera and the more basal position of Osmylidae were also recovered by different datasets and phylogenetic methods.
Reconocimiento e identificación de las especies de Chrysopas verdes (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) en la zona de Puerto Wilches  [cached]
Vargas Serrano Camilo,Luque Z. Jesús Emilio,Villanueva G. Alexander
Agronomía Colombiana , 1987,
Abstract: En el área de Puerto Wilches bajo la influencia del cultivo de la palma de aceite se encontraron 8 especies de Chrysopas verdes (Neuróptera: Chrvsopidae], que fueron identificadas por el Dr. P. A. Adams del Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas de la Universidad Estatal de California, Fullerton como: Chrysoperla externa, Cerseochrysa cubana, Cereeochryss smithi, Cereeochrysa scspuleris, Craeochrysa claveri y Nodita spp, (especies A, B, C.). In the Puerto Wilches area under the vegetal oil - palm cultivation eight (8) species of green lacewings Vlíere found they were identified by doctor P. A. Adams from the Department of Biological Sciences of the University of California Fullerton, as: Chrysoperla externa, Ceraeochrysa smithi, Ceraeochrysa scsputerls, Ceraeochrysa cubana, Ceraeochrysa claveri and Nodita spp, (species A, B, CJ.
吡虫啉亚致死剂量对日本通草蛉实验种群生命表的影响
Effects of sublethal dose of imidacloprid on life table of experimental populations of lacewing Chrysoperla nipponensis (Okamoto) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
 [PDF]

刘中芳,封云涛,高越,郭晓君,张鹏九,范仁俊,Liu Zhongfang,Feng Yuntao,Gao Yue,Guo Xiaojun,Zhang Pengjiu,Fan Renjun
- , 2016, DOI: 10.13802/j.cnki.zwbhxb.2016.06.019
Abstract: 为评价吡虫啉对日本通草蛉Chrysoperla nipponensis(Okamoto)实验种群的亚致死效应,采用浸渍法处理日本通草蛉卵,测定了吡虫啉亚致死剂量LC10、LC20、LC30对日本通草蛉生长发育、繁殖力和生命表参数的影响。结果表明,经吡虫啉亚致死剂量LC10、LC20、LC30处理后,日本通草蛉幼虫发育历期和蛹期分别延长0.86~2.04 d和1.00~2.37 d,平均单头蛹重降低1.16~1.56 mg,羽化率降低6.13%~13.08%;雌虫产卵前期延长0.19~0.51 d,每雌平均产卵量减少17.75~51.64粒,寿命减少1.75~2.84 d;内禀增长力(rm)、净繁殖率(R0)和周限增长率(λ)均显著降低,平均世代历期(T)和种群加倍时间(Dt)均显著延长。研究表明,吡虫啉亚致死剂量对日本通草蛉种群的增长具有抑制作用。
To study the sublethal effects of imidacloprid on the experimental population of Chrysoperla nipponensis (Okamoto), the eggs of C. nipponensis were treated with LC10, LC20, and LC30 of imidacloprid by dipping method and the lacewing's development, fertility, and life-table were tested. The results showed that larval duration and pupal duration of C. nipponensis were prolonged by 0.86-2.04 d and 1.00-2.37 d after treated with imidacloprid, respectively. The average pupal weight and emergence rate decreased by 1.16-1.56 mg and 6.13%-13.08%, respectively. The pre-oviposition of C. nipponensis was prolonged by 0.19-0.51 d and the fecundity reduced by 17.75-51.64 eggs per female. The average longevity of female adults was shortened by 1.75-2.84 d. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm), net reproductive rate (R0), and finite rate of increase (λ) were all decreased significantly compared to the control. However, the mean generation time (T) and the population doubling time (Dt) were both prolonged significantly. The results indicated that the sublethal dosage of imidacloprid could decrease the development rate of laboratory populations of C. nipponensis.
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