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Adipokine Pattern in Subjects with Impaired Fasting Glucose and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Comparison to Normal Glucose Tolerance and Diabetes  [PDF]
Anke T?njes,Mathias Fasshauer,Jürgen Kratzsch,Michael Stumvoll,Matthias Blüher
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013911
Abstract: Altered adipokine serum concentrations early reflect impaired adipose tissue function in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). It is not entirely clear whether these adipokine alterations are already present in prediabetic states and so far there is no comprehensive adipokine panel available. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess distinct adipokine profiles in patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or T2D.
Plasma interleukin 8 concentrations in obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance.
Marek Straczkowski, Irina Kowalska, Agnieszka Nikolajuk, Stella Dzienis-Straczkowska, Malgorzata Szelachowska, Ida Kinalska
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-2-5
Abstract: A total of 44 subjects with marked overweight or obesity (BMI > 27.8 kg/m2), 27 with NGT and 17 with IGT, were recruited for the present study. Plasma IL-8 levels were measured in fasting state, after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and after euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp.The studied groups did not differ in fasting IL-8 concentrations. Both OGTT and clamp resulted in a significant increase in plasma IL-8. The change in IL-8 after clamp was similar in both groups. In contrast, after OGTT plasma IL-8 levels (IL-8OGTT) were markedly higher in IGT individuals. In IGT, but not NGT group, IL-8OGTT was positively related to postload glucose and negatively to insulin sensitivity.Plasma IL-8 concentrations after glucose load are increased in obese IGT subjects in comparison to normoglycemic weight-matched individuals. Increase in plasma IL-8 might be both insulin-mediated (during clamp) and glucose-mediated (during OGTT).Type 2 diabetes is associated with accelerated atherogenesis, this relationship may be observed already in the prediabetic states, i.e. in impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) [1]. Also, obesity itself is recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease [2]. Precise mechanisms linking those conditions are not fully understood. In recent years, theories about the role of chronic low-grade inflammation in the pathogenesis of both type 2 diabetes [3] and atherosclerosis [4] have been developed.Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is one of the proinflammatory cytokines, which might also have atherogenic properties. Through its multiple actions, IL-8 might promote intimal thickening and atherosclerosis. Those actions include recruitment of neutrophils and T lymphocytes into the subendothelial space, monocyte adhesion to endothelium [5] and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells [6]. Macrophage-derived human foam cells contain high amounts of IL-8 [7]. This cytokine is also able to increase the instability of atherosclerotic plaque through inhibition
Comparison on the plasma apolipoprotein-A5,insulin resistance and the secretion function of islet β-cell between the subjects with impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance  [cached]
Yan YANG,Hua-cong DENG,Jian LONG,Yan-xin SU
Medical Journal of Chinese People's Liberation Army , 2011,
Abstract: Objective To compare the levels of apolipoprotein A5(apoA5),insulin resistance(IR) and the secretion function of islet β-cells between subjects with impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance,and to investigate the underlying pathogenesis.Methods Twenty-three patients with impaired fasting glucose(IFG group),24 with impaired glucose tolerance(IGT group),and 30 individuals with normal glucose tolerance(NGT group,as control) were enrolled in present study.All subjects underwent intravenous glucose tolerance test(IVGTT).Fasting apoA5 was assayed by ELISA.Fasting free fatty acid and the free fatty acid at 120 min after glucose loading were measured by colorimetry.Triglyeride(TG),high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C),low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C),total cholesterol(TC),fasting plasma glucose(FPG) and plasma glucose at 2 hours after glucose loading(2hPG) were determined.Homeostasis model assessments for insulin resistance(HOMA-IR) and for β-cell function(HOMA-B) were calculated.The relationships between apoA5 and those indexes mentioned above were analyzed.Results The levels of apoA5,AIR0-10,HOMA-B were significantly lower in IFG and IGT groups than in NGT group(P < 0.05),the levels of TG,FFA,2hFFA,HOMA-IR and FINS were significantly higher in IFG and IGT groups than in NGT group(P < 0.05).The levels of apoA5,AIR0-10,HOMA-B,FINS and 2hPG were significantly lower in IFG group than in IGT group(P < 0.05),the levels of TG,FFA,2hFFA,HOMA-IR and FPG increased significantly in IFG group than in IGT group(P < 0.05).ApoA5 was positively correlated with AIR0-10,HOMA-B and HDL-C,and negatively correlated with TG,FFA,2hFFA,LDL-C,FPG,2hPG,FINS,HOMA-IR,BMI and WHR.Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that AIR0-10,TG,FFA and HOMA-IR were independent factors of apoA5.Conclusions The insulin resistance and impaired secretion function of islet β-cell are more severe in the subjects with IFG than those with IGT.It is conjectured that the subjects with IFG have lower level of plasma apoA5,thus by raising the level of plasma apoA5 might be a possible pathway to prevent and delay IFG to develop into diabetes mellitus.
The influence of diet with reduction in calorie intake on metabolic syndrome parameters in obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance  [PDF]
Polovina Sne?ana,Mici? Dragan
Medicinski Pregled , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/mpns1008465p
Abstract: Introduction. Current therapy of metabolic syndrome includes the assessment of cardiovascular risk together with control of high blood pressure, hyperlipidaemia and prevention of type 2 diabetes with adequate diet and increase in physical activity. Aim of the study. To investigate the influence of medical nutritive therapy in obese people with impaired glucose tolerance risk factor for Type 2 Diabetes mellitus and potential consecutive lowering of cardio-metabolic risk. Material and methods. The 55 obese (body mass index greater than 30 kg/m2) subjects were divided into two groups, the study group A (n=35), and the control group B (n=20). Group A was on diet for a period of 12 weeks (1200-1500kcal/day diet with 55-65% carbohydrates, 15-18% proteins and 22-23% predominantly unsaturated fats, and 20-40g fibers/day.). Before and after 12 weeks the following parameters were determined: waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, Index HOMA-IR, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Results. After 12 weeks on low calorie diet in Group A there was a decrease in the waist circumference (p=0.001); systolyc blood pressure (p=0.001); diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.01); fasting blood glucose (p=0.001); Index HOMA IR (p<0.001); triglycerides (p<0.001) and increase in HDL cholesterol (p<0.05). Conclusion. These results suggest that implementation of low callorie-high fibers diet with balanced nutritive elements have a positive effect on visceral obesity, fasting glucose, lipid profile, and hypertension in obese people with impaired glucose tolerance and lead to consecutive lowering of cardiometabolic risk.
Exercise training with dietary counselling increases mitochondrial chaperone expression in middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance
Mika Venoj?rvi, Sirkka Aunola, Raivo Puhke, Jukka Marniemi, Helena H?m?l?inen, Jukka-Pekka Halonen, Jaana Lindstr?m, Merja Rastas, Kirsti H?llsten, Pirjo Nuutila, Osmo H?nninen, Mustafa Atalay
BMC Endocrine Disorders , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6823-8-3
Abstract: Exercise training, combined with dietary counselling, increased the expression of mitochondrial chaperones HSP60 and glucose-regulated protein 75 (GRP75) in the vastus lateralis muscle in the IGTslow group and that of HSP60 in the IGTfast group. In cytoplasmic chaperones HSP72 or HSP90 no changes took place. In the IGTslow group, a significant positive correlation between the increased muscle content of HSP60 and the oxygen radical absorbing capacity values and, in the IGTfast group, between the improved VO2max value and the increased protein expression of GRP75 were found. Serum uric acid concentrations decreased in both sub-groups and serum protein carbonyl concentrations decreased in the IGTfast group.The 2-year intervention up-regulated mitochondrial HSP expressions in middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. These improvements, however, were not correlated directly with enhanced glucose tolerance.Diabetes and its complications are increasing as major causes of mortality and morbidity in the developed countries [1]. Insulin resistance and diabetes are associated with increased oxidative stresmpaired cellular defence systems [2-4]. We have recently shown in rats that streptozotocin-induced diabetes (SID) increase oxidative stress and resulted in impaired heat shock protein (HSP) responses in liver and skeletal muscle tissue [2]. HSPs are a family of proteins that promote cell survival after a wide variety of environmental stresses. The most widely studied HSP family is the 70-kDA family, which contains the constitutive HSP73 and inducible HSP72 forms. HSP72 plays a central role in protein synthesis, translocation, folding and assembly/disassembly of multimetric protein complexes as molecular chaperones [5]. In type 2 diabetic subjects, insulin resistance correlates with decreased expression of HSP72 in skeletal muscle [6]. HSP60 and glucose-regulated protein 75 (GRP75) are located in the mitochondria, where they are involved in the trafficking and pr
Circadian rhythm of the autonomic nervous system in insulin resistant subjects with normoglycemia, impaired fasting glycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus
Antonio Perciaccante, Alessandra Fiorentini, Alberto Paris, Pietro Serra, Luigi Tubani
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-6-19
Abstract: Eighty Caucasian insulin resistant subjects (IR) and twenty five control subjects were recruited for the study. IR subjects were divided into four groups according to the outcoming results of oral glucose tests (OGTTs): IR subjects with normal glucose regulation (NGR), IR subjects with impaired fasting glycemia (IFG), IR subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Autonomic nervous activity was studied by 24-hours ECG recording. Heart rate variability analysis was performed in time and frequency domains: SDNN, RMS-SD, low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) were calculated.The total SDNN showed statistically significant reduction in all four groups with insulin resistant subjects (IR) when compared to the control group (p <0,001). During night LF normalized units (n.u.) were found to be higher in all four groups including IR subjects than in the control group (all p < 0,001) and subjects with normal glucose regulation (NGR), with impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) and with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were found to have higher LF n.u. than those in the type 2 diabetes mellitus group. The linear regression model demonstrated direct association between LF values and the homeostasis model assessment-index (HOMA-I), in the insulin resistant group (r = 0,715, p <0,0001).The results of our study suggest that insulin resistance might cause global autonomic dysfunction which increases along with worsening glucose metabolic impairment. The analysis of sympathetic and parasympathetic components and the sympathovagal balance demonstrated an association between insulin resistance and sympathetic over-activity, especially during night. The results indicated that the sympathetic over-activity is directly correlated to the grade of insulin resistance calculated according to the HOMA-I. Since increased sympathetic activity is related to major cardiovascular accidents, early diagnosis of all insulin resistant patients should be
Is There Any Difference in the Plasma Homocysteine Levels of Diabetes Mellitus Type Ii Patients, Impaired Glucose Tolerance Subjects and Normal People?
M Mohammadi,A Amin-Alroaaya,H Rezvanian,A Kachoie
Journal of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: Introduction: Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to determine plasma homocysteine levels in diabetics and compare with control persons and also evaluation of correlation between plasma homocysteine concentration and diabetic related variables. Methods: This study was done on 39 type II diabetic patients, 27 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and 23 normal persons referring to Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center of Medical university of Isfahan. Physical characteristics were recorded. After an overnight fast, a blood sample was drawn for determination of FPG, HbA1c – homocysteine, Cr. Cholesterol – Triglyceride and HDL- Cholesterol. Mean plasma homocysteine levels in the groups were compared by one way ANOVA. The Correlation of different parameters was tested by Pearson’s correlation. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the plasma homocysteine levels of all the groups.(P=0.71). Correlation between homocysteine levels and HbA1c was not significant (P=0.42) in diabetic patients. Conclusions: The findings suggest that diabetes does not influence plasma homocysteine levels.Also, there is no correlation between plasma homocysteine levels and HbA1c in diabetic patients
Influence of moderate physical activity on the levels of plasma lipoproteins in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance  [PDF]
Petkovi?-Ko??al Milanka,Damjanov Vlasta,?onovi? Nela
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/sarh1202051p
Abstract: Introduction. Physical activity and healthy diet, as lifestyle factors, are essential components in the prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases. Impared glucose intolerance (IGT) is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Dyslipidaemia is a cardiometabolic risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of moderate physical activity of plasma lipoprotein indicators in high-risk subjects for diabetes mellitus during one-year planned intervention. Methods. We randomly assigned 60 overweight subjects with IGT aged 30-60 years. The subjects were divided into intervention group with 30 subjects, who were intensively and individually instructed on weight reduction, nutrition and increased physical activity, and control group with 30 subjects, who were counselled, as standard, on nutrition and increased exercise. Total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (Tg) were measured at the beginning of the study, and at 2 months, 6 months, and at the end of the study (12 months). Results. Compared to the beginning of the study, after 2 and 6 months there was no statistically significant difference in serum lipid values. After 12 months, the average values of the measured lipid levels in the intervention group decreased by 18.36% for TC, 27.3% for LDL-C, and 34.2% for Tg (compared to 10.27%, 13.45%, and 10.4%, respectively in the control group). Value of HDL-C in the intervention group increased by 19.12%, and decreased in the control group by 1.48%. Total/HDL-C ratio was reduced by 30.6% and LDL-C/H by 38.1% in the intervention group (compared to 12.36%, and 15.9% in the control group). After 12 months, significantly greater decrease in TC (p<0.01), LDL-C (p<0.01) and Tg (p<0.0001) and significantly greater increase in HDL-C (p<0.05) was detected in the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusion. Plasma lipoproteins can be significantly decreased by changes in the lifestyles of high-risk subjects during one-year planned intervention.
Prevention of type 2 diabetes in a primary healthcare setting: Three-year results of lifestyle intervention in Japanese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance
Naoki Sakane, Juichi Sato, Kazuyo Tsushita, Satoru Tsujii, Kazuhiko Kotani, Kokoro Tsuzaki, Makoto Tominaga, Shoji Kawazu, Yuzo Sato, Takeshi Usui, Isao Kamae, Toshihide Yoshida, Yutaka Kiyohara, Shigeaki Sato, Hideshi Kuzuya, Japan Diabetes Prevention Program (JDPP) Research Group the for
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-40
Abstract: Through health checkups in communities and workplaces, 304 middle-aged IGT subjects with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 24.5 kg/m2 were recruited and randomized to the intervention group or control group. The lifestyle intervention was carried out for 3 years by public health nurses using the curriculum and educational materials provided by the study group.After 1 year, the intervention had significantly improved body weight (-1.5 ± 0.7 vs. -0.7 ± 2.5 kg in the control; p = 0.023) and daily non-exercise leisure time energy expenditure (25 ± 113 vs. -3 ± 98 kcal; p = 0.045). Insulin sensitivity assessed by the Matsuda index was improved by the intervention during the 3 years. The 3-year cumulative incidence tended to be lower in the intervention group (14.8% vs.8.2%, log-rank test: p = 0.097). In a sub-analysis for the subjects with a BMI > 22.5 kg/m2, a significant reduction in the cumulative incidence was found (p = 0.027).The present lifestyle intervention program using existing healthcare resources is beneficial in preventing diabetes in Japanese with IGT. This has important implications for primary healthcare-based diabetes prevention.UMIN000003136The incidence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Japan [1]. Although Japanese have a lower prevalence of obesity than Westerners, a tendency to gain weight due to lifestyle changes coupled with an aging of the population seems to be closely related to the rapid expansion of the diabetic population [1]. There is thus an urgent need for effective public health strategies to combat this situation in Japan.There is now substantial evidence that the development of type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed in high-risk subjects through lifestyle intervention [2-8]. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS) [4] and the US Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) [5] have clearly shown that, in obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), lifestyle changes associated with a 5-7% decrease in body weight resulted in a 58
A Six-Month Supplementation of Mulberry, Korean Red Ginseng, and Banaba Decreases Biomarkers of Systemic Low-Grade Inflammation in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes
H.-J. Kim,K.-H. Yoon,M.-J. Kang,H.-W. Yim,K.-S. Lee,V. Vuksan,M.-K. Sung
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/735191
Abstract: We sought the long-term efficacy of traditionally used antidiabetic herbs in controlling blood glucose homeostasis and low-grade inflammation. Ninety-four subjects with either impaired glucose tolerance or mild T2D were randomized either to treatment arm or placebo arm and received 1 : 1 : 1 mixture of ginseng roots, mulberry leaf water extract, and banaba leaf water extract (6 g/d) for 24 weeks. Oral 75 g glucose tolerance test was performed to measure glucose and insulin responses. Blood biomarkers of low-grade inflammation were also determined. Results found no significant difference in glucose homeostasis control measure changes. However, plasma intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) concentration was decreased showing a significant between-treatment changes (=0.037). The concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) (=0.014) and ICAM-1 (=0.048) were decreased in the treatment group at week 24, and the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) concentration was reduced at week 24 compared to the baseline value in the treatment group (=0.003). These results indicate a long-term supplementation of ginseng, mulberry leaf, and banaba leaf suppresses inflammatory responses in T2D.
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